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Course Name: English Grammar ( 英文文法 ). 句子的形成與種類 動詞的句型與時態 完成式、助動詞 語態、不定詞 動名詞、分詞 比較、 關係詞 疑問詞與疑問句 假設語氣 、 引述 名詞構句 、 無生物主詞 、 否定 強調、倒裝、插入、省略、同位語 名詞 、 冠詞 、 代名詞 形容詞 、 副詞 介系詞 、 連接詞. 句子的形成. 詞: 冠詞 、 名詞 、 動詞 、 介系詞 、 代名詞 、 副詞 、 連接詞 、 感嘆詞 、 助動詞 、 形容詞

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slide1

Course Name:English Grammar (英文文法)

  • 句子的形成與種類
  • 動詞的句型與時態
  • 完成式、助動詞
  • 語態、不定詞
  • 動名詞、分詞
  • 比較、關係詞
  • 疑問詞與疑問句
  • 假設語氣、引述
  • 名詞構句、無生物主詞、否定
  • 強調、倒裝、插入、省略、同位語
  • 名詞、冠詞、代名詞
  • 形容詞、副詞
  • 介系詞、連接詞
slide2

句子的形成

詞:冠詞、名詞、動詞、介系詞、代名詞、副詞、連接詞、感嘆詞、助動詞、形容詞

Article Noun Verb Preposition Pronoun Adverb Conjunction Interjection Auxiliary-verb Adjective

片語:由兩個以上的詞組成,在句中當一個詞性來使用,且不含「主詞+述語動詞」

部分的詞組。

*Stars twinkle brightly in the night sky.

子句:由兩個以上的詞組成,在句中當一個詞性來使用,且含「主詞+述語動詞」部

分的詞組。

* I saw the Southern Cross when I stayed in Australia.

句子:一個句子的意義要能夠成立,必須有「主詞、述語動詞、受詞、補語、

修飾語(可修飾前面四個)」。Subject Verb Object Complement

* The man said to me softly and clearly, “Well, you may be right.”

slide3

主詞和述語(主要)動詞:

* Welaughed.

* My fatheris a teacher.

* A little dogis running toward me.

受詞:

* My father boughta new car.

* My sister boughtme this pendant.

補語:

* His mother is a lawyer.

* The news made ussad.

修飾語:

* The tallboy carried a boxfull of books.

* I sometimesstudybefore breakfast.

句子的要素

可作為主詞:

名詞、名詞片語、名詞子句

代名詞

可作為受詞:

名詞、名詞片語、名詞子句

代名詞

可作為補語:

名詞、名詞片語、名詞子句

形容詞、形容詞片語、形容詞子句

代名詞

可作為修飾語:

形容詞、形容詞片語、形容詞子句

副詞、副詞片語、副詞子句

slide4

英語的詞序

中文詞序較自由

英文詞序相當固定

「主詞+動詞+其他要素」

句子的種類

  • 直述句(肯定句與否定句)
  • 疑問句(Yes/No & WH-)
  • 命令句
  • 感嘆句
slide5

直述句

* My sister is a college student.

My sister is not an office worker.

* We go to school even on Saturdays.

We do not go to school even on Saturdays.

* My brother can swim very fast.

My sister cannot swim very fast.

句中含有be動詞(am, are, is等),其否定的詞序為「be動詞+not」

句中為一般動詞,其否定的詞序為「do/dose/did+not+動詞原形」

句中含助動詞(can, will等),其否定的詞序為「助動詞+not+動詞原形」

否定的縮寫:

are not→ aren’t is not → isn’t was not→ wasn’t were not→ weren’t

have not→ haven’t has not→ hasn’t had not→ hadn’t do not→ don’t

does not→ doesn’t did not→ didn’t cannot→ can’t could not→ couldn’t

will not→ won’t would not→ wouldn’t need not→ needn’t must not→ mustn’t

should not→ shouldn’t

主詞+be動詞的縮寫:

I am→ I’m we are→ we’re you are→ you’re he is→ he’s she is→ she’s

it is→ it’s they are→ they’re

slide6

疑問句

Yes/No疑問句的句首,通常不是

be動詞就是助動詞,而且都以Yes或No作答。

含be動詞的疑問句詞序為「be動詞+主詞」

含一般動詞的疑問句詞序為

「Do/Does/Did+主詞+動詞原形」

含助動詞的疑問句詞序為

「助動詞+主詞+動詞原形」

英文的疑問詞有who, what, which, when, where, why, how等。

當疑問詞為句子的主詞時,詞序是

「疑問詞+動詞」

當疑問詞不為句子的主詞時,詞序是

「疑問詞+be動詞/助動詞+主詞」

Yes/No 疑問句

* Are you hungry? Yes, Iam.

* Do you know her name? Yes, I do.

* Can you play the piano? No, I can’t.

WH-問句

* Who painted this picture? My father did.

* What are you doing? I’m waiting for Mike.

* When did you hear about the accident? This morning.

* When will he come home? I don’t know.

Yes/No疑問句,句尾語調通常是上揚的↗; WH-問句,句尾語調通常是下降的↘。

slide7

命令句、感嘆句

* Be careful!

* Wait for me.

* Don’t be so noisy!

* Don’t worry.

* How kind you are!

* How fast you eat!

* What a beautiful stone this is!

* What expensive clothes she has!

表現命令的句子要以動詞原形做開頭。

否定的命令句詞序為「Don’t+動詞原形」

感嘆句的句首通常是how或what,句尾再加上

感嘆號。

how開頭的感嘆句詞序為

「How+形容詞/副詞+主詞+動詞」

what開頭的感嘆句詞序為

What (a/an) +形容詞+名詞+主詞+動詞

slide8

測驗

  • Check 1 請將下列句子改為否定句。
  • I am a student at this school.
  • He knows your sister very well.
  • I will be at home this evening.
  • Check 2 請在空格內填入適當的英文。
  • □ □ like pop music? Yes, I do.
  • □ □ angry last night? No, he wasn’t.
  • □ broke the glass? I did.
  • □ are you going? To the city hall.
  • Check 3 請配合中文語意,在空格內填入適當的英文。
  • 不可以摘這些花。□ pick these flowers.
  • 圖書館裡要安靜。□ quiet in the library.
  • 那位老師說話的速度真快!□ fast that teacher speaks!
  • 這真是個簡單的問題!□ □ easy problem □ □!
slide9

動詞的用法

表動作、狀態的詞語稱為動詞。動詞用於句子當中,有及物動詞(Verb transitive)與不及物動詞(Verb intransitive) 之分。當及物動詞使用時,後面一定要直接接受詞。

* He didn’t move.

* He didn’t move the desk.

動詞的形式

動詞的形式須配合以下幾項因素做變化:

發生於何時 ?

主詞是第幾人稱 ?

主詞是單數還是複數 ?

* I had a headache yesterday. (have→had)

* My brother likes surfing. (like→likes)

slide10

動詞與句型

  • 所謂的句型,就是以主詞S、動詞V、受詞O、補語C四個要素
  • 來表示句子的結構。
  • SV* The storeopens at ten.
  • SVC* The moviewasfunny.
  • SVO* Wecleanedthe classroom.
  • SVOO* My fatherboughtmea watch.
  • SVOC* Theymademeangry.
  • SVO+to/for+O* My unclegavehis watchtome.
  • There+be 動詞+S* Thereisa cat under the table.
slide11

測驗

  • Check 1 注意句中畫線部分的動詞,將各句譯成中文。
  • A big car stopped in front of my house.
  • The driver stopped the car.
  • Don’t play on the street.
  • Let’s play tennis after school.
  • Check 2 請說出畫線部分是補語還是受詞。
  • Did you get my fax?
  • The teacher got angry with him.
  • We became friends at university.
  • He has a lot of friends all over the world.
  • Check 3 請指出句中的受詞。
  • Ms. Kim teaches us math.
  • He gave me some magazines.
  • I got a letter from him.
  • Check 4 請將下列句子譯成中文。
  • We call the dog Max.
  • Our coach made her the team’s captain.
  • You will find this book easy.
slide13

現在式

  • 表示現在狀態* l love chocolate ice cream.
  • 表示現在反覆動作* I always drink coffee at breakfast.
  • 表示一般事實* The earth goes around the sun.

現在進行式

  • 表示動作正在進行* Jack is playing tennis with Bob now.* Jack plays tennis every Sunday. ~ 現在式
slide14

過去式

  • 表示過去狀態* The store was full of young people last week.
  • 表示過去反覆動作* I usually rode my bicycle to school.
  • 表示動作過去發生過一次* We went to a concert last night.

過去進行式

  • 表示過去某個時間點動作正在進行* I was watching TV around noon.* I was coughing all night long.
slide15

未來式

  • 以 will 表示單純未來、意志未來* My brother will be twenty next year.* I will give you my answer tomorrow.
  • 以 be going to 表示主詞的計畫、詢問對方的計畫、確實會發生的事* I’m going to buy a digital camera.* Are you going to study abroad next year?* It’sgoing to rain.

未來進行式

  • 以 will be V-ing 表示未來某個時間點進行中的動作、未來某個時間點預定要做的動作* We will be playing tennis at this time tomorrow.* I will be meeting him at the airport next week.
slide16

測驗

  • Check 1 請將括弧內的動詞改為現在式或現在進行式。
  • This orange (taste) bad; it (be) not good to eat.
  • Mary (play) a piece by Bach on the piano now; she (like) music very much.
  • The sun (rise) in the east and (set) in the west.
  • My sister usually (wear) contact lenses, but she (wear) glasses today.
  • Check 2 請將括弧內的動詞改為適當形式。
  • I wanted to be a sailor when I (be) a boy.
  • My grandfather often (tell) me interesting stories in my childhood.
  • He ran to the station and (catch) the last train.
  • I (watch) TV when you called me.
  • Check 3 請配合中文語意,在空格內填入適當的英文。
  • 「好痛!我切到手指了!」「我去拿急救箱給你!」“Ouch! I cut my finger!” “I □ get a first-aid kit for you!”
  • 今年八月我會搬去西班牙,所以我需要學西班牙語。I need to learn Spanish because I □ □ □ move to Spain this August.
  • 明天的這個時候,他們會舉行宴會吧!At this time tomorrow they □ □ having a party.
slide17

現在完成式

  • 現在完成式是將過去與現在的狀況連結,因此使用現在完成式時,與現在的狀況關聯性甚高。
  • 形式:「have/has+過去分詞」
  • 表示完結或結果 * I have already spent all my money.* Henry has just finished his homework.
  • 表示經驗 * I have visited London twice.* Have you ever climbed Mt. Ali?
  • 表示持續 * We have lived in this house since 1992.* I have known Greg for 20 years.
slide18

會話中常用的縮寫:

I have→ I’ve you have→ you’ve he has→ he’s she has→ she’s

we have→ we’ve they have→ they’ve

過去式與現在完成式

* My father gave up alcohol.

* My father has given up alcohol.

現在完成進行式

  • 形式:「have/has+been+V-ing」
  • 表示動作持續* I have been doing this puzzle for 30 minutes. * How long have you been waiting here?
slide19

過去完成式

  • 過去完成式是將過去的某個時間點與該時間點以前一起聯想。
  • 形式:「had+過去分詞」
  • 表示完結或結果* The game had already begun when we arrived at the stadium.
  • 表示經驗* I had never spoken to a foreigner before I entered college.
  • 表示持續* They had known each other for ten years when they got married.
slide20

會話中常用的縮寫:

I had→ I’d you had→ you’d he had→ he’d she had→ she’d

we had→ we’d they had→ they’d

  • 表示兩突發事件時間前後關係

* I realized that I had left my umbrella in his car.

過去完成進行式

  • 形式:「had+been+V-ing」
  • 表示動作持續* I had been driving for two hours when I found the gas station.
slide21

未來完成式

  • 未來完成式用於從現在到未來某個時間點的狀況一直相關時的預測。形式:「will+have+過去分詞」
  • 表示完結或結果 * The concert will have finished by three.
  • 表示經驗 * I will have seen the musical three times if I see it again.
  • 表示持續 * Next month we will have been married for twenty years.

未來完成式進行式

  • 形式:「will+have+been+V-ing」
  • 表示動作持續* Next year I will have been working at the company for 30 years.
slide22

測驗

  • Check 1 請配合中文語意,填入適當的英文。
  • 我還沒寫聖誕卡。I □ not □ my Christmas cards yet.
  • 我收到他的電子郵件。
  • I □ □ an e-mail from him.
  • 你曾經去過國外嗎?□ you □ been abroad?
  • 你來台灣多久了?How □have you □in Taiwan?
  • 雨已經下了一個星期。It □ □ raining for a week.
  • Check 2 請由括弧中選出正確的答案。
  • The last bus (has already left / had already left) when I reached the bus stop.
  • I (have been/ had been) abroad three times before I was twenty.
  • Judy (has been living / had been living) in this country since last year.
  • He (was reading / had been reading) the novel for two hours before I called him.
  • Check 3 請將括弧內的動詞改為適當形式。
  • I (finish) my homework by the time the TV program begins.
  • I (see) the movies five times if I go to see it again.
  • Jack (is sick) in bed for two weeks by tomorrow.
slide23

為何會有助動詞

* He swims well.

是表示「他實際在游泳,而且游得很好」的事實。

* He can swim well.

是表達主詞具有的能力,意指「提到游泳,他可以游得很好」,

而不是實際在游的問題。

助動詞的作用

表示說法者的主觀判斷。其詞序為「助動詞+動詞原形」

slide24

助動詞的基本意義

不能can’t/ couldn’t

不會 be not able to / wasn’t able to

不可能may not / might not

將不會won’t / wouldn’t

不應該shall not / shouldn’t、ought not to

不可以mustn’t、don’t have to

不曾used not to

不需要 needn’t

最好不 had better not

能can / could

會be able to / was able to

可能may / might

將會will / would

應該shall / should、ought to

必須must、have to

過去經常 used to

需要need

最好had better

slide25

你開車一定要取得駕照。

*You have to get a license to drive a car.

你不必在這裡脫鞋。

*You don’t have to take off your shoes here.

我們應該節約能源。

* We ought to save energy.

他們不應該將那孩子獨自留在家裡。

*They ought not to leave that child alone in the house.

我從前下班後就會去健身房,但現在沒有了。

* I used to go to gym after work, but now I don’t.

我以前就不喝咖啡。

* I used not to drink coffee.

你最好向警察通報這件意外事故。

* You had better report the accident to the police.

這個秘密你最好別告訴任何人。

* You had better not tell this secret to anyone.

slide26

助動詞的使用歸納

表示能力、可能:can / be able to

表示過去的能力、可能:could / was able to

表示許可、請求:can / may

表示義務、需要:must / have to表示義務、強制:should / ought to表示忠告:had better表示可能性、推測:can / could / may / might / will / would

表示確認:must / can’t

表示推測、計畫:should / ought to

表示意志:will / would

表示習慣:will / would

表示請求:will / would

詢問對方意願:shall

表示過去的習慣、狀態:used to

slide27

語態

何種場合要用被動語態─先確認主角

* My sister isn’t very good at driving. Yesterday she insisted on driving my car, and she almost ran over an old dog!

* We keep a dog named Fido. Fido is an old dog and can’t move quickly. He was almost run over by a car yesterday.

被動語態的基本句型

「被動的一方+be動詞+過去分詞+(by 做動作的一方) 」

☆被動語態的句子要用及物動詞

slide28

主動語態與被動語態

My brotherrepairedthis car.

S V O

This carwas repairedby my brother

S V by …

MarysentJima Christmas card.

S V O O

Jimwas senta Christmas cardby Mary.

S V O by …

His grandfathernamedthe babyCarl.

S V O C

The babywas namedCarlby his grandfather. S V C by …

Marysenta Christmas cardto Jim.

S V O to O

A Christmas cardwas sentto Jimby Mary.S V to O by …

slide29

被動語態的各種形式

  • 含助動詞的句子:「助動詞+be+過去分詞」*The book can be borrowed from the library.
  • 為進行式的句子:「be動詞+being+過去分詞」*The stadium is being built now.
  • 為完成式的句子:「have/has/had+been+過去分詞」*This song has been sung by a lot of singers.
  • 為否定句的句子:「be動詞+not+過去分詞」

「助動詞+notbe+過去分詞」

*His name was not found on the list.*Bad words must not be used in the classroom.

slide30

為疑問句:Yes or No「be動詞+主詞+過去分詞」疑問詞=主詞「疑問詞+ be動詞+過去分詞」疑問詞≠主詞「疑問詞+ be動詞+主詞+過去分詞」

*Was this bag made in Italy?

*Who was invited to the party?

*Who was this CD produced by?

測驗

  • Check 請配合中文語意,填入適當的英文。
  • 這箱子不可以打開。This box must □ □ □.
  • 這化石是由高中生發現的嗎?□ this fossil □ by a high school student?
  • 這隻青鳥是在哪裡補捉到的?□ □ this blue bird □?
  • 收音機是由誰發明的?□ was the radio □□?
slide31

述語動詞與準動詞

I visited his house. (我去他家。)

I visited his house to borrow a book. (我為了一本書去他家。)

準動詞的特徵

  • 沒有時態變化
  • 沒有人稱變化
  • 可接受詞以及可用副詞修飾
slide32

不定詞的名詞用法

  • 不定詞當名詞片語用時,可作為主詞、受詞及補語。
  • 當主詞用
  • * To own a house is a dream of many Taiwanese.
  • * It is use useful to have a driver’s license.(it當虛主詞)
  • 當受詞用

* My son needs to see a dentist.

* Sam finds it easy to make friends.(it當虛受詞)

  • 當補語用

* Our plan is to climb the mountain tomorrow morning.

slide33

不定詞當形容詞片語用時,可作為修飾語、補語。不定詞當形容詞片語用時,可作為修飾語、補語。

  • 用來修飾名詞的不定詞,一定要放在被修飾名詞的後面。
  • 當修飾語用
  • * I’m looking for someoneto help me with my work.
  • * I have a lot of homeworkto do.
  • * Do you have anythingto write with?
  • 補語用

* We were surprised at her decisionto become an actress.

不定詞的形容詞用法

slide34

不定詞的副詞用法

  • 不定詞當副詞片語用時,可作為修飾語。用來修飾名詞以外的
  • 片語或句子。
  • 表示目的

* She is working hard to buy a car.

  • 表示情感因素

* I’m very happy to meet you.

  • 表示判斷依據

* He must be a genius to understand the theory.

  • 表示結果 * They came home to find that window was broken.
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動名詞

  • 動名詞當名詞片語用時,可作為主詞、受詞及補語。
  • 當主詞用
  • *Remembering people’s names is difficult.

* It is difficult remembering people’s names.(it當虛主詞)

  • 當受詞用 or 作為介系詞的受詞

* My grandfather enjoys playing golf.

* I found it comfortablelying on the grass.(it當虛受詞)

* She is good at baking cookies.× to bake

  • 當補語用

* Her hobby isplaying the piano.* Judy is playing the piano in her room. ~作為進行式

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動名詞 vs 不定詞

動名詞和不定詞皆可作為及物動詞的受詞,而何時該動名詞,何時該用不定詞,則由動詞來決定。

需以動名詞為受詞的及物動詞:admit (承認)、avoid (避免)、consider (考慮)、deny (否認)、enjoy (享受)、escape (逃避)、finish (完成)、imagine (想像)、mind (介意)、miss (想念)、practice (練習)、quit (停止)、suggest (建議)、give up (放棄)、put off (延期)+動名詞

需以不定詞為受詞的及物動詞:care (想要) 、decide (決定)、desire (強烈希望)、expect (期望)、hope (希望)、manage (設法做~)、mean (打算) 、offer (給予)、pretend (假裝) 、promise (承諾)、refuse (拒絕)、want (想要)、wish (但願)+不定詞

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兩者均可為受詞的及物動詞,且意思不變:

begin (開始) 、cease (停止)、continue (繼續)、hate (恨)、 intend (想要)、like (喜歡)、love (愛)、neglect (疏忽)、start (開始)+動名詞/不定詞

兩者均可為受詞的及物動詞,但意思不同:forget+動名詞 忘了做過的某事forget+不定詞 忘了要去做某事

remember+動名詞 記得做過的某事remember+不定詞 記得要去做某事

stop+動名詞 停止做某事stop+不定詞 停止手邊工作去做某事

try+動名詞 試驗做~try+不定詞 試著(努力)要~

slide38

測驗

  • Check 請由括號中選出正確答案。
  • Have you considered (moving / to move) out of this country?
  • Sorry. I didn’t mean (offending / to offend) you.
  • He refused (coming / to come) with us.
  • May I suggest (taking / to take) a vote on this matter?
  • 請不要再犯相同的錯誤。Try not (making / to make) the same mistake again.
  • 吉姆試著去睡在地板上,而不是床上。
  • Jim tried (sleeping / to sleep) on the floor instead of a bed.
  • 雨已經停了嗎?Has it stopped (raining / to rain) yet?
  • 我們這隊一定會贏。Our team is sure (of wining / to win)

Be sure of +doing (主詞的判斷)

Be sure+ to do (說話者的判斷)

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分詞的形容詞用法

  • 分詞當形容詞片語用時,可作為修飾語、補語。
  • 用來修飾名詞的分詞,較長的片語要放在被修飾名詞的後面,單一詞彙的分詞則可從前面修飾名詞。
  • 當修飾語用
  • * Who is the girlpainting a picture over there?
  • * The picturepainted by a little girl won the contest.
  • * Someone is in that burninghouse!
  • * The police found the stolenmoney in the car.
  • 補語用
  • SVC * The teacher sat surrounded by his students.
  • SVOC* We saw a bird building a nest.
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分詞的副詞用法 (分詞構句)

  • 分詞當副詞片語用時,可作為修飾語,用來修飾及補充句子資訊。
  • 表示同時進行的事

* Some girls are walking down the road talking to each other.

  • 表示正在做某事時

* Walking along the beach, I found a beautiful shell.

(When I was ~)

  • 表示動作的連續

* Taking out a key from his bag, he opened the box. (He took ~ and ~)

  • 表示原因和理由* Written in simple English, this book is easy to understand. (Since this book is ~)
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動詞原形

  • 動詞原形只能在幾個限定的場合下使用。
  • 命令句

* Get out!

  • 大多數的助動詞之後

* He must be tired.

  • 跟隨使役動詞及感官動詞 (動詞原形的準動詞)make、let、have;see、hear、feel

* I saw the boy fall down.(falling)

  • 和慣用語與及構句並用 (動詞原形的準動詞)

* We could do nothing but wait.* John helped Paul solve the problem.

(to)

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比較的基本概念

  • 原級
  • Betty is attractive.→ Betty is asattractiveas Ann is attractive.
  • Ann is attractive.
  • 比較級
  • Stan is strong.
  • → Stan is strongerthan Scott is strong.
  • Scott is strong.
  • 最高級
  • Ken is a rich person.
  • Chris is a rich person. → Chris is therichest person in the town.
  • Steven is a rich person.
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使用原級的比較

  • 比較兩個事物時,當兩者之間沒有差異或某種性質相同時,
  • 可用原級來做比較,即同等比較。
  • 表示A和B一樣~* My brother is as tall as my father. (比較基軸為形容詞)* I can run as fast as my brother. (比較基軸為副詞)* I have as many books as you. (比較基軸為形容詞+名詞)
  • 表示A不如B~* I don’t sing as well as my sister.
  • 表示A是B的X倍 * This room is twice as large as that one.* He had three times as much moneyas me.
  • 表示盡可能~* Call the doctor as soon as possible!* The doctor came as quickly as he could.
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使用比較級的比較

  • 比較兩個事物時,若兩者在程度及強度上有所差異,即一方比另一方的某種性質高/強/多時,使用比較級。
  • 表示A比B還~* This stone is heavier than that one. (比較基軸為形容詞)* She can speak English better than me. (比較基軸為副詞)* My sister has more CDs than me. (比較基軸為形容詞+名詞)
  • 表示A不比B還~* He isn’tyounger than my father.* This car is less expensive than that one.(用less來表示A不比B還~)
  • 表示差異很大或具體呈現差異 * This house is much larger than mine.* The climate of Taiwan is much milder than that of Iceland.* Sue is three years younger than Tim.
slide45

使用最高級的比較

  • 當三者以上針對某一點做比較,而其中一方勝過其他時,必須使用最高級。
  • 表示A在~中是最~* He is the fastest sprinter in Taiwan. * He swims fastest of us all.
  • 表示A最不~* This is the least expensive computer in this store.
  • 強調最高級的意思* She is by far the best singer in this country.
  • 表示A最~之一 * This is one of the nicest rooms in the hotel.
  • 表示第幾~* Henry is the second tallest student in this class.
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許多的形容詞和副詞,除了原級外,還有比較級和最高級的形式。其變化可分為規則變化和不規則變化兩種。許多的形容詞和副詞,除了原級外,還有比較級和最高級的形式。其變化可分為規則變化和不規則變化兩種。

slide47

* He lives in the city ←<which I visited ● ten years ago.>

* He lives in the city ← <where I went ● ten years ago.>

關係代名詞與關係副詞

  • 關係代名詞的形式
  • 關係副詞的形式
slide48

關係代名詞

  • 主格的用法

* I have a friendwho lives in Boston.

* They live in a housewhich stands on a hill.

* I lent him the moneythat was in my pocket.

  • 受格的用法

* The manwhom I met on the street works at a bank.

* I’m reading a bookwhich I borrowed from the library.

* Where is the CDthat I bought yesterday?

  • 所有格的用法

* He has a friendwhose wife is a singer.* I’m looking for a bookwhose subject is jazz.

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介系詞與關係代名詞

* He is the actorwhom Ann sent a fan letter to .

* This is the citywhich I was born in.

  • 已包含先行詞(~的事物)的關係代名詞what

* What you need is some rest.

*They couldn’t believe what they saw.

* This watch is just what I wanted!

  • 限定用法與非限定用法 關係代名詞前沒逗號為限定用法,表示將先行詞限定於特定的人事物。 關係代名詞前有逗號為非限定用法,則是對先行詞做補充說明。* He married a woman whom he met at the hospital.* He married my sister, whom he met at the hospital.
  • 非限定用法的which所補充說明的先行詞可為前面的句子或子句及部分詞組。* He wore a brown suit, which was made in Italy.

* He said he wasn’t afraid of ghosts, which wasn’t true.

* It rained all day yesterday, which I expected.

He is the actor (whom) Ann sent a fan letter to. (可略)

He is the actor towhom Ann sent a fan letter. (不可略)

He is the actor that Ann sent a fan letter to. (介係詞不可提前)

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關係副詞

  • where

* This is the hospitalwhere my aunt works.

(at which)* This is where the old ferry used to go across.(where已包含了先行詞the place)

  • when
  • * There was a timewhen dinosaurs lived on the earth.
  • (in which)*Late spring iswhen the rainy season begins here.(when已包含了先行詞the time)
  • why
  • * Tell me the reasonwhy you look so happy today.
  • * I really like sweets. That’s why my teeth are bad.
  • (why已包含了先行詞the reason)
  • how* That’s how he succeeded in business.

(how已包含了先行詞the way)

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複合關係詞

  • 複合關係代名詞
  • 複合關係副詞
slide52

複合關係詞

  • whoever
  • * The club admits whoever pays the entry fee.* Whoever calls me, I don’t want to answer the phone.
  • whichever
  • * Help yourself to whichever (food) you want.
  • *Whichever you take, please return it tomorrow.
  • whatever
  • * You can order whatever you like.* Whatever happens, I will always love you.
  • wherever
  • * Put the table wherever you like.
  • * I’ll be thinking of you wherever you go.
  • whenever
  • * On holidays, we can get up whenever we want to.
  • * You will be welcomed whenever you come.
  • however + 形容詞/副詞
  • *Howevertired she is, she always smiles.
slide53

疑問句的種類

  • Yes / No 疑問句*Do you know her name? Yes, I do.
  • 疑問詞開頭的疑問句

*Who painted this picture? My father did. * When did you hear about the accident? This morning.

  • 選擇疑問句

* Did you come here by bicycle or on foot? By bicycle.

  • 附加問句 *It’s very hot today, isn’t it? Yes, it is.直述句後面加附加問句,其詞序為「助動詞/be動詞+主詞(使用代表前面句子的代名詞)?」
  • 間接問句 * I don’t knowwho that man is.* Can you tell me when the movies starts?把一般的疑問詞疑問句當成句子的一部分來使用,其詞序變為「主詞+動詞」
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疑問詞的種類

  • who
  • * Who is that girl over there? That’s Linda.* Who are you planning to invite? Ann and Nancy.
  • * Who did he come to the party with? With Cathy.
  • which
  • * Which is your coat, this one or that one? This one is.* Which bus should we take? The number 5.
  • what
  • * What is that building over there? That’s City Hall.* What kind of movies do you like? I like action movies.
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whose

  • * Whose is this new car? It’s John’s.* Whose shoes are these? They’re mine.
  • where / when / why / how
  • * Where can I park my car? You can park on this street.* When does the concert begin? At seven.
  • * Why didn’t you lock the door? Sorry, I completely forgot.
  • * How do you go to school? By bus.

和朋友或熟人碰面時,常會問「你好嗎?」有以下幾種表現方式:

How are you?How are you doing?How’s it going?How are things?

What’s up?What’s going on?What’s new?

Pretty good.Great.Not bad.So-so.

Not much.Nothing, really.

slide56

假設語氣

  • 直述句:使用表達事實的動詞時態
  • 假設語氣:使用表達與事實不同的動詞時態
  • 與現在事實相反,使用假設語氣的過去式
  • If+S+動詞的過去式,S+過去助動詞+動詞原形
  • 過去助動詞:would / could / might / should
  • * If I had a lot of money, I would buy a yacht.
  • * If he were ready, we would go.
  • (He is not ready, so we won’t go.)
  • * If I had enough time and money, I would travel around the world.
  • * If it rains tomorrow, we will cancel the picnic. (非假設語氣)
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與過去事實相反,使用假設語氣的過去完成式 與過去事實相反,使用假設語氣的過去完成式

  • If+S+動詞的過去完成式,S+過去助動詞+have+動詞的過去分詞
  • 過去助動詞:would / could / might / should
  • * If I had left ten minutes earlier, I would not have missed the train.
  • (I didn’t leave ten minutes earlier, so I missed the train.)
  • * She would have died if the climber had not found her.
  • (She didn’t die because the climber found her.)
  • If 子句(與過去事實相反)和主要子句(與現在事實相反)的時間不一致時
  • * If I had taken the medicine then, I might be fine now.
slide58

其它假設語氣

wish:真希望(當時)~

* I wish I knew her telephone number.

(與現在事實相反)

* I wish I hadn’t bought such an expensive bag.

(與過去事實相反)

as if:(當時)宛如~

* He talks as if he were an expert in economics.

(與現在事實相反)

* You looks as if you had seen a ghost!

(與過去事實相反)

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測驗

  • 如果明天是晴天,我們將去野餐。
  • If it □ fine tomorrow, we’ll go on a picnic.
  • 如果我知道她的電話號碼,我就會打給她。
  • If I □ her phone number, I □ call her.
  • 如果你和外星人對話,你會說什麼?
  • What □ you say if you □ with an alien?
  • 如果我是有錢人,我就可以買那間房子。
  • If I □ rich, I □ buy the mansion.
  • 如果你當時小心一點,那時候就不會犯下這種錯誤了。
  • If you □ □ a little more careful, you □ not □ □ such a mistake.
  • 如果她當時早一點起床,她那時候就可以準時上學了。
  • She □ □ □ in time for school if she □ □ up earlier.
  • 如果我當時趕上那班列車,我現在就可以出席舞會了。If I □ □ the train, I □ □ present at the party now.
slide60

引述

直接引述

* Bill says, “I hate Math.”

間接引述

* Bill says (that) he hates Math.

slide61

直接引述與間接引述的轉換

改變引述方式的注意事項

1) 時態

* I said, “I am interested in gospel music.” (時態不一致)

* I said (that) I was interested in gospel music. (時態須一致)

2) 人稱代名詞

* She always says, “I like my hometown.”

* She always says (that) she likes her hometown.

3) 動詞 say / tell

* He saidto me, “I want you to join the game.”

* He told me (that) he wanted me to join the game.

4) 時間、地點

* The teacher said to us, “You cannot play baseball here today.”

* The teacher told us (that) we could not play baseball therethat day.

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直述句以外的引述轉換

  • 疑問詞的疑問句

say (to A), “以疑問詞為首的疑問句?”

→ask (A) +疑問詞+SV

  • * He said to me, “Where do your parents live?”
  • * He asked me where my parents lived.
  • Yes/No疑問句
  • say (to A), “Yes / No 疑問句”

→ask (A) +if+SV

  • * Mr. Brown said to me, “Are you hungry?”
  • * Mr. Brown asked me if I was hungry.
  • 命令句
  • say to A, “命令句”
  • →tell A+to do
  • * My mother said to me, “Clean your room.”
  • * My mother told me to clean my room.
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名詞構句

  • 包含SV的名詞構句
  • Hesucceeded in business.
  • We are pleased with the news of hissuccess in business.
  • 包含SVO的名詞構句
  • Hediscovereda new virus.
  • The scientist reported hisdiscoveryof a new virus.
  • 包含SVC的名詞構句
  • Iwas absent from the club meeting.
  • Nobody noticed myabsence from the club meeting.

Poss. Noun

Poss. Noun +Prep.

Poss. Noun

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以名詞為中心的用法

  • 我父親開車很安全。
  • →My father drives safely.
  • →My father is a safe driver.
  • 我們在咖啡廳聊了一會兒。
  • →We chatted in the coffee shop.
  • →We had a chat in the coffee shop.

be a/an+adj.+n. 表現人的能力或技術

Be a good singer (=sing well)

Be a good cook (=cook well)

Be an early riser (=get up early)

Be a heavy smoker (=smoke heavily)

Be a good speaker of English (=speak English well)

Be a good pianist (=play the piano well)

Have a talk (聊天)

Have a swim (游泳)

Have a walk (散步)

Have a look at… (看一下~)

Make a try at… (試一下~)

Make a decision (決定)

Make a choice (選擇)

Give a speech (演講)

Give a cry (大叫)

Give a call (打一通電話)

have+n. 以名詞表示動作

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測驗

* We got to the station before the arrival of her train.

* She denied her knowledge of the fact.

* I understood her anxiety about her grandmother’s heart operation.

* Let’s have a walk in the park.

* My father is a fast walker.

我們在她的火車到站之前就抵達車站。

她否認她所知道的事實。

我了解她在擔心她祖母的心臟病手術。

我們在這個公園散散步吧。

我的父親走路很快。

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無生物主詞

  • 以人或動物以外的「無生物」為主詞時,可以表現「主詞令人~」的意思。
  • 「使得~ 」的用法
  • The bad weather made us cancel the game.
  • →壞天氣使得我們取消這場比賽。
  • →因為天後不佳,我們取消了這場比賽。
  • My part-time job allows me to save a lot of money.
  • →多虧了打工才能夠讓我存一大筆錢。
  • 「使免於~ 」的用法
  • A helmet keeps you from hurting your head.
  • →安全帽使人們能免於傷到頭部。
  • →載上安全帽能夠保護頭部。
  • The traffic jam prevented us from arriving on time.
  • →塞車使得我們無法準時到達。
  • →因為塞車,我們無法準時到達
slide67

「顯示資訊來源」的用法

  • This meter tells you the temperature in Fahrenheit.
  • →這個溫度計的溫度是以華氏表示。
  • 其他無生物主詞的用法
  • This road takes you to the station.
  • →這條路會帶你到達車站。
  • →(你)順著這條路走,就會到達車站。
  • The new dishwasher will save you a lot of water.
  • →這台新的洗碗機將幫你省下很多水。
slide68

否定詞

  • 關於否定詞在句中的否定範圍分為下面兩個部分:
  • 全句否定:否定主要動詞來否定句子全部的內容。
  • 詞語否定:否定主要動詞以外的單詞、片語、子句。
  • not / no / never
  • My teacher did not tell me to wear earrings.
  • My teacher told me notto wear earrings.
  • * There were nochildren in the park.
  • * I will neverride a roller coaster again. 對次數和時間的強烈否定

Adv. Adj.(Adv.) Adv.

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其它否定詞

  • hardly / scarcely:程度很低 (幾乎沒有)
  • * I couldn’t hardlyunderstand what he was saying.
  • * The injured child scarcelywalk.
  • rarely / seldom:頻率很低 (很少)
  • * I rarelylisten to classical music.
  • * England has seldomwon the World Cup.
  • few / little:數量很少 (幾乎沒有)
  • * Fewstudents handed in the homework.
  • * I had littletime to buy a present for her.

Adv. Adv.

Adv. Adv.

Adj. Adj.(Adv.)

※ a few / a little:有一些

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否定的範圍

  • 部分否定和全部否定
  • All of the members attended the meeting.
  • Not all of the members attended the meeting. (並非全部→部分否定)
  • None of the members attended the meeting. (沒有一個→全部否定)
  • 部分否定的用法
  • * She does not always agree with me. (並非全部→部分否定)
  • * Your theory is not completely wrong. (並非全部→部分否定)
  • 雙重否定
  • * He never visits us without bringing a gift. (從來沒有不→總是)
  • * It’s not unusual for couples to quarrel. (不稀奇→常有的是)

slide71

強調

  • 作用:強調句中的詞語、片語或子句。
  • 方法:加上特定的詞語、重複相同的詞語或使用分裂句等。
  • 加上特定的詞語
  • 以助動詞 do/does/did 強調動詞(真的~)
  • * Believe me. I did call you this morning.
  • 以形容詞 (the/this/that/one’s) very 強調名詞(就是這個~)
  • * This is the verybook I’ve been looking for!
  • 以副詞 just/simply/really 強調詞語、片語、子句
  • * It’s a reallyhot day, isn’t it?
  • 強調疑問詞,可加上on earth/ in the world(所有的)
  • * Whoon earth is calling at this hour?
  • 強調否定,可加上at all/ by any means/ in the least/ whatever/ a bit
  • * I don’t believe his story at all.
slide72

重複相同的詞語

  • 用…and…做強調該單字
  • * He tells the same jokes again and again.
  • * The child cried and cried during dinner.
  • 使用分裂句
  • 在 it is/was 和 that 之間放進想要強調的詞語
  • *Jim caught a turtlein this pondyesterday.
  • It wasJimthat caught a turtle in this pond yesterday.
  • It wasa turtlethat Jim caught in this pond yesterday.
  • It wasin this pondthat Jim caught a turtle yesterday.
  • It wasyesterdaythat Jim caught a turtle in this pond.
  • 使用關係詞
  • 用 what…is/was 強調主詞或受詞;用 all…is/was強調補語
  • * I like her voice.
  • →What I like is her voice.
  • *You have to do (to) wait here. →All you have to do is (to) wait here.
slide73

練習

我的確送給了瑪莉一條絲巾。

I □ present a scarf to Mary.

你們到底為什麼做這種事情?

Why □ □ are you doing such a thing?

你到底有沒有聽從醫生的指示?

Did you follow the doctor’s advice □□?

請使用 it is … that 的分裂句,分別強調字詞

Beth teaches musicat the university.他所欠缺的並非知識,而是經驗。

□ he is lacking in □ not knowledge but experience.

你只要按下按鈕就行了。

□ you have to do □ □ this button.

did

On earth

at all

What

is

is press (push)

All

slide74

倒裝

  • 作用:依文章的脈絡需要而出現,可增添句子的變化。
  • 方法:改變基本句型SVO…等的詞序就稱「倒裝」。
  • 將表示否定的副詞(片語)置於句首*I have never seen such a beautiful rainbow.
  • →Never have I seen such a beautiful rainbow.
  • * The actor mention his private life at no time.
  • →At no time did the actor mention his private life.
  • 將表示方向或場所的副詞(片語)置於句首,主詞和動詞移位,

新資訊的名詞放在句尾

  • * An apple fell down.
  • →Down fell an apple.
  • * His card was in my pocket. →In my pocket was his card.
slide75

將受詞置於句首

  • * He said not a word.
  • →Not a word did he say.
  • 將補語置於句首
  • * The view from the balcony was wonderful.
  • →Wonderful was the view from the balcony.

I have never failed to watch the TV program.

→ Never …

He made no other mistake.

→ No other mistake …

The bank robber ran away.

→ Away …

The show at the Mirage Hotel in Las Vegas was amazing.

→ Amazing …

Never have I failed to watch the TV program.

No other mistake did he make.

Away ran the band robber.

Amazing was the show at the Mirage Hotel in Las Vegas.

slide76

插入

  • 作用:藉此表達說話者的判斷或情緒、註解的資訊、描述的連結。
  • 方法:在主詞與動詞之間加入詞語、片語、子句。
  • 詞語的插入
  • * His son, fortunately, was rescued from the burning house.
  • 片語的插入
  • * The clothes in this store, in my opinion, are too expensive.
  • 子句的插入
  • * Fishing in this river, as far as I know, is prohibited. (就我所知)
  • * Too much exercise, I think, is bad for your health.
slide77

省略

  • 作用:為了使句子簡潔,常會省略已經出現過的詞語。
  • 方法:即使沒有這些語句也能明瞭句子的意思時,就可以將之省略。
  • 省略詞語
  • * My father bought a new car. It’s a hybrid car.
  • * John ate a hamburger, and Mary ate French fries.
  • * The girls were brave, but the boys were not brave.
  • 省略子句
  • * He broke his left leg while he was skiing in Canada.
  • * When you are in Rome, do as the Romans do.
  • 標題或廣告的省略
  • *Road Closed = This road is closed.
  • *Kidnapper Arrested in Chicago = The kidnapper was arrested in Chicago.
slide78

同位語

  • 作用:補足句中詞組的意思,或是為了換個說法。
  • 方法:可將文法上有相同作用的詞語附加上去,這時兩者的關係
  • 稱「同位語」。
  • 名詞並列
  • * Her best friendLisa is a nurse.
  • * John Steinbeck,a writer from California, won the Nobel Prize for literature.
  • 用of表現同位語
  • * She was born and raised in the cityofSeattle.
  • 用that表現同位語
  • * I know the factthatshe is trying to conceal the scandal. (同位語)
  • * I know the factthatshe is trying to conceal. (關係子句)
slide79

名詞

普通名詞:指具體事物的名詞

可數名詞

(有單、複數)

ex: table, chair, house, book, pencil …

集合名詞:表示人或物集合的名詞

ex: family, class, team, people …

分類

材料名詞:沒有一定形態的物質

ex: coffee, tea, sugar, milk, gold, air …

抽象名詞:沒有具體形態的抽象事物

不可數名詞

ex: happiness, love, peace, joy …

專有名詞:人名、地名等專有名詞

ex: London, Tokyo, Bay, John, January …

slide80

形狀:a piece of paper

a sheet of paper

a slice of bread

容器:a bottle of milk

three glasses of water

a cup of tea

單位:a pound of butter

two spoonfuls of sugar

three liters of beer

計算材料

的多寡

各類名詞的用法

可作為主詞、

受詞、

補語、

介系詞的受詞

普通名詞

* Koalas live in Australia.

* There are seven days in a week.

集合名詞

*There are about 100 families in this village.

*My family are all soccer fans.

*The police are looking for the robber.

材料名詞

* This statue is made of stone.

* My mother bought a bottle of wine.

抽象名詞

* Necessity is the mother of invention.

* He is a man of ability.

專有名詞

* Dr. Jones observed wild animals in Africa.

* I went to the British Museum last August.

家庭成員

警察們

slide81

不可數名詞變成可數名詞

材料名詞→普通名詞

* My sister reads an English paper.

* The crowd threw stones at the police.

抽象名詞→普通名詞

*Thank you for your many kindnesses.

專有名詞→普通名詞

*I want to buy a Porsche someday.

紙(物質)→報紙(具體可數物品)

石(物質)→小石頭(具體可數物品)

親切→親切的行為(可程度之分)

依場合使用最準確的名詞

All the passengers on the bus escaped safely.

Most of the customers in this shop are teenagers.

客人:audience(聽眾)、spectator(參觀)、client(客戶)、guest(賓客)、visitor(訪客)

費用:fare(交通工具的費用)、fee(報酬、入場費、學雜費)、charge(索取的費用)、

price(商品的價格)、cost(費用)

預約:appointment(與某人會面的約定)、reservation(餐廳、旅館等的預約)

氣象:weather(可指明時間、地點的天氣)、climate(氣候)

習慣:habit(個人習慣)、custom(社會的風俗習慣)

slide82

名詞的複數形變化

規則變化:

單複數不一樣

不規則變化:

單複數一樣:

slide83

名詞的所有格

  • 用A’s B的形式:用於人和生物
  • *The man playing the piano is Jim’s brother.
  • *Come to the teachers’ room later.
  • 用B of A 的形式:用於其它事物、無法用A’s B的形式
  • *Can you see the roof of the church?
  • *I met a friend of my brother’s at the station.
  • ×amy brother’s friend
slide84

冠詞

不定冠詞

a / an

可數名詞-單數

可數名詞-單數

定冠詞

the / the

種類

可數名詞-複數

不可數名詞

可數名詞-複數

無冠詞

不可數名詞

slide85

不定冠詞的用法

  • 初次出現在句子裡

* There is a fly in my room.

  • 一個具體的事物

* I want to buy a car.

  • 任一個

*Can you give me a hint?

  • 一(=one)

*Rome was not built in a day.

  • 每一單位

*This rope is 10 dollars a meter.

slide86

定冠詞的用法

  • 已經在對話中出現過

*You took a photo of me. Show the photo to me.

  • 由了解的狀況

*Did you remember to lock the door?

  • 特別指定

*He is the only person I can trust.

  • 獨一無二的事物

*Everyone knows that the earth goes around the sun.

  • 和其他單位做比對

*In England, we buy butter by the pound.

  • 身體的一部分

*Jim took his daughter by the hand and left the room.

slide87

無冠詞的用法

  • 沒有明確的區別

* It’s difficult to find water in the desert.

  • 把焦點放在功用上

* We don’t have to go to school on Sundays.

  • 用by 表示手段

* They came to the wedding by car.

冠詞的位置

* It was so strange a story that few people believed it.

* What an interesting picture this is!

* All the members of this club must attend the meeting.

slide88

代名詞

代替名詞的單字,用來迴避名詞重複出現及在找不到具體放名詞

的位置時,可當「替身」使用。

可區分為五種

完成確定所指的事物:(a) 人稱代名詞、(b) 指示代名詞

Look at the car over there! It’s a new model of BMW.

不完全確定(泛指)所指的事物:(c) 不定代名詞

Judy, here is something for you.

(e) 關係代名詞

(d) 疑問代名詞

slide90

人稱代名詞「格」的變化

  • 依它們在句中的作用(主詞或受詞等)做適當的變化。
  • 口語中例外:
  • “Who is it?” “It’s me.”
  • “I will go.” “Me, too.”
  • 所有代名詞的用法
  • Whose pencil is this? Is it yours?
  • (yours = your pencil)
  • I met a friend of mine at the station.
  • (因為 a, the, this, that, no 不能和所有格my等接續使用)
  • 反身代名詞的用法
  • 作為動詞或介系詞的受詞
  • I fell down the stairs and hurt myself.
  • The princess looked at herself in the mirror.
  • 強調名詞或代名詞
  • You should do it (by) yourself.
  • I myself have never been to Nice, but I hear it’s nice.
slide91

It 的用法

  • it當代名詞用:代替已經出現過的單字、片語、子句
  • She left a message on my desk, but I couldn’t understand it.
  • We wanted to fly there directly, but it wasn’t possible.
  • He likes eating sweets, but he won’t admit it.
  • it當主詞用:表示時間、天氣、距離、狀況
  • What day is it today?
  • It’s very humid here, isn’t it?
  • It’s about two kilometers to the town from here.
  • How’s it going?
  • it當虛主詞、虛受詞用:主詞或受詞為不定詞或that子句
  • It is fun to meet new people.
  • It is important that you follow the rules.
  • I think it difficult to solve all the questions.
  • I found it surprising that she didn’t know his name.
  • 其它用法:表示做某事要花費多少時間或金錢
  • It takes two hours to get the airport.
  • It cost thirty dollars to fix the computer.
slide92

指示代名詞

  • this/these, that/those等用來指特定的人、事物或是句中詞語。
  • 當後面伴隨名詞時,也可以作為形容詞使用。
  • 指出具體的人事物
  • 距說話者眼前或心裡就較近的人事物用this/these,反之用that/those。
  • This is not the dessert I ordered!
  • Bring me those magazines from the table.
  • 指出已經出現過的子句或句子的內容
  • He said he had met her at the party, but that was a lie.
  • We have the right to express our opinions freely. This is called freedom of speech.
  • 避免重複已提及的名詞
  • The human brain is more advanced than that of the chimpanzee.
  • The ears of an African elephant are bigger than those of an Indian elephant.
slide93

不定代名詞

  • 不具體指出特定的人事物,而是指不特定的人、事物、數量等狀況。
  • 可放在名詞的前面當作形容詞使用。
  • one(s)
  • I’d like to borrow a pan if you have one.
  • I lost my umbrella yesterday; I must buy a newone.
  • These boots have worn out. I need to buy some newones.
  • This guitar is similar to the one I have. (變指特定人事物)
  • another / other(s)
  • He poured a glass of water for me and another for himself.
  • Would you like another piece of pie?
  • Some like dancing, and others don’t.
  • He couldn’t find the CD there, so he decided to check other stores.
  • One of my sisters is an office worker, and the other is a college student.
  • ~(變指特定人事物)
slide94

some / any

  • If you like Italian wine, I will bring you some.
  • There are some unusual animals in this jungle.
  • I need some paper clips. Do you have any?
  • Any student in this class can answer the questions.
  • both / either / neither
  • Both of my parents were brought up in Tainan.
  • She broke both legs in the accident.
  • Either of your parents can attend the PTA meeting.
  • You can take either cake.
  • We passed two gas stations, but neither of them was open.
  • I could find neither book I was looking for.
slide95

some

every

any

no

-one

-body

-thing

  • all / none / each (every)
  • All of the members were against the proposal.
  • Allthe members were against the proposal.
  • We all love him. (All of us love him.)
  • They were all shocked at the sight. (All of them were shocked at the sight.)
  • None of us agrees with you.
  • No student in this class could answer the question. (none不可當形容詞)
  • Each of these computers was made in America.
  • Each (Every) team has its own uniform.
  • someone / everything
  • There’s someone at the door.
  • Everything is ready for our school festival.
slide96

some

every

any

no

-one

-body

-thing

形容詞的用法

  • 修飾名詞的限定用法
  • 「形容詞+名詞」
  • I bought a cheapshirt because I didn’t have muchmoney.
  • 「名詞+形容詞」
  • I don’t like traveling in trainsfull of people.
  • I want to drink somethingcold.
  • 作為補語的敘述用法
  • 「SVC」
  • All the windowswereopen.
  • 「 SVOC 」
  • Ileftthe windowsopen.
slide97

只能用在限定用法的形容詞

  • Black is the onlycolor that suits me.
  • Ex:live(活的)、living(活著)、mere(僅僅的)、elder(年長的)、former(前者的)、
  • latter(後者的)、main(主要的)、golden(貴重的)、total(全部的)、
  • very(正是)、daily(每天的)等。
  • 只能用在敘述用法的形容詞
  • At seven this morning, Judy was alone in the office.
  • Ex:alive(活的)、asleep(睡著的)、afraid(恐懼的)、awake(醒著的)、
  • aware(察覺到的)、content(滿足的)、glad(高興的)、well(很好的)等。
  • 用於限定用法與敘述用法意思會變的形容詞
  • a certain charm (特殊的)
  • I’m certain this is the correct answer. (確信的)
  • the late news report (最近的)
  • He was late. (遲到)
  • the present topic (現在的)
  • He was present. (出席)

the right hand (右的)

He is right. (對的)

ill temper (不好的)

He is ill. (生病)

  • 分詞形容詞
  • It was an exciting game.
  • I saw a lot of excited supporters.
  • The news was surprising.
  • The girl was surprised at the news.
slide98

形容詞並排的順序

  • I’m looking for alargebrownleather bag.
  • Come and see mytencutesmallyoungwhiteDutch rabbits.
  • 冠詞、人稱代名詞或所有格a my
  • 數量ten
  • 主觀的判斷cute
  • 大小large small
  • 年齡、新舊young
  • 顏色brown white
  • 材質、出身leather Dutch
  • such的用法
  • I have never seen sucha storm.
  • In this zoo, you can see such rare animals as the panda and the koala.
  • She is not such a fool as to believe his words.
  • 表示數量的形容詞
slide100

數的讀法

  • 1,000以上的數目,每3位數為單位。Ex: 5,567→five thousand five hundred (and) sixty-seven
    • 143,650→one hundred forth-three thousand, six hundred (and) fifty
    • 1,234,567,890,123
    • trillion(兆) billion(十億) million(百萬) thousand(千) hundred(百)
  • 小數點的讀法
  • 讀作point,小數點以下的數字要一個一個分開讀。
  • Ex: 4.56→four point five six
    • 0.45→zero point four five
  • 分數的讀法
  • 要先讀分子(基數)再讀分母(序數) ,分子在2以上時,分母的序數要用複數。Ex: 1/5→a[one] fifth
    • 2/5→two fifths
    • 1/2→a half
    • 3/4→three quarters
    • 25/58→twenty five over fifty eight
    • →two and three sevenths
slide101

公式的讀法

    • 3 + 5 = 8 →Three plus five equal(s) eight.
    • Three and five is[are/make(s)] eight.
    • 9 - 7 = 2 →Nine minus seven equal(s) two.
    • Seven from nine is two.
    • 6 × 4 = 24 →Six (multiplied) by four equal(s) twenty-four.
    • Six times four is twenty-four.
    • 8 ÷ 2 = 4 → Eight divided by two equal(s) four.
    • Two into eight is four.
  • 年份的讀法
  • 基本上是以百位數和十位數為區隔。
  • Ex: 794年→seven (hundred and) ninety-four
    • 1800年→eighteen hundred
    • 1999年→nineteen ninety-nine
    • 2004年→two thousand (and) four
  • 日期的讀法
  • 4月30日→April thirtieth [thirty] 美式
  • the thirtieth of April 英式
slide102

時刻的讀法

    • 8點10分→ ten (minutes) past eight
    • ten (minutes) after eight
    • 6點15分→ a quarter past six
    • a quarter after six
    • 7點50分→ ten (minutes) to eight
    • ten (minutes) before eight
    • 8點30分→ eight thirty
  • 電話號碼的讀法
  • 並列的數字一個一個分開讀。
  • Ex:3523-7068 → three five two three, seven zero six eight.
  • 金額
    • ﹩2.20 →two dollars (and) twenty (cents)
    • £ 5.30 →five pounds, thirty (pence)
  • 溫度
    • 28℃ (攝氏) → twenty-eight degrees centigrade [Celsius]
    • 92℉ (華氏) → ninety-two degrees Fahrenheit
slide103

副詞

決定副詞位置的原則: 副詞所擁有的意思、修飾的對象、句子的脈絡

  • 表示「狀態」的副詞
  • They danced happily.
  • She took my advice seriously.
  • 表示 「場所」「時間」的副詞
  • My sister went upstairs.
  • You can park your car here.
  • I want to live in a small housein the mountains.
  • The sale started yesterday.
  • We have a Math test tomorrow.
  • I have an appointment at three o’clocktomorrow.
  • Rome is my favorite city. I went therelast summer.
  • 表示「頻率」「程度」的副詞
  • I always go to school by bus.
  • Ihave almost finished my homework.

小到大

小到大

地點再時間

slide104

修飾形容詞、副詞、動詞或分詞

  • very / much
    • She is a very good student.
    • She speaks very slowly.
    • I don’t eat out much.
    • Olive oil is much used in Italian cooking.
  • ago / before
    • I saw your mother three days ago.
    • I told him that I had seen his mother three days before.
    • I have heard that song before.
  • already / yet / still
    • I have already cleaned my room.
    • She hasn’t done her homework yet.
    • I’m still feeling sick.
  • too / either / neither
    • I’m from Arizona. “Really? I am too.”
    • “I can’t eat raw fish” “I can’t , either.”
    • “I don’t feel like eating any more.” “Neither do I.”
slide105

so

    • 「S V so」
    • He told me to wait in line and I did so.
    • “Do you think it will be sunny tomorrow?” “I hope so.”
    • 「so V S 」
    • I often go to the library, and so does my sister.
    • 「 soS V 」
    • They say the greatest gift we have is our health, and so it is.
  • 修飾句子的副詞
  • Clearly, the accident was caused by speeding.
  • The dog was obviously hurt.
  • Ex:obviously(明顯地)、clearly(清楚地)、probably(恐怕)、possible(可能地)、
  • happily(開心地)、fortunately(幸運地)、naturally(自然地)、
  • unfortunately(不幸地)、luckily(幸運地)等。
  • 連接句意的副詞
  • Hurry up; otherwise we won’t get good seats.
  • This computer is very good. However, it is too expensive.
  • Ex:otherwise(否則) 、furthermore/moreover(此外) 、besides(而且)、
  • therefore / thus(因此)、hence(因此)、nevertheless(雖然如此)、
  • however/nonetheless(但是)
slide106

介系詞的形式與功能

介系詞的主要功能在於引介名詞、代名詞、動名詞、名詞子句等

名詞作用的詞語。

形成形容詞片語

The book on the desk is not mine.

形成副詞片語

Put the book on the desk.

介系詞的位置

He lives *that house. (in)

The girl *long hair is my daughter. (with)

You cannot solve the problem *reading the textbook. (without)

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at 的引申意義:

方向

He aimed his bow and arrow at the target.

所屬

Lisa is a student at Princeton.

從事

James is at work in the computer room.

狀態

I feel at ease when I’m with you.

價格

I bought this coat at a discount.

速度

I was driving at forty miles per hour.

關連

Susie is good at swimming.

極限

The garden is at its best in June.

情感的因素

We were surprised at his bad manners.

介系詞的核心概念

at

基本意義:在場所、時間上的一點

Mike arrived at the theater.

The meetings usually begin at ten.

in

基本意義:在場所、時間上的範圍內

I happened to see Cindy in the theater.

I first visited Germany in 1991.

on

基本意義:接觸、日期或星期

Pick up those toys on the table.

How about having dinner on Christmas Eve?

in 的引申意義:

動作的方向

I threw the letter in the fire.

穿著

I dressed in my best clothes to go to the opera.

狀況、環境

Don’t go out in the rain.

狀態

I’m in love with her.

從事

He is in publishing.

關心的範圍

I am interest in Chinese history now.

手段、方法

Please sign your name here in ink.

形態

The students stood in a line.

時間的經過

I think he’ll be a millionaire in a year.

on 的引申意義:

鄰近

He owns a bookstore on Oxford Street.

動作的對象

He is concentrating on his experiment.

主題

He wrote an essay on modern pop music.

依存

Don’t depend on others.

手段、方法

I usually go to school on foot.

狀態、進行

The house is on fire!

時間的接觸

On getting home, I phoned Mike.

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表示時間 at / in / on 的用法

We left the hotel at 10 a.m.

VS We came to this town on July 20.

Sally graduated from college in 1995.

Test

I saw your father standing (at / in / on) the bus stop.

I usually get up (at / in / on) ten (at / in / on) Sundays.

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from

基本意義:出發點、起點

Has the train from Osaka arrived?

I’ll be on vacation from July 24.

to

基本意義:方向、結合、附著

Let’s go to the park and feed the ducks.

Attach your name tag to the bag, please.

for

基本意義:方向、期間

The train has already left for Kaohsiung.I am staying here for a few days.

from 的引申意義:

出身、起源

Steven is from Australia.

分離

We must protect children from violence.

原因、根據

He is suffering from a stomachache.

區別

Your viewpoint is totally different from mine.

原料

Butter is made from milk.

to 的引申意義:

動作的對象

He suddenly spoke to me.

範圍、界限

I got wet to the skin.

結果

Eat to your heart’s content.

一致

I hope this gift is to your liking.

比較

I think this novel is superior to that one.

for 的引申意義:

利益、目的、追求

They held a farewell party for me.

The politicians are campaigning for the coming election.

對象

I’m looking for Martin.

I recommend this racket for a beginner.

交換、替代、代價

I took Steve for his brother.

I paid 10,000 dollars for these sneakers.

原因、理由

Joe was fined for speeding.

支持、贊成

Are you for his proposal?

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表示期間 for / during / in 的用法

I have been here for three weeks.

VS I went sightseeing during my stay in London.

He learned how to use a computer in three weeks.

Test

我們搭飛機從巴黎到倫敦。

We took the plane □Paris□ London.

我為茱莉雅買了一枚鑽戒。

I bought a diamond ring □ Julia.

你何不在寒假讀這本書呢?

Why don’t you read this book □ winter vacation?

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of 的引申意義:

部分

Three of my classmates got full marks in math.

原因、理由

Mr. Jones died of cancer.

材料

This pendant is made of crystal.

關聯

I like to read stories of adventure.

特徵、性質

Mr. Hamilton is a man of ability.

同位語

The three of us went there.

of

基本意義:所屬、所有、分離

Every member of the club attended the ceremony.

A monkey robbed me of my lunch box.

by

基本意義:接近

That man standing by Jane is Scott.

That strange building was designed by my uncle.

with

基本意義:同伴、關係、關連

Come with me, please.

Something is wrong with this computer.

by 的引申意義:

手段方法

I reserved a hotel room by fax.

時間的期限

I’ll be back by 3:30.

差異

I missed the train by two minutes.

單位

Eggs are sold by the dozen.

經由

He came in by the back door.

判斷基準

You shouldn’t judge a person by his or her appearance.

with 的引申意義:

對象

I agree with you.

原因

She is busy with her homework.

附有

I’m looking for an apartment with a garage.

道具、材料

Vicky ate her noodles with a fork.

He filled the bottle with spring water.

樣態

She solved the problem with ease.

附帶狀況

He entered the dark house with his legs shaking with fear.

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其他介系詞的核心概念

after / before

基本意義:在~之後 / 在~之前

Let’s play tennis after school.

He got home before five o’clock.

along / across / through / around

基本意義:沿著直線前進 / 橫越平面 / 穿透 / ~的周圍

We walked along the river.

The man tried to swim across the channel.

The train went through a tunnel.

Please sit around the big table.

in front of / behind / opposite

基本意義:~的前面(正面) / ~的後面(內側) / (隔著馬路等) ~的對面

Don’t park your car in front of this building.

The post office is behind that building.

The bank is opposite that building.

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into / out of / onto

基本意義:進入~裡面 / 從~的裡面到外面 / 到~上面

Please go into the living room.

Come out of the kitchen now!

The cat jumped onto the TV set.

over / under / above / below

基本意義:~的上面 / ~的下面 / 高於~之上 / 低於~之下

The rain clouds were over our heads.

I found my key under the desk.

The people above us are very noisy.

The sun sank below the horizon.

between / among

基本意義:某兩者之間 / 某群體之中

Peter sat between Allison and Jane.

He disappeared among the people in the crowd.

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Test

這條河流穿過森林注入大海。

This river runs □ the forest and flows into the sea.

房子的內側有一個美麗的庭園。

There was a beautiful garden □ the house.

麥可的分數在平均之下。

Mike’s score was □ average.

孩子們聚集在這隻兔子周圍。

The children gathered □ the rabbit.

我在這片松樹林裡發現了一間小木屋。

I found a small cabin □ the pine trees.

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連接詞的分類及功能

對等連接詞:把單子、片語、子句以對等的關係連接起來的連接詞

Tim loves Ann, and Ann loves Tim.

從屬連接詞:以一個句子依賴另一個句子形式連結

I won’t go to the party unless you accompany me.

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對等連接詞的用法

and / but / or

I bought a cheeseburger and French fries.

Gary arrive and we started the game.

I thought the story was true, but it wasn’t.

I want to go to Hong Kong or Singapore this summer.

both A and B

意思:A和B雙方都~

Steve can both speak and write Chinese.

either A or B / neither A nor B

意思:不是A就是B / 既不是A也不是B

I think she is either a president or a director.

The boy neither admits nor denies that he told a lie.

not A but B / not only A but (also) B

意思:是B而不是A / 不僅A連B也

He has not one but two computers.

He speaks not only English but (also) Spanish.

命令句+and / or

意思:如此一來 ~ / 否則

Get up early tomorrow, and you will have time to eat breakfast.

Drive more slowly, or you will have an accident.

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nor

意思:也不是

What I need is not fame, nor money.

I don’t want to see a snake, nor do I want to touch one.

so / for

意思:所以 / 因為

You broke the speed limit, so you’ll have to pay a fine.

I got up at five, for I wanted to watch the sunrise.

Test

他不僅是棒球選手,也是足球選手。

He is not only a baseball player □ also a football player.

天氣漸漸變冷了,所以我們就回家了。

It was getting colder, □ we went home.

你應該去參加舞會,否則你會錯過見到她的機會。

You should go to the party, □ you will miss the chance to see her.

我哥哥和我都是早起者。

Both my brother □ I are early risers.

我既不有名,也不想成為名人。

I’m not famous, □ do I wish to be.

她一定是病了,因為她看起來如此蒼白。

She must be ill, □ she looks so pale.

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引導名詞子句的從屬連接詞用法

that

It is true that Bill passed the entrance exam.

The problem is that you never learn from your mistakes.

I can’t believe (that) he is an artist.

I’m sure (that) he will succeed in business. ~接在形容詞之後的that子句

whether / if

意思:是否~

It is unknown whether there is life on that planet.

The question is whether the voters will elect her.

She asked us if we wanted something cold.

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引導副詞子句的從屬連接詞用法

表示時間的連接詞

when / while

意思:當~的時候 / 在做~的時後

I used to go swimming in the river when I was a child.

I found a wallet while I was jogging in the park.

before / after

意思:在~之前 / 在~之後

You need to get a visa before you enter that conuntry.

I learned German after I moved to Berlin.

since / until

意思:自從~以來 / 直到~

I’ve lived here since I was five years old.

Wait here until I get back.

as soon as / once

意思:一…就~ / 一旦~

My dog started to bark as soon as he heard my voice.

Once you get a car, you can go anywhere you want.

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表示原因、結果、目的的連接詞

because / since

意思:因為~

Mr. Brown was very angry because I didn’t tell the truth.

Since you have a fever, you should stay home tonight.

so … that ~ / such … that ~

意思:如此…以致於~

The lecture was so boring that half the students fell asleep.

It was such a boring lecture that half the students fell asleep.

…, so that ~

意思:…所以~

I arrived early, so (that) I got a good seat.

so that / in order that

意思:為了讓~

Lock the door so that no one can get in.

She spoke loudly in order that the people in the back might hear.

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表示條件或讓步的連接詞

if / unless

意思:如果~的話 / 除非~

Please read my report if you have time.

He’ll be here at six unless his flight is delayed.

although / (even) though

意思:雖然~

Though she can speak Chinese, she can’t write it.

even if

意思:即使~

Never give up even if you make mistakes.

in case

意思:萬一~時 / 以防萬一

In case I’m late, start without me.

I’ll take an umbrella in case it rains.

whether A or B

意思:不論是A還是B

I don’t care whether you win or lose.

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Dogs and People

Dogs are our best friends. They not only watch over our housesbut also cheer us up whenever we are down or in trouble. If someone we don’t know enters our house, our dogs will bark to warn us.Besides, we cannot find better listeners than dogs becausethey always concentrate on what we say and never talk back to us.Above all, they seldom walk away from us; even we don’t treat them right. They are really nice and thoughtful. People, however, are not always dog’s best friends. Some dogowners who get tired of taking care of their pets simply throw them out on the street. They become stray dogs. These stray dogs havebecome a serious problem. Hungry stray dogs may attack peopleand dog bites can sometimes make people sick. So how can westop the growing number of stray dogs? Perhaps we should tryvery hard to find them homes and treat them like our family. Also,we need to be responsible owners once we decide to have a dogas a pet. Remember, dogs are not toys. They’re living things!

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The Man, His Son and His Donkey

This story is old, but it’s still so true today. Long time ago, an old man and his young boy lived in a small village near a big town, and they had a donkey. One day they were on their way to a market. Every time when the father heard different ideas from the people on the street about how he should use the donkey, he just did what they told him to do. First the father and his son tried taking turnsriding their donkey. Then both of them get off the donkey and walked with it. Finally, they even carried it on their backs. They did everything that they were told, but still no one was satisfied. So they learned a lesson from it. It was that in their life, they just couldn’t please everybody.

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How to Get a Good Night's Sleep

I don’t think there is anything wrong with your blood. The key to your problem is that long nap after dinner. If you didn’t sleep for hours during the early part of the evening, you would be more ready to sleep at bedtime. If you didn’t nap after dinner, you would not want to stay up so late, and you would not feel the need to take a sleeping pill. The pill is still working in your system when you get up in the morning. This helps account for the fact that you feel tired all day. You should get out of the habit of sleeping during the evening. Right after your evening meal, engage in some sort of physical activity --- a sport such as bowling, perhaps. Or get together with friends for an evening of cards and conversation. Then go to bed at your usual time or a little earlier, and you should be able to get a good night's rest without taking a pill. If you can get into the habit of spending your evenings this way, I am sure you will feel less tired during the day. At first it may be hard for you to go to sleep without taking a pill. If so, get up and watch television or do some jobs around your house until you feel sleepy. If you fall asleep and then wake up a few hours later, get up but do not take a sleeping pill. Read a while or listen to the radio, and make yourself a few hours’ sleep that night, you will feel better in the morning than you usually feel after taking a pill. The next night you will be ready to sleep at an earlier hour. The most important thing is to avoid taking that nap right after dinner and avoid taking pills.