Does Your Instruction Rate 5 Stars?First Principles of Instruction M. David Merrill ProfessorUtah State University
Case Study Elements of Market Strategy Brief Text Graphic Audio -- narrator reads text Define Marketing Marketing is a word you hear or use almost daily. You probably know several ways the term is used. As you focus on writing a strategic marketing plan, be sure your team agrees on some common definitions, so you are all clear about what the plan is to accomplish. How would you define marketing?
Case Study Elements of Market Strategy Inserted Questions • Because competition changes the market so quickly, the smart move is to have an ongoing process in your business for developing your market strategy for each product or service. • Choose the statement below that's true. • __ Strategic marketing planning is primarily for larger companies. • __ Every business that wants to succeed should make marketing strategy a continuous process.
Course Evaluation • Content • Accurate, appropriate, tools • Design & Delivery • Web optimized? • Function? • Enhance learning? • Apply skills in simulations or scenarios? • Customize? • Relevant assessment? • Learning styles? • Navigation? • Value • Better than alternatives? • Worth the time and money? • www.onlinelearningguide.com
Lguide.com evaluation • Under content they state: • "The information provided in the course is clear, but overall the lesson fails to engage. Although the concepts involved in a marketing strategy are covered, the course fails to give good, concrete steps and detail for when you actually sit down to make a strategic marketing plan. The result is limited retention and limited applicability." • Under Design and delivery they state: • "Interactivity is limited to learner assessments, which include feedback. Assessments are offered before, during, and following lesson units." • Under value they state: • "The course is fair value for managers, who need an introduction to marketing strategy." • They give the course 2 1/2 stars on their 5 star rating system.
My Evaluation • Marketing concepts -- no examples • Assessment - remember information not application • Based on Effective Instructional Strategies • Not Problem-based • No Activation of previous experience • No Demonstration • No Application • No Integration No stars! Introduction to Marketing is ineffective instruction.
First Principles of Instruction Many instructional design theories and models have fundamental underlying principles in common? A principle is a relationship that is always true underappropriate conditions regardless of program or practice.
Levels of Design Theory • Instructional design theory, as represented in Reigeluth (1999), varies from basic descriptive laws about learning to broad curriculum programs that concentrate on what is taught rather than on how to teach. • Do all of these design theories and models have equal value? • Are all of these design theories and models merely alternative ways to approach design? • Do these design theories and models have fundamental underlying principles in common? • If so, what are these underlying principles?
Principles, Programs, Practices • Practice -- a specific instructional activity • Program -- an approach consisting of a set of prescribed practices. • Principle -- a relationships that is always true under appropriate conditions regardless of program or practice. Practices always implement or fail to implement underlying principles whether they are specified or not.
Instructional Practice • What is an instructional practice? It is what a given designer or trainer/teacher does to implement instruction. • A given instructional principle can usually be implemented via a wide variety of practices. • If a given practice fails to implement the relevant underlying principle there will be a decrement in learning.
Instructional Programs • What is an instructional program? • It is prescribed set of instructional practices. • Instructional approaches may facilitate the implementation of one or more instructional principles. • If the practices prescribed by the program do not implement underlying principles, then there will be a decrement in learning.
Example Program with Practices • Lewis, Watson, Schaps (In Reigeluth) Social, Ethical, and Intellectual Development -- Education’s Full Mission • Program • Literature Based Reading • Practices • Select books rich in social and ethical themes (content) • Partner Reading • Read aloud • Promote values (e.g. Ask “How can we help our partners?”) • What are the prescriptive principles required?
Example Program with Practices Kovalik & McGeehan (In Reigeluth) Program • Integrated Thematic Instruction (ITI) • Practices • Create a year long theme, monthly components, weekly topics • Select a physical location or event (field trip) • Identify key points (statement of concept, significant knowledge or skill) • Write inquiries and assessment • “Using a topographical map of our area, determine the boundaries of our watershed. Draw a map to scale. Include our school, major roads, and a dozen other well known reference points.” • Very broad setting for learning. • What are prescriptive principles involved?
Instructional Principles • What is a principle? It is a relationship that is always true under appropriate conditions regardless of program or practice. • Parsimony would dictate that there should be only a few instructional design principles that can support a wide variety of instructional programs and practices.
First Principles of Instruction • Premise: Many instructional design theories and models have fundamental underlying principles in common? • Agenda: Identify these underlying first principles? A principle is a relationship that is always true underappropriate conditions regardless of program or practice.
Hypotheses • Learning from a given program will be facilitated in direct proportion to the implementation of these first principles. • Learning from a given program will be facilitated in direct proportion to the degree that these principles are explicitly implemented rather than haphazardly implemented.
Method of Inquiry • Analyze instructional theories and models to extract general first principles. • Identify the cognitive processes associated with each principle. • Identify empirical support for the principles. • Describe the implementation of the principles in a variety of different instructional theories and models. • Identify prescriptions for instructional design associated with these principles.
Instructional Design Models Knowledge Objects Cognition & Mental Models Areas of Investigation Automated Instructional Design First Principles of Instruction Meta-Mental Models
Associative Memory Propositions Rules Automation Schematic Memory Schemata Mental Models Problem Solving Cognition -- A Simplified View Data Structures + ProcessesDeclarative + Procedural
Some Cognitive Principles • Isolated actions and operations processed by associative memory. • Information-about processed by associative memory. • Problem solving requires schematic memory • New schema are built by tuning and restructuring existing schema. • Mental models operate on tasks and problems. • Problem solving is selecting a mental model and processing the new information via the mental model. • Mental models develop slowly via successive tuning and restructuring • Problems of conceptualization, planning, and interpretation are processed via mental models.
Cardinal Principles of Instruction • The Cognitive Structure Principle • … the development of that cognitive structure that is most consistent with the desired learned performance. • The Elaboration Principle • … incremental elaboration for increased generality and complexity • The Learner Guidance Principle • … active cognitive processing • The Practice Principle • … monitored learner performance with feedback
First Principles of Instruction Learning is facilitated when … • the learner is engaged in solving a real-world problem. • new knowledge builds on the learner’s existing knowledge. • new knowledge is demonstrated to the learner. • new knowledge is applied by the learner. • new knowledge is integrated into the learner’s world.
First Principles of Instruction Integration Activation Problem Application Demonstration
Bransford -- Star Legacy Look ahead Reflect back The Challenges Go Public Generate Ideas Test Your Mettle Multiple Perspectives Research & Revise
McCarthy 4-MAT Renewing Meaning Refine, Integrate Connect, Examine adapt, re-present, share, renew share, dialogue, reflect 4 1 IF? WHY? 3 2 HOW? WHAT? acquire knowledge, understand theory act, practice, tinker Try, Extend Image, Define Operationalizing Conceptualizing
Andre -- Instructional Episode • Activate phase • activate preexisting knowledge or motivational structures • Instruction phase • types of information provided • how learners are encourages to process information and relate it to preexisting knowledge • Feedback phase • types of performances that are encouraged • types of information provided as a result of the learner’s performance
Problem Learning is facilitated when … • the learner is engaged in solving a real-world problem. • The learner is engaged at the problem or task level not just the operation or action level. • the learner solves a progression of problems. • the learner is guided to an explicit comparison of problems. Problems promote acquisition, elaboration, and use of mental models rather than only associative memory.
Activation Learning is facilitated when … • the learner is directed to recall, relate, describe, or apply knowledge from relevant past experience that can be used as a foundation for the new knowledge. • the learner is provided relevant experience that can be used as a foundation for the new knowledge. Activates a mental model appropriate for restructuring or tuning.
Demonstration Learning is facilitated when … • the learner is shown as well as told. • the demonstration is consistentwith the learning goal. • the learner is directed to relevant information. • the learner is shown multiple representations. • the learner is directed to explicitly compare alternative representations. • media plays a relevant instructional role. Instantiates the mental model.
Application Learning is facilitated when … • the learner is required to use his/her new knowledge to solve problems. • this problem solving activity is consistent with the learning goal. • the leaner is shown how to detect and correct errors. • the learner is guided in his/her problem solving by appropriate coaching that is gradually withdrawn. Enables the student to restructure and tune the mental model.
Integration Learning is facilitated when … • the learner can demonstrate his/her new knowledge and skill. • the learner can reflect-on, discuss, and defend his/her new knowledge. • the learner can create, invent, and explore new and personal ways to use his/her new knowledge. Promotes association among mental models and increased generalizability.
Gardner -- Multple Approches to Understanding -- “You’ll never understand the theory unless you [publicly] apply it.” p. 74 • Activation • Entry points. “… one begins by finding a way to engage the students and to place them centrally within the topic.” p. 81 Defines different types of entry points. • Telling analogies. “..come up with instructional analogies, drawn from material that is already understood.” P. 82
Gardner (cont.) • Demonstration • “… portray the topic in a number of ways.” p. 85 • Application • … [provide] many [and varied] opportunities for practice.” p. 86 • Integration • “… display one’s comprehension … in a publicly justified manner.”
Nelson Collaborative Problem Solving • Build readiness -- (Activation) • Form and norm groups • determine a preliminary problem definition • define and assign roles • Engage in an iterative collaborative problem solving process -- (Application) • finalize the solution • Synthesize and Reflect -- (integration) • Assess products and processes
Jonassen --Constructivist Learning Environments • The model conceives of a problem … as the focus of the environment, … Jonassen, 1999 • Modeling -- demonstration • Coaching -- application • Scaffolding -- sequence of cases • Related cases • worked examples • multiple perspectives • selectable information just-in-time • cognitive (knowledge construction tools) • task representation tools • performance support tools • information gathering tools • Provoke reflection, Perturb Learner’s models -- integration
van Merriënboer -- 4C/ID Analysis Principled Skill Decomposition recurrent skills non-recurrent skills Algorithmic Methods Prerequisite Knowledge Heuristic Methods Supportive Knowledge factsconcepts plansprinciples HeuristicsSAPs conceptual modelsgoal-plan hierarchies causal modelsmental models procedures specific rules Part-Task Practice Prerequisite Information Whole-Task Practice Supportive Information available during practice available before practice Design Development of Learning Environment Rule Automation Schema Acquisition
Schank --Learning by Doing The first step … is determining ... a mission that will be motivational for the student to pursue. Shank, et al, 1999 Goal Based Scenarios Goals -- process and content Mission -- real-world problem Cover story -- the problem to be solved The role -- Scenario operations -- application Resources -- stories -- contextualized demonstration Feedback -- learner guidance
Findings to date Are the theories we have reviewed fundamentally different? NO! • All theories incorporate some of these principles. • No theory includes all of these principles. • Some theories include principles or prescriptions not on our list of first principles. (Area for further investigation). • No theory includes a contrary principle or prescription.
How do these theories differ? • Implementation details differ. • Detailed discussion beyond scope of this presentation. • Principle(s) emphasized differs • Bransford -- phases of learning • McCarthy -- phases of learning and learning styles • Andre -- learning episodes • Gardner -- public exhibition of understanding & kinds of intelligence • Nelson -- collaboration • Jonassen -- problem solving in learning environments • van Merriënboer -- problem solving sequence of cases & sequencing of supporting information • Schank -- problem solving (cases) & stories
Conclusion • There are first principles of instruction that are similarregardless of theory or philosophical orientation. • Hypothesis: failure to implement these first principles in the programs and practices will cause a decrement in learning. • Much remains to be done in articulating these first principles and tracing their role in different theories.
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