Course Name: English Grammar ( 英文文法 ). 句子的形成與種類 動詞的句型與時態 完成式、助動詞 語態、不定詞 動名詞、分詞 比較、 關係詞 疑問詞與疑問句 假設語氣 、 引述 名詞構句 、 無生物主詞 、 否定 強調、倒裝、插入、省略、同位語 名詞 、 冠詞 、 代名詞 形容詞 、 副詞 介系詞 、 連接詞. 句子的形成. 詞： 冠詞 、 名詞 、 動詞 、 介系詞 、 代名詞 、 副詞 、 連接詞 、 感嘆詞 、 助動詞 、 形容詞
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Article Noun Verb Preposition Pronoun Adverb Conjunction Interjection Auxiliary-verb Adjective
＊Stars twinkle brightly in the night sky.
＊ I saw the Southern Cross when I stayed in Australia.
修飾語（可修飾前面四個）」。Subject Verb Object Complement
＊ The man said to me softly and clearly, “Well, you may be right.”
＊ My fatheris a teacher.
＊ A little dogis running toward me.
＊ My father boughta new car.
＊ My sister boughtme this pendant.
＊ His mother is a lawyer.
＊ The news made ussad.
＊ The tallboy carried a boxfull of books.
＊ I sometimesstudybefore breakfast.
＊ My sister is a college student.
My sister is not an office worker.
＊ We go to school even on Saturdays.
We do not go to school even on Saturdays.
＊ My brother can swim very fast.
My sister cannot swim very fast.
句中含有be動詞（am, are, is等），其否定的詞序為「be動詞＋not」
are not→ aren’t is not → isn’t was not→ wasn’t were not→ weren’t
have not→ haven’t has not→ hasn’t had not→ hadn’t do not→ don’t
does not→ doesn’t did not→ didn’t cannot→ can’t could not→ couldn’t
will not→ won’t would not→ wouldn’t need not→ needn’t must not→ mustn’t
should not→ shouldn’t
I am→ I’m we are→ we’re you are→ you’re he is→ he’s she is→ she’s
it is→ it’s they are→ they’re
英文的疑問詞有who, what, which, when, where, why, how等。
＊ Are you hungry? Yes, Iam.
＊ Do you know her name? Yes, I do.
＊ Can you play the piano? No, I can’t.
＊ Who painted this picture? My father did.
＊ What are you doing? I’m waiting for Mike.
＊ When did you hear about the accident? This morning.
＊ When will he come home? I don’t know.
＊ Be careful!
＊ Wait for me.
＊ Don’t be so noisy!
＊ Don’t worry.
＊ How kind you are!
＊ How fast you eat!
＊ What a beautiful stone this is!
＊ What expensive clothes she has!
What (a/an) ＋形容詞＋名詞＋主詞＋動詞
表動作、狀態的詞語稱為動詞。動詞用於句子當中，有及物動詞(Verb transitive)與不及物動詞(Verb intransitive) 之分。當及物動詞使用時，後面一定要直接接受詞。
＊ He didn’t move.
＊ He didn’t move the desk.
＊ I had a headache yesterday. (have→had)
＊ My brother likes surfing. (like→likes)
I have→ I’ve you have→ you’ve he has→ he’s she has→ she’s
we have→ we’ve they have→ they’ve
＊ My father gave up alcohol.
＊ My father has given up alcohol.
I had→ I’d you had→ you’d he had→ he’d she had→ she’d
we had→ we’d they had→ they’d
＊ I realized that I had left my umbrella in his car.
＊ He swims well.
＊ He can swim well.
不會 be not able to / wasn’t able to
不可能may not / might not
將不會won’t / wouldn’t
不應該shall not / shouldn’t、ought not to
不可以mustn’t、don’t have to
不曾used not to
最好不 had better not
能can / could
會be able to / was able to
可能may / might
將會will / would
應該shall / should、ought to
過去經常 used to
＊You have to get a license to drive a car.
＊You don’t have to take off your shoes here.
＊ We ought to save energy.
＊They ought not to leave that child alone in the house.
＊ I used to go to gym after work, but now I don’t.
＊ I used not to drink coffee.
＊ You had better report the accident to the police.
＊ You had better not tell this secret to anyone.
表示能力、可能：can / be able to
表示過去的能力、可能：could / was able to
表示許可、請求：can / may
表示義務、需要：must / have to表示義務、強制：should / ought to表示忠告：had better表示可能性、推測：can / could / may / might / will / would
表示確認：must / can’t
表示推測、計畫：should / ought to
表示意志：will / would
表示習慣：will / would
表示請求：will / would
＊ My sister isn’t very good at driving. Yesterday she insisted on driving my car, and she almost ran over an old dog!
＊ We keep a dog named Fido. Fido is an old dog and can’t move quickly. He was almost run over by a car yesterday.
「被動的一方＋be動詞＋過去分詞＋（by 做動作的一方） 」
My brotherrepairedthis car.
S V O
This carwas repairedby my brother
S V by …
MarysentJima Christmas card.
S V O O
Jimwas senta Christmas cardby Mary.
S V O by …
His grandfathernamedthe babyCarl.
S V O C
The babywas namedCarlby his grandfather. S V C by …
Marysenta Christmas cardto Jim.
S V O to O
A Christmas cardwas sentto Jimby Mary.S V to O by …
＊His name was not found on the list.＊Bad words must not be used in the classroom.
為疑問句：Yes or No「be動詞＋主詞＋過去分詞」疑問詞＝主詞「疑問詞＋ be動詞＋過去分詞」疑問詞≠主詞「疑問詞＋ be動詞＋主詞＋過去分詞」
＊Was this bag made in Italy?
＊Who was invited to the party?
＊Who was this CD produced by?
I visited his house. (我去他家。)
I visited his house to borrow a book. (我為了一本書去他家。)
＊ My son needs to see a dentist.
＊ Sam finds it easy to make friends.(it當虛受詞)
＊ Our plan is to climb the mountain tomorrow morning.
＊ We were surprised at her decisionto become an actress.
＊ She is working hard to buy a car.
＊ I’m very happy to meet you.
＊ He must be a genius to understand the theory.
＊ It is difficult remembering people’s names.(it當虛主詞)
＊ My grandfather enjoys playing golf.
＊ I found it comfortablelying on the grass.(it當虛受詞)
＊ She is good at baking cookies.× to bake
＊ Her hobby isplaying the piano.＊ Judy is playing the piano in her room. ~作為進行式
需以動名詞為受詞的及物動詞：admit (承認)、avoid (避免)、consider (考慮)、deny (否認)、enjoy (享受)、escape (逃避)、finish (完成)、imagine (想像)、mind (介意)、miss (想念)、practice (練習)、quit (停止)、suggest (建議)、give up (放棄)、put off (延期)＋動名詞
需以不定詞為受詞的及物動詞：care (想要) 、decide (決定)、desire (強烈希望)、expect (期望)、hope (希望)、manage (設法做~)、mean (打算) 、offer (給予)、pretend (假裝) 、promise (承諾)、refuse (拒絕)、want (想要)、wish (但願)＋不定詞
begin (開始) 、cease (停止)、continue (繼續)、hate (恨)、 intend (想要)、like (喜歡)、love (愛)、neglect (疏忽)、start (開始)＋動名詞/不定詞
兩者均可為受詞的及物動詞，但意思不同：forget＋動名詞 忘了做過的某事forget＋不定詞 忘了要去做某事
remember＋動名詞 記得做過的某事remember＋不定詞 記得要去做某事
stop＋動名詞 停止做某事stop＋不定詞 停止手邊工作去做某事
try＋動名詞 試驗做~try＋不定詞 試著(努力)要~
Be sure of ＋doing (主詞的判斷)
Be sure＋ to do (說話者的判斷)
＊ Some girls are walking down the road talking to each other.
＊ Walking along the beach, I found a beautiful shell.
(When I was ~)
＊ Taking out a key from his bag, he opened the box. (He took ~ and ~)
＊ Get out!
＊ He must be tired.
＊ I saw the boy fall down.(falling)
＊ We could do nothing but wait.＊ John helped Paul solve the problem.
＊ He lives in the city ← ＜where I went ● ten years ago.＞
＊ I have a friendwho lives in Boston.
＊ They live in a housewhich stands on a hill.
＊ I lent him the moneythat was in my pocket.
＊ The manwhom I met on the street works at a bank.
＊ I’m reading a bookwhich I borrowed from the library.
＊ Where is the CDthat I bought yesterday?
＊ He has a friendwhose wife is a singer.＊ I’m looking for a bookwhose subject is jazz.
＊ He is the actorwhom Ann sent a fan letter to .
＊ This is the citywhich I was born in.
＊ What you need is some rest.
＊They couldn’t believe what they saw.
＊ This watch is just what I wanted!
＊ He said he wasn’t afraid of ghosts, which wasn’t true.
＊ It rained all day yesterday, which I expected.
He is the actor (whom) Ann sent a fan letter to. (可略)
He is the actor towhom Ann sent a fan letter. (不可略)
He is the actor that Ann sent a fan letter to. (介係詞不可提前)
＊ This is the hospitalwhere my aunt works.
(at which)＊ This is where the old ferry used to go across.(where已包含了先行詞the place)
＊Who painted this picture? My father did. ＊ When did you hear about the accident? This morning.
＊ Did you come here by bicycle or on foot? By bicycle.
How are you?How are you doing?How’s it going?How are things?
What’s up?What’s going on?What’s new?
Pretty good.Great.Not bad.So-so.
Not much.Nothing, really.
＊ I wish I knew her telephone number.
＊ I wish I hadn’t bought such an expensive bag.
＊ He talks as if he were an expert in economics.
＊ You looks as if you had seen a ghost!
＊ Bill says, “I hate Math.”
＊ Bill says (that) he hates Math.
＊ I said, “I am interested in gospel music.” (時態不一致)
＊ I said (that) I was interested in gospel music. (時態須一致)
＊ She always says, “I like my hometown.”
＊ She always says (that) she likes her hometown.
3) 動詞 say / tell
＊ He saidto me, “I want you to join the game.”
＊ He told me (that) he wanted me to join the game.
＊ The teacher said to us, “You cannot play baseball here today.”
＊ The teacher told us (that) we could not play baseball therethat day.
say (to A), “以疑問詞為首的疑問句?”
→ask (A) ＋疑問詞＋SV
→ask (A) ＋if＋SV
Poss. Noun ＋Prep.
be a/an＋adj.＋n. 表現人的能力或技術
Be a good singer (＝sing well)
Be a good cook (＝cook well)
Be an early riser (＝get up early)
Be a heavy smoker (＝smoke heavily)
Be a good speaker of English (＝speak English well)
Be a good pianist (＝play the piano well)
Have a talk (聊天)
Have a swim (游泳)
Have a walk (散步)
Have a look at… (看一下~)
Make a try at… (試一下~)
Make a decision (決定)
Make a choice (選擇)
Give a speech (演講)
Give a cry (大叫)
Give a call (打一通電話)
＊ We got to the station before the arrival of her train.
＊ She denied her knowledge of the fact.
＊ I understood her anxiety about her grandmother’s heart operation.
＊ Let’s have a walk in the park.
＊ My father is a fast walker.
Adv. Adj.(Adv.) Adv.
※ a few / a little：有一些
I □ present a scarf to Mary.
Why □ □ are you doing such a thing?
Did you follow the doctor’s advice □□?
請使用 it is … that 的分裂句，分別強調字詞
Beth teaches musicat the university.他所欠缺的並非知識，而是經驗。
□ he is lacking in □ not knowledge but experience.
□ you have to do □ □ this button.
is press (push)
I have never failed to watch the TV program.
→ Never …
He made no other mistake.
→ No other mistake …
The bank robber ran away.
→ Away …
The show at the Mirage Hotel in Las Vegas was amazing.
→ Amazing …
Never have I failed to watch the TV program.
No other mistake did he make.
Away ran the band robber.
Amazing was the show at the Mirage Hotel in Las Vegas.
ex: table, chair, house, book, pencil …
ex: family, class, team, people …
ex: coffee, tea, sugar, milk, gold, air …
ex: happiness, love, peace, joy …
ex: London, Tokyo, Bay, John, January …
a sheet of paper
a slice of bread
容器：a bottle of milk
three glasses of water
a cup of tea
單位：a pound of butter
two spoonfuls of sugar
three liters of beer
＊ Koalas live in Australia.
＊ There are seven days in a week.
＊There are about 100 families in this village.
＊My family are all soccer fans.
＊The police are looking for the robber.
＊ This statue is made of stone.
＊ My mother bought a bottle of wine.
＊ Necessity is the mother of invention.
＊ He is a man of ability.
＊ Dr. Jones observed wild animals in Africa.
＊ I went to the British Museum last August.
＊ My sister reads an English paper.
＊ The crowd threw stones at the police.
＊Thank you for your many kindnesses.
＊I want to buy a Porsche someday.
All the passengers on the bus escaped safely.
Most of the customers in this shop are teenagers.
a / an
the / the
＊ There is a fly in my room.
＊ I want to buy a car.
＊Can you give me a hint?
＊Rome was not built in a day.
＊This rope is 10 dollars a meter.
＊You took a photo of me. Show the photo to me.
＊Did you remember to lock the door?
＊He is the only person I can trust.
＊Everyone knows that the earth goes around the sun.
＊In England, we buy butter by the pound.
＊Jim took his daughter by the hand and left the room.
＊ It’s difficult to find water in the desert.
＊ We don’t have to go to school on Sundays.
＊ They came to the wedding by car.
＊ It was so strange a story that few people believed it.
＊ What an interesting picture this is!
＊ All the members of this club must attend the meeting.
完成確定所指的事物：(a) 人稱代名詞、(b) 指示代名詞
Look at the car over there! It’s a new model of BMW.
Judy, here is something for you.
the right hand (右的)
He is right. (對的)
ill temper (不好的)
He is ill. (生病)
The book on the desk is not mine.
Put the book on the desk.
He lives ＊that house. (in)
The girl ＊long hair is my daughter. (with)
You cannot solve the problem ＊reading the textbook. (without)
He aimed his bow and arrow at the target.
Lisa is a student at Princeton.
James is at work in the computer room.
I feel at ease when I’m with you.
I bought this coat at a discount.
I was driving at forty miles per hour.
Susie is good at swimming.
The garden is at its best in June.
We were surprised at his bad manners.
Mike arrived at the theater.
The meetings usually begin at ten.
I happened to see Cindy in the theater.
I first visited Germany in 1991.
Pick up those toys on the table.
How about having dinner on Christmas Eve?
I threw the letter in the fire.
I dressed in my best clothes to go to the opera.
Don’t go out in the rain.
I’m in love with her.
He is in publishing.
I am interest in Chinese history now.
Please sign your name here in ink.
The students stood in a line.
I think he’ll be a millionaire in a year.
He owns a bookstore on Oxford Street.
He is concentrating on his experiment.
He wrote an essay on modern pop music.
Don’t depend on others.
I usually go to school on foot.
The house is on fire!
On getting home, I phoned Mike.
We left the hotel at 10 a.m.
VS We came to this town on July 20.
Sally graduated from college in 1995.
I saw your father standing (at / in / on) the bus stop.
I usually get up (at / in / on) ten (at / in / on) Sundays.
Has the train from Osaka arrived?
I’ll be on vacation from July 24.
Let’s go to the park and feed the ducks.
Attach your name tag to the bag, please.
The train has already left for Kaohsiung.I am staying here for a few days.
Steven is from Australia.
We must protect children from violence.
He is suffering from a stomachache.
Your viewpoint is totally different from mine.
Butter is made from milk.
He suddenly spoke to me.
I got wet to the skin.
Eat to your heart’s content.
I hope this gift is to your liking.
I think this novel is superior to that one.
They held a farewell party for me.
The politicians are campaigning for the coming election.
I’m looking for Martin.
I recommend this racket for a beginner.
I took Steve for his brother.
I paid 10,000 dollars for these sneakers.
Joe was fined for speeding.
Are you for his proposal?
I have been here for three weeks.
VS I went sightseeing during my stay in London.
He learned how to use a computer in three weeks.
We took the plane □Paris□ London.
I bought a diamond ring □ Julia.
Why don’t you read this book □ winter vacation?
Three of my classmates got full marks in math.
Mr. Jones died of cancer.
This pendant is made of crystal.
I like to read stories of adventure.
Mr. Hamilton is a man of ability.
The three of us went there.
Every member of the club attended the ceremony.
A monkey robbed me of my lunch box.
That man standing by Jane is Scott.
That strange building was designed by my uncle.
Come with me, please.
Something is wrong with this computer.
I reserved a hotel room by fax.
I’ll be back by 3:30.
I missed the train by two minutes.
Eggs are sold by the dozen.
He came in by the back door.
You shouldn’t judge a person by his or her appearance.
I agree with you.
She is busy with her homework.
I’m looking for an apartment with a garage.
Vicky ate her noodles with a fork.
He filled the bottle with spring water.
She solved the problem with ease.
He entered the dark house with his legs shaking with fear.
after / before
基本意義：在~之後 / 在~之前
Let’s play tennis after school.
He got home before five o’clock.
along / across / through / around
基本意義：沿著直線前進 / 橫越平面 / 穿透 / ~的周圍
We walked along the river.
The man tried to swim across the channel.
The train went through a tunnel.
Please sit around the big table.
in front of / behind / opposite
基本意義：~的前面(正面) / ~的後面(內側) / (隔著馬路等) ~的對面
Don’t park your car in front of this building.
The post office is behind that building.
The bank is opposite that building.
基本意義：進入~裡面 / 從~的裡面到外面 / 到~上面
Please go into the living room.
Come out of the kitchen now!
The cat jumped onto the TV set.
over / under / above / below
基本意義：~的上面 / ~的下面 / 高於~之上 / 低於~之下
The rain clouds were over our heads.
I found my key under the desk.
The people above us are very noisy.
The sun sank below the horizon.
between / among
基本意義：某兩者之間 / 某群體之中
Peter sat between Allison and Jane.
He disappeared among the people in the crowd.
This river runs □ the forest and flows into the sea.
There was a beautiful garden □ the house.
Mike’s score was □ average.
The children gathered □ the rabbit.
I found a small cabin □ the pine trees.
Tim loves Ann, and Ann loves Tim.
I won’t go to the party unless you accompany me.
and / but / or
I bought a cheeseburger and French fries.
Gary arrive and we started the game.
I thought the story was true, but it wasn’t.
I want to go to Hong Kong or Singapore this summer.
both A and B
Steve can both speak and write Chinese.
either A or B / neither A nor B
意思：不是A就是B / 既不是A也不是B
I think she is either a president or a director.
The boy neither admits nor denies that he told a lie.
not A but B / not only A but (also) B
意思：是B而不是A / 不僅A連B也
He has not one but two computers.
He speaks not only English but (also) Spanish.
命令句＋and / or
意思：如此一來 ~ / 否則
Get up early tomorrow, and you will have time to eat breakfast.
Drive more slowly, or you will have an accident.
What I need is not fame, nor money.
I don’t want to see a snake, nor do I want to touch one.
so / for
意思：所以 / 因為
You broke the speed limit, so you’ll have to pay a fine.
I got up at five, for I wanted to watch the sunrise.
He is not only a baseball player □ also a football player.
It was getting colder, □ we went home.
You should go to the party, □ you will miss the chance to see her.
Both my brother □ I are early risers.
I’m not famous, □ do I wish to be.
She must be ill, □ she looks so pale.
It is true that Bill passed the entrance exam.
The problem is that you never learn from your mistakes.
I can’t believe (that) he is an artist.
I’m sure (that) he will succeed in business. ~接在形容詞之後的that子句
whether / if
It is unknown whether there is life on that planet.
The question is whether the voters will elect her.
She asked us if we wanted something cold.
when / while
意思：當~的時候 / 在做~的時後
I used to go swimming in the river when I was a child.
I found a wallet while I was jogging in the park.
before / after
意思：在~之前 / 在~之後
You need to get a visa before you enter that conuntry.
I learned German after I moved to Berlin.
since / until
意思：自從~以來 / 直到~
I’ve lived here since I was five years old.
Wait here until I get back.
as soon as / once
意思：一…就~ / 一旦~
My dog started to bark as soon as he heard my voice.
Once you get a car, you can go anywhere you want.
because / since
Mr. Brown was very angry because I didn’t tell the truth.
Since you have a fever, you should stay home tonight.
so … that ~ / such … that ~
The lecture was so boring that half the students fell asleep.
It was such a boring lecture that half the students fell asleep.
…, so that ~
I arrived early, so (that) I got a good seat.
so that / in order that
Lock the door so that no one can get in.
She spoke loudly in order that the people in the back might hear.
if / unless
意思：如果~的話 / 除非~
Please read my report if you have time.
He’ll be here at six unless his flight is delayed.
although / (even) though
Though she can speak Chinese, she can’t write it.
Never give up even if you make mistakes.
意思：萬一~時 / 以防萬一
In case I’m late, start without me.
I’ll take an umbrella in case it rains.
whether A or B
I don’t care whether you win or lose.
Dogs are our best friends. They not only watch over our housesbut also cheer us up whenever we are down or in trouble. If someone we don’t know enters our house, our dogs will bark to warn us.Besides, we cannot find better listeners than dogs becausethey always concentrate on what we say and never talk back to us.Above all, they seldom walk away from us; even we don’t treat them right. They are really nice and thoughtful. People, however, are not always dog’s best friends. Some dogowners who get tired of taking care of their pets simply throw them out on the street. They become stray dogs. These stray dogs havebecome a serious problem. Hungry stray dogs may attack peopleand dog bites can sometimes make people sick. So how can westop the growing number of stray dogs? Perhaps we should tryvery hard to find them homes and treat them like our family. Also,we need to be responsible owners once we decide to have a dogas a pet. Remember, dogs are not toys. They’re living things!
This story is old, but it’s still so true today. Long time ago, an old man and his young boy lived in a small village near a big town, and they had a donkey. One day they were on their way to a market. Every time when the father heard different ideas from the people on the street about how he should use the donkey, he just did what they told him to do. First the father and his son tried taking turnsriding their donkey. Then both of them get off the donkey and walked with it. Finally, they even carried it on their backs. They did everything that they were told, but still no one was satisfied. So they learned a lesson from it. It was that in their life, they just couldn’t please everybody.
I don’t think there is anything wrong with your blood. The key to your problem is that long nap after dinner. If you didn’t sleep for hours during the early part of the evening, you would be more ready to sleep at bedtime. If you didn’t nap after dinner, you would not want to stay up so late, and you would not feel the need to take a sleeping pill. The pill is still working in your system when you get up in the morning. This helps account for the fact that you feel tired all day. You should get out of the habit of sleeping during the evening. Right after your evening meal, engage in some sort of physical activity --- a sport such as bowling, perhaps. Or get together with friends for an evening of cards and conversation. Then go to bed at your usual time or a little earlier, and you should be able to get a good night's rest without taking a pill. If you can get into the habit of spending your evenings this way, I am sure you will feel less tired during the day. At first it may be hard for you to go to sleep without taking a pill. If so, get up and watch television or do some jobs around your house until you feel sleepy. If you fall asleep and then wake up a few hours later, get up but do not take a sleeping pill. Read a while or listen to the radio, and make yourself a few hours’ sleep that night, you will feel better in the morning than you usually feel after taking a pill. The next night you will be ready to sleep at an earlier hour. The most important thing is to avoid taking that nap right after dinner and avoid taking pills.