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AHSS Faculty Teaching Day 23 September 2010
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AHSS Faculty Teaching Day 23 September 2010

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  1. 3rd Faculty of Arts, Humanities & Social Sciences Teaching Day Thursday 23rd September, 2010 AHSS Faculty Teaching Day 23 September 2010

  2. Opening Address: Prof Sarah Moore Prof Pat O’Connor FAHSS Faculty Teaching Day 23 September 2010

  3. Dr Iain Mac Labhrainn CELT, NUIG “Juggling on a unicycle – academic practice in the 21st century” FAHSS Faculty Teaching Day 23 September 2010

  4. Dr Iain Mac Labhrainn CELT, NUIG “Juggling on a unicycle – academic practice in the 21st century” Q & A FAHSS Faculty Teaching Day 23 September 2010

  5. Coffee FAHSS Faculty Teaching Day 23 September 2010

  6. Dr Alistair Malcolm “Some ideas about preventing plagiarism” FAHSS Faculty Teaching Day 23 September 2010

  7. ‘Whose learning is it anyway?’ Problem-based Learning for Language Learning Materials Development Freda Mishan School of Languages Literature Culture & Communication FAHSS Faculty Teaching Day 23 September 2010

  8. How was PBL implemented in Materials Development context? • The students’ solution to the problem • students’ and my reflections on experience of PBL process FAHSS Faculty Teaching Day 23 September 2010

  9. PBL CONSTRUCTIVISM ‘And the best thing is, we get to work in a team!’ Learning is … a process ofconstructing knowledge in social environments … a collaborativeconstructionof knowledge Knowledge evolves through social negotiation ? problem ? ? = TEAM WORK  Teacher Education: Professional Development

  10. ‘Philosophy in action’ Constructivism Problem-based learning Knowledge is actively constructed by the individual not something transferred from the mind of the teacher to the mind of the learner Learning is an individual and a social process learning is a socially situated activity; i/action with others (cf scaffolding) and environment Cognitive conflict or puzzlement* is the stimulus for learning = Learning is a process of constructing knowledge in social environments = ‘collaborative construction of knowledge’ ‘the problematic’ (Dewey 1938)

  11. ‘Philosophy in action’Constructivism Problem-based learning PBL principles: Learners are active builders of knowledge Knowledge is acquired in meaningful contexts Problems are AUTHENTIC - fuzzy solutions Learners have opportunities for elaboration and organization of knowledge Prior knowledge activated & new knowledge is built on it Core of the learning on process and skills rather than contents Self-reflection and metacognition (‘knowing about knowing’) Drawn on Charlin et al., 1998 Helela and Fagerholm, 2008 FAHSS Faculty Teaching Day 23 September 2010

  12. How does PBL work? v Small groups minimal tutor intervention An AUTHENTIC problem – fuzzy solution! • What needed to solve it? • Action plan! Subgroups… • Source information • Pool findings  Solution? • Reflections FAHSS Faculty Teaching Day 23 September 2010

  13. PBL: The Roles Leads discussion Takes care of timing Preparation essential! Discussion Leader Takes notes Categorizes results from brainstorming Writes tutorial memo Recorder Observes & evaluates group dynamics. Feeds back on group dynamics to group Observer FAHSS Faculty Teaching Day 23 September 2010

  14. MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT MODULE: LEARNING OUTCOMES (selected) • Apply theoretical knowledge (of second language learning theory) to practice • Develop criteria for the evaluation of language teaching materials • Apply these criteria to critically evaluate language teaching materials, in particular coursebooks • Creatively engage with language teaching materials • A capacity for self-reflection and self-criticism • An ability to appreciate feedback constructively • An ability to creatively engage with the language teaching materials design process • Produce and present original, engaging and attractive language teaching materials FAHSS Faculty Teaching Day 23 September 2010

  15. Elements of the approach • Tutor inputs • Self- and Peer Assessments (mid/end semester) • Forms adapted from Matti Helela, Haaga-Helia University of Applied Sciences, Finland • Assessment of the materials created (end semester) FAHSS Faculty Teaching Day 23 September 2010

  16. Developing the problem (c.f. the trigger) ? ? The Problem ? ? FAHSS Faculty Teaching Day 23 September 2010

  17. FAHSS Faculty Teaching Day 23 September 2010

  18. The Solution to the Problem http://maelt.yolasite.com/ ‘Our solution’ Rationale for coursebook approach Tutorial (how to use) • TEACHERS SITE: • Username: teacher • Password: maelt FAHSS Faculty Teaching Day 23 September 2010

  19. COMP-SPOT!!!!

  20. PBL: What the students thought Recurring issues (students) • Teamwork esp. leadership, structuring discussions, team players, shared workload • Feedback - giving, receiving, compromise Tutor issue • Assessment - weighting FAHSS Faculty Teaching Day 23 September 2010

  21. Teamwork:Group dynamics It can be difficult to communicate and progress within a group One of the group’s key problems is that meetings have tended to finish without any agreement on work to be done FAHSS Faculty Teaching Day 23 September 2010

  22. Teamwork: Group dynamics Our group became more comfortable with each other as the project progressed and we were more open with our opinions and feelings … this was a valuable learning experience [PBL approach] has been a great learning experience … provided invaluable insight to working with peers towards a group goal…I’ve learned a lot about group dynamics FAHSS Faculty Teaching Day 23 September 2010

  23. Teamwork: Leadership …Solidified the need to have a clearly defined leader within a group of this size …without having anyone step up as the leader was beginning to stunt our creativity* FAHSS Faculty Teaching Day 23 September 2010

  24. Teamwork: Team players? X did not share her new-found knowledge of website design with the group … we could have shared the workload … when X realised others were not contributing sufficiently, X took it upon him/herself to do more, which in my opinion is not the correct approach Y sometimes decides and implements things without consulting others, s/he could become more of a team player FAHSS Faculty Teaching Day 23 September 2010

  25. Feedback: compromise I’ve learned that there is never only one way of doing things and how to combine various approaches It is complicated working in a group because some people’s ideas will always clash with somebody else’s. it is a continual effort to ensure your lesson turns out as envisioned without too many amendments I think there is an underlying lack of confidence both collectively and individually that stops [us] from being critical and attempting to give feedback FAHSS Faculty Teaching Day 23 September 2010

  26. Feedback: compromise It is never easy to give critical feedback without making the other person defensive I try to always give constructive feedback but sometimes will reserve my true feelings and judgement if I am concerned about hurting their feelings… this is an area where I need improvement as a result of the general reluctance to give feedback, I didn’t learn from it as much as I’d hoped FAHSS Faculty Teaching Day 23 September 2010

  27. Peer assessmentthe good, the bad and the ugly E has carried the weight of some of the weaker members and done a good job keeping the group on task I would commend E on his/her ability to stay focused and guide others to do the same F is very effective at generating ideas G is very creative and has an artistic flair FAHSS Faculty Teaching Day 23 September 2010

  28. Peer assessmentthe good, the bad and the ugly C finds it difficult to stay focused and …this can cause frustration for other group members At times H could implement his/her ideas sooner … s/he could make decisions more promptly At times D seems to fall into his/her own tried and tested comfort zone FAHSS Faculty Teaching Day 23 September 2010

  29. Peer assessmentthe good, the bad and the ugly B lacks in creativity and finds it difficult to think outside the box Y [had] a somewhat lackadaisical approach… Y remained somewhat anonymous in the project, without truly putting his/her individual stamp on it X lacked … charisma, enthusiasm and initiative that others displayed readily FAHSS Faculty Teaching Day 23 September 2010

  30. Learning skills Teamwork is a crucial tool for personal development I liked the fact that we hadthe opportunity to work on aproject and develop ourteamwork skills I can say now that I have improved my collaborative skills … I learned how to share my findings I learned to think in a more critical manner and eliminate unsuitable suggestions, something I found difficult at the outset It’s probably a good idea to work with someone else as skills can compliment each other e.g. creativity and logical approaches FAHSS Faculty Teaching Day 23 September 2010

  31. Ownership I learned how to share my findings with the goal of improving our unit I hope that our unit will be different from existing coursebooks and appeal to students Original Irish photographs and authentic text … make (the site) unique FAHSS Faculty Teaching Day 23 September 2010

  32. PBL: What the tutor thought Initiative, independence (research, materials development) Skills (range, proficiency) research, reflection, technical, materials development Ongoing creation of materials – feedback cycle (tutor/peers) FAHSS Faculty Teaching Day 23 September 2010

  33. Student perceptions of the tutor’s role The approach of the lecturer is encouraging, motivating and challenging(SM evaluation) Enthusiasm Preparedness Subject knowledge Encourages interaction Actively helpful (CTL evaluation) = leading from behind FAHSS Faculty Teaching Day 23 September 2010

  34. EFFECT of PBL approach on materials designed PROS The fact that the materials designed by different people … gives the material a level of variety …. (central to good lessons) Our different styles and approaches should be able to create an innovative, unique course unit … & CONS Inconsistencies, in creativity, variety of materials and [teacher’s notes] … as a result of many different co-creators FAHSS Faculty Teaching Day 23 September 2010

  35. Use of PBL in the learning materials? I did contribute ideas to incorporate PBL I have drawn on my research of constructivism and the practical application of this theory to PBL throughout the task We have tried … and generally succeeded in producing materials that allow students to discover for themselves We also implemented experiential learning (‘learning by doing’) We adopted a TBL approach to allow students to discover for themselves FAHSS Faculty Teaching Day 23 September 2010

  36. Conclusion: PBL for MD? Over the course of 15 weeks my enthusiasm for PBL has not waned I found the course enjoyable and beneficial I have greatly enjoyed the project and module. I have maintained a high level of interest and motivation throughout It is more pro active than the traditional method I think the approach was perfect I think the nature of the course lends itself well to this approach* FAHSS Faculty Teaching Day 23 September 2010

  37. Conclusion: PBL for MD? Through this collaborative process we could identify our individual strengths and weaknesses and mould our coursebook accordingly This project has been a great learning experience as it has not only taught me a lot about Materials Development but also provided a valuable insight to working with peers towards a group goal FAHSS Faculty Teaching Day 23 September 2010

  38. Conclusion: PBL for MD? Self-reflection It seemed like the lecturer was looking for us to go through some process of reflection, particularly for the self-assessment. It wasn't made all that clear what the process was, and what the lecturer wanted to see evidence of ‘teachers should model reflective thinking throughout the learning process and support the learners in reflecting on the strategies for learning as well as what was learned’ Savery & Duffy 2001, p6  need for more training & direction in self-reflection FAHSS Faculty Teaching Day 23 September 2010

  39. PBL‘hybrid’ for Materials Development Staggered inputs esp rubric writing  Group roles  Tutor role - leading from behind  Reflect on reflection  Assessment weightings

  40. AHSS Teaching Board Funded PBL for Languages and Literature Workshop Friday November 19th Facilitators inc: Terry Barrett, UCD, Danielle Clarke, UCD, Kevin Davison NUIG @ KBS FAHSS Faculty Teaching Day 23 September 2010

  41. REFERENCES Barrett, T, in T Mac Labhrainn, I. and Fallon, H (eds). (2005) Handbook of EnquiryandProblem-based Learning Irish Case Studies and International Perspectives, All Ireland Society for Higher Education. http://www.aishe.org/readings/2005-2/contents.html Barrows, H. S., Tamblyn, R.M. (1980) Problem-Based Learning: An Approach to Medical Education. New York: Springer Publishing Company. Centre for Excellence in Enquiry-Based Learning, University of Manchester http://www.campus.manchester.ac.uk/ceebl/resources/languages/ Charlin, B, Mann, K. and Hansen, P. (1998) ‘The many faces of problem-based learning: a framework for understanding and comparison’, Medical Teacher., 20(4), 323-330. Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and education.New York: Macmillan. Helelä, M and Fagerholm, H. (2007), Tracing the Roles of the PBL Tutor. A Journey of Learning, HAAGA-HELIA University of Applied Sciences. Larsson, J. (2001) Problem-Based Learning: A possible approach to language education? Polonia Institute, Jagiellonian University. Mishan, F. (2011 forthcoming) ‘Whose learning is it anyway? Problem-based Learning in language teacher development’,Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching. Mishan, F.(2010 forthcoming) ‘Withstanding washback: Thinking outside the box in materials development’ in Tomlinson, B and Masuhara, H. Research in Materials Development for Language Teaching, Continuum Savery, J. and Duffy T. M. (2001) ‘Problem Based Learning: An instructional model and its constructivist framework’, CRLT Technical Report No. 16-01,http://crlt.indiana.edu/publications/journals/TR16-01.pdf THE MATERIALS:http://maelt.yolasite.com/ • TEACHERS SITE: Username: teacher Password: maelt FAHSS Faculty Teaching Day 23 September 2010

  42. Encouraging Critical Thinking in the Larger Classroom Jennifer Schweppe Lecturer in Law University of Limerick

  43. Problem • How to engage students in the larger classroom • How to develop critical thinking skills • In exams, problem questions often lack a sophisticated analysis (ILAC Method)

  44. How to think critically? • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cjVxSk1MqO4&feature=related

  45. Legal Hats? Blue - Facilitator • Lecturer/Student in Exam White - Information • What are the facts? What is known/not known from the facts in the question Yellow – Logical Positive • What established case law/legislation supports the argument/case?

  46. Black – Logical Negative • What established case law/legislation contradicts or refutes the argument/case? Green - Creative • Use secondary material to develop your argument, refute “black hat” and “yellow hat” claims and consider new ways in which the problem can be addressed Red - Emotional • Policy considerations that need to be taken into account when analysing the strength of the green hat considerations.

  47. Does it work? • Classroom • Exams • And teaching is more enjoyable!

  48. Developing and implementing of a Virtual Learning Environment on Sulis for the Language Opportunities Programme (LOP):LanguageLearningoutsidetheclassroom Dominique Le Meur – Catherine JeanneauSchool of Languages, Literature, Culture and Communication FAHSS Faculty Teaching Day 23 September 2010

  49. Presentation outline • Brief introduction to the Language Opportunities Programme (LOP) • Teaching & Learning approach • Project rationale • Development and implementation • Data analysis • Benefits & outcomes • Further development FAHSS Faculty Teaching Day 23 September 2010