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D1.HML.CL10.12 D1.HRM.CL9.03 D2.TRM.CL9.17. MANAGE WORKPLACE OPERATIONS. Subject Elements. This unit comprises three Elements: Monitor and improve workplace operations Plan and organize workflow Maintain workplace records Solve problems and make decisions. Assessment.

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subject elements
Subject Elements

This unit comprises three Elements:

  • Monitor and improve workplace operations
  • Plan and organize workflow
  • Maintain workplace records
  • Solve problems and make decisions.

Assessment for this unit may include:

  • Oral questions
  • Written questions
  • Work projects
  • Workplace observation of practical skills
  • Practical exercises
  • Formal report from supervisor.

Element 1:

Monitor and improve workplace operations

monitor and improve workplace operations
Monitor and improve workplace operations

Performance Criteria for this Element are:

  • Monitor efficiency and service levels on an ongoing basis through close contact with day to day operations
  • Ensure that operations in the workplace support overall enterprise goals and quality assurance initiatives
  • Identify quality problems and issues promptly and make appropriate adjustments accordingly with relevant approvals


monitor and improve workplace operations1
Monitor and improve workplace operations

Performance Criteria for this Element are:

  • Adjust procedures and systems in consultation with colleagues to improve efficiency and effectiveness
  • Consult colleagues about ways to improve efficiency and service levels.
role of a manager
Role of a manager
  • Organisations are places where groups of people work together to achieve a common goal, or goals
  • It is the role of the manager to ensure that staff have all the necessary ‘resources’ to be able to achieve these goals
  • The manager must also monitor to ensure progress towards these goals.
role of a manager1
Role of a manager

Because most organisations aim to make profits and meet customer expectations, managers are also required to make sure the work is done:


  • On time
  • Within the given resource constraints.


  • Service or product meets quality standards
  • The job is done well.
management functions
Management functions

Typically a manager has four functions:

  • Planning
  • Organising
  • Leading
  • Monitoring.
management functions1
Management functions


  • Setting goals and targets
  • Overseeing the development of plans, systems and processes for achieving goals
  • Working out how best to get there within a budget.


  • Coordinating the resources, staff, plant and facilities to achieve goals.
management functions2
Management functions


  • Providing the direction, support, encouragement, feedback and training staff need to do their job well.


  • Supervising staff, monitoring and adjusting systems and procedures to make sure goals are achieved as planned.
management responsibilities
Management responsibilities
  • Why do managers seem to work so differently from each other?
  • Why is it sometimes so hard to pin down exactly what they do in a day?

Managers will work differently depending on a number of factors.

management responsibilities1
Management responsibilities

Their level in the organisation

Their management tasks and approach will change depending on their level of responsibility within the organisation.

  • Chief Executive Officer
  • Middle manager
  • Supervisor.
management responsibilities2
Management responsibilities

Chief Executive Officer

They are more reliant on conceptual skills.

  • Dealing with the board of management
  • Broad organisational planning
  • Positioning the enterprise in the marketplace
  • Securing large contracts for the business
  • Balancing the finances of the organisation
  • Leading the enterprise as a whole.
management responsibilities3
Management responsibilities

Middle level manager

Need strong planning and interpersonal skills.

  • Operational planning
  • Establishing staffing levels within given budgets
  • Dealing with unresolved problems
  • Setting up systems and procedures
  • Supervising sales and contracts
  • Encouraging staff and setting up systems to support them.
management responsibilities4
Management responsibilities


Need technical, operational and strong interpersonal skills.

  • Work directly with staff on a day-to-day basis
  • Monitor their workload and workflow
  • Handle queries and issues as they arise
  • Verify systems are implemented and suggest changes if they are not working.
management responsibilities5
Management responsibilities

The size and type of the organisation they work in

In large organisations

  • Roles and responsibilities are more likely to be defined and separated
  • Managers will work in specific teams or units.

In a smaller organisation

  • Managers required to work across a number of areas.
management and culture
Management and culture

The culture of the enterprise

  • All organisations have a culture or a mind-set or a particular way of operating.
  • The culture of a business is often described as ‘the way we do things around here’.

What influences culture in an organisation?

management and culture1
Management and culture

The culture could be:

  • Supportive of staff
  • Customer-oriented
  • Friendly
  • Comfortable
  • Casual
  • Total quality management in nature
  • Blaming
  • Negative
  • Stressful.
management and culture2
Management and culture

The culture of the enterprise

In large organisations

  • Clear protocols about almost everything
  • Staff have unambiguous roles according to their classification
  • Its culture may be described as structured and safe.
management and culture3
Management and culture

The culture of the enterprise

In a smaller organisation

  • Encourage staff to wear casual clothes
  • Work in a team circle and interact constantly
  • Allow for creativity and to attract a particular customer base
  • Its culture may be described as flexible and creative.
management style
Management style

Their preferred style of operation

Their management style could be:

  • Laissez faire
  • Team-oriented
  • Task-oriented
  • Autocratic
  • Outgoing.
monitor work operations
Monitor work operations
  • Monitoring is a process of determining how well our plans are being implemented
  • You cannot monitor something if you don’t have a plan or basic structure of how something should be done or a defined goal
  • Work operations refer to the work itself and includes

- Systems and procedures

- Staff performance

- Levels of service in the workplace.

monitor work operations1
Monitor work operations

These operations can include:

  • Service delivery
  • Customer satisfaction
  • Products supplied and the nature of them
  • Dealing with paperwork
  • Financial performance.
monitor work operations2
Monitor work operations

Management have responsibility for ensuring that operations in the establishment support the:

  • Overall enterprise goals
  • Quality assurance initiatives.
total quality management
Total Quality Management
  • Many organisations have a way of operating called total quality management (TQM)
  • This basically means all employees are involved in continually improving the level of service, productivity and customer satisfaction
  • TQM is regarded as a positive thing for organisations to be or strive to become.
total quality management1
Total Quality Management

In a TQM organisation:

  • There must be full, top-down management commitment, support and understanding of the TQM philosophy
  • It is important to get work systems and processes right
  • Involvement of the whole workforce is necessary and this is done through teams
  • Customer needs are identified and met
  • Problems and issues are promptly identified and adjustments are made accordingly.
purpose of monitoring
Purpose of monitoring

There are good reasons to monitor progress and adjust plans.

  • Things are more likely to happen as planned
  • Management and staff actually know what’s going on in the business
  • Problems are identified and corrected
  • Service and product are consistent over time
  • Work operations fit with work and organisation goals
  • Staff feel supported and involved
  • Customer needs are met


purpose of monitoring1
Purpose of monitoring
  • Monitoring in a quality environment doesn’t just rely on the inspection and checking of procedures and work done
  • It is a total concept whereby quality is built into every aspect of work operations and there is a continual process of improvement
  • It doesn’t blame individuals but rather concentrates on seeking better ways to do things.
areas to monitor
Areas to monitor

Any aspect of work operations can be monitored with a view to improvement including:

  • The procedures or systems
  • The workflow
  • Gaps or overlaps in service provision
  • The workload of staff
  • The time it takes to do a task or job
  • Job design
  • Level of customer satisfaction.
who does the monitoring
Who does the monitoring

Manager has the final responsibility for determining whether the goals set by the organisation are achieved.

Managers should involve staff in:

  • Setting the goals
  • Reviewing the progress
  • Coming up with ideas and solutions to problems.
identify and resolve problems
Identify and resolve problems

Managers need to identify quality problems and issues quickly and take appropriate action swiftly.

Failure to identify these can lead to:

  • Lack of repeat business
  • Damage to the reputation of the venue
  • General decline in sales and profit.
identify and resolve problems1
Identify and resolve problems

Scope of authority

  • The ability of staff to take unilateral action in response to an issue is called their ‘scope of authority’
  • It will be prescribed by management
  • Different positions have different scopes of responsibility.
scope of authority
Scope of authority

Where an issue falls outside their scope of responsibility, approval to take action may need to be obtained from:

  • The department manager
  • More senior or experienced staff
  • The owner
  • The establishment manager.
scope of authority1
Scope of authority

The extent of approval (‘authorisation’) required will depend on the factors that apply to the issue under consideration including:

  • Costs involved
  • Alterations required to existing Standard Operating Procedures
  • Impact on other areas
  • Impact on other staff
  • Impact on customers
  • Impact on service levels.
when to monitor work operations
When to monitor work operations

Monitoring should be occurring all the time.

You can predict problems:

  • Before the event
  • During the event
  • After the event.
when to monitor work operations1
When to monitor work operations

Before the event

  • This involves being able to ‘read ahead’ and see certain systems or behaviours are probably going to result in problems or poor results
  • How can you anticipate problems?
when to monitor work operations2
When to monitor work operations

During the event

  • This involves being able to identify and solve problems as they occur, and being able to see the effects of making certain changes
  • This is not necessarily an easy thing to do, because of workload and time constraints.
when to monitor work operations3
When to monitor work operations

After the event

  • Sometimes it is just not possible to anticipate a problem or to correct them as they happen
  • The benefit of hindsight allows us to take time to review, reflect, consult and then make changes
  • Also, sometimes problems are cumulative, meaning that many small instances can lead to a bigger overall problem.
steps in monitoring work operations
Steps in monitoring work operations

Work out what needs to be monitored

Generally, things to be monitored include:

  • Areas showing early warning signs things are not going according to plan
  • Areas of critical activity to the organisation including:
    • high revenue raising streams
    • areas subject to intense legal scrutiny
  • Areas due for scheduled review.
steps in monitoring work operations1
Steps in monitoring work operations

Decide on methods or measures to use

This is where you decide how to measure your progress including:

  • Observation
  • Statistical and written reports
  • Surveys
  • Checklists
  • Flowcharts
  • Benchmarking.
steps in monitoring work operations2
Steps in monitoring work operations

Compare what is happening with what should be happening

Here you review and analyse what’s actually happening:

  • Refer back to your original goals
  • Compare your progress against these targets
  • Identify difference and causes.

Maybe original target is unrealistic and needs to be changed.

steps in monitoring work operations3
Steps in monitoring work operations

Take appropriate action

  • This involves making the necessary adjustments to improve the level of service, productivity or customer satisfaction
  • Depending on what is being monitored, involving staff in all or some stages of the monitoring process is likely to achieve better results.
methods of monitoring
Methods of monitoring

There are many tools or methods available to monitor progress or outcomes of work operations including:

  • Reports
  • Obtaining customer feedback
  • Using a pretend customer
  • Walking around and observing
  • Use of checklists
  • Brainstorming sessions
  • Staff input and review.
adjust procedures and systems
Adjust procedures and systems

Adjustment of internal procedures and systems to improve efficiency and effectiveness is an on-going exercise.

It involves:

  • Monitoring of the internal and external environments
  • The integration of findings into current practices
  • Influences future planning.
types of workplace changes
Types of workplace changes

Management changes

  • New management
  • Change in orientation to service
  • Setting of some new directions in relation to several other factors
  • New management focus.
types of workplace changes1
Types of workplace changes

Organisational re-structures

  • Change of personnel structure
  • Elimination of positions
  • New job roles
  • Changes in job roles
  • New knowledge or skills.
types of workplace changes2
Types of workplace changes

Introduction of new equipment

New equipment means:

  • Possible interruptions to operations for installation
  • Training for staff
  • Requires that staff can explain the new equipment to customers
  • Changes in job roles
  • Changes in procedures
  • Changes to workflow.
types of workplace changes3
Types of workplace changes

Recruitment practices

  • Need to establish comprehensive job descriptions and job specifications
  • Seeking of new knowledge and skills
  • Change advertising strategy
  • Revised interviewing and selection process
  • Revised selection criteria.
influences on workplace changes
Influences on workplace changes

There are a number of external factors that dictate the need for workplace changes.

These include, but are not limited to:

  • Competitors
  • Economic climate
  • Trends in customer preferences
  • Environmental issues
  • Technological development.
developing standards and plans
Developing standards and plans

The time spent actively considering your establishment’s orientation to adjusting procedures and systems should result in a set of standards and plans.

These must be in writing so everyone can:

  • Be sure about them
  • Understand what they mean
  • Know what is expected of them.
developing standards and plans1
Developing standards and plans

Types of standards and plans

  • Response times
  • Service guarantees
  • Pricing guarantees
  • Product quality
  • Document presentation standards
  • Personal presentation standards
  • Complaint management.
changes in workplace
Changes in workplace

Approaches to the staff may include:

  • Providing education and training service
  • Involving staff in planning and implementing quality improvement
  • Building a spirit of working together towards goals
  • Improved communication channels
  • Promoting open communication and feedback
  • Encouraging and recognising innovation and teamwork
  • Recognising the right of every employee.
changes in workplace1
Changes in workplace

Approaches to the customers may include:

  • Making the customer a ‘member’ of the organisation as opposed to a ‘customer’
  • Rewarding faithful customers
  • Communicating with customers in a way that promotes goodwill, trust and satisfaction
  • Identifying customer’s un-stated needs
  • Ensuring customers’ needs and reasonable requests are met
  • Providing friendly and courtesy assistance without having to be asked.
identify and manage customer service problems
Identify and manage customer service problems

Monitoring and adjusting customer service also involves:

  • Identifying customer service problems
  • Making adjustments to standards, systems and procedures
  • To ensure continued service quality.
identify and manage customer service problems1
Identify and manage customer service problems

Types of customer service problems

  • Rude staff
  • Lazy staff
  • Inconsistent service
  • Offering not as expected
  • Difficulties in contacting service staff
  • Lack of information about the services offered by the establishment


identify and manage customer service problems2
Identify and manage customer service problems

Types of customer service problems

  • Poor products
  • Unclear or incomplete price information
  • Unclear or incomplete deals
  • Handling of complaints
  • Unclear content and form of the bill.
improving customer service
Improving customer service

The following actions can greatly improve the delivery of quality customer service levels:

  • Give benefits to key customers
  • Systematise customer complaints
  • Learn from complaints
  • Train staff in customer care.
improving customer service1
Improving customer service
  • Give staff the authority, discretion and resources to make quick decisions
  • Stimulate employees to be creative in developing customer care activities
  • Invest in meetings and regular contacts with customers via newsletters or customer magazines
  • Making it easy for customer to complaint.
consult with colleagues
Consult with colleagues

Effective managers will recognise the need to consult with colleagues about the best ways to:

  • Improve efficiency within their unit or department
  • Raise customer service levels.
consult with colleagues1
Consult with colleagues

Useful consultation means that staff must be actively encouraged to:

  • Provide input to the development of quality customer service
  • Identify and solve of issues that impact on its delivery.
consult with colleagues2
Consult with colleagues

Consultation advice

Consultation with staff should include:

  • Encouraging staff to feedback all relevant comments from customers
  • Not shooting the messenger
  • Establishing agenda items
  • Providing written protocols
  • Providing for written feedback.
provide feedback
Provide feedback

Provide feedback to colleagues and management to inform future planning

Businesses always look for managers to make incisive and intelligent contributions about:

  • How the property should be operated
  • How things can be improved.
provide feedback1
Provide feedback

Suggesting ideas

Managers have many suggestions for improvement.

Ideas may have been collected through:

  • Discussed with staff
  • Watching customers
  • Over-hearing their comments
  • Receiving direct feedback
  • As a result of having seen a good idea at another venue.
provide feedback2
Provide feedback

Types of suggestions

  • Changes to food items
  • Changes to beverage lists
  • Offering new packages or changing the inclusions that are offered within packages
  • Offering greater selection of food and beverage products
  • Offering secretarial services to business clients
  • Installing air conditioning or heating systems.


provide feedback3
Provide feedback

Types of suggestions

  • Up-dating booking and operating systems and protocols with a movement to a more effective computerised system
  • Purchasing updated cleaning equipment
  • Increasing recycling activities
  • Making several floors totally non-smoking or ‘women only’ floors
  • Treats for regular customers.
provide feedback4
Provide feedback

Seeking customer feedback

All establishments should aim at collecting feedback from customer by:

  • Asking for customer feedback on present products, services and promotions
  • Asking the customer for suggestions as to how the establishment could better meet their needs and expectations into the future.
evaluate emerging industry trends
Evaluate emerging industry trends

Keeping up-to-date with what is happening in the industry is an essential pre-requisite for managers.

The dynamic nature of the industry demands managers stay in touch with:

  • New trends
  • New technologies
  • New practices
  • New legislation
  • Successful promotions.
sources of emerging trends information
Sources of emerging trends information

Written material

  • Reference books
  • Trade magazines
  • Newspapers
  • Relevant newsletters
  • Brochures
  • Advertisements.
sources of emerging trends information1
Sources of emerging trends information


Develop a list of Favourites and Bookmark them for ready reference including:

  • Suppliers
  • Industry associations
  • Government bodies
  • Specific venues.
sources of emerging trends information2
Sources of emerging trends information

Other sources

  • Conferences and seminars
  • Product launches
  • Industry associations
  • Colleagues, supervisors and managers
  • Market research data
  • Developing your own industry network
  • Talking to the reps.
sources of emerging trends information3
Sources of emerging trends information

Steps after collecting information

Information is of no value unless it is used.

When you have the information you should:

  • Take the time to read, digest and understand it
  • Determine the impact of incorporating this knowledge in to the operation of the property
  • Consider the costs of implementing the knowledge
  • Talk to others
  • Generate a proposal
  • Make a presentation about your idea.

Element 2:

Plan and organise workflow

plan and organise workflow
Plan and organise workflow

Performance Criteria for this Element are:

  • Schedule work in a manner that enhances efficiency and customer service quality
  • Delegate work to appropriate people in accordance with principles of delegation
  • Assess progress against agreed objectives and timelines
  • Assist colleagues in prioritization of workload through supportive feedback and coaching.
managing work operations
Managing work operations
  • As a manager you are required to ensure that staff are able to meet targets and goals that have been established
  • This involves an understanding of and an ability to organise and manage work operations.
managing work operations1
Managing work operations

Some of the essential elements of being a manager involve:

  • Motivating staff
  • Determining workloads
  • Scheduling work
  • Prioritising work
  • Organising workflow
  • Delegating work.
motivating staff
Motivating staff

As a manager you can increase their job satisfaction by:

  • Being fair
  • Good remuneration
  • Taking an interest in their development
  • Being clear to them about how you judge and measure their performance
  • Caring about their safety, health and well-being
  • Treating them personally
  • Giving them achievable objectives
  • Giving them positive feedback.
motivating staff1
Motivating staff

What motivates people to do their best?

  • Much of the motivation on research talks about incentives and rewards, which can be very successful in marketing and sales positions
  • However for many people, job motivation is driven by more personal reasons
  • Money is frequently not a prime motivator.
motivating staff2
Motivating staff

What motivates people to do their best?

The motivating factors can be:

  • A sense of achievement
  • Recognition for a job well done
  • Enjoying the work itself
  • Having responsibility
  • Having opportunities for advancement.
  • Workload is the amount of work an employee is required to do in a set period of time
  • As a manager your task is to ensure employees are not under-utilised or overloaded with too much work
  • This is hard to predict in advance.

Determining workloads

There are a number of ways of determining an appropriate workload:

  • This is worked out over time through practice and observation
  • Ask staff for their feedback
  • Be aware of other factors impacting on staff time and contributing to their total workload
  • Prioritising tasks into primary and secondary tasks.

Workload considerations

Effective managers will always be aware the nature of staff roles vary over time.

Managers must realise these changes and their impact on staff workloads including:

  • Do staff need more time to do their job?
  • Should more staff be employed?
  • Should certain services be revised or eliminated?
  • Will technology help?
schedule workloads
Schedule workloads

Scheduling work means planning and allocating what tasks have to be done in a specific period of time, and by whom by:

  • Working out the unit’s priorities
  • Working out the most appropriate workflow
  • Assess staffing levels and the appropriate workload for individual staff members
  • Delegate tasks.
prioritising work
Prioritising work
  • Prioritising involves deciding on, and placing tasks in, their most effective order of importance
  • This order must match with the identified goals and targets of the organisation, and the objectives of individual work units, teams or departments
  • Managers should look to organisational goals for a lead as to which tasks should take the highest priority.
prioritising work1
Prioritising work

Steps in prioritising work

The four basic steps in prioritising work are:

  • Involve staff in the process wherever possible
  • Make three lists:
    • Essential tasks
    • Non-essential tasks that add quality
    • Non-essential tasks that would be nice to do


prioritising work2
Prioritising work

Steps in prioritising work

  • Compare the lists you have generated with the overall goals and objectives of the unit
  • Adjust the lists accordingly, allocate the work and take action to achieve the lists in priority order.
prioritising work3
Prioritising work

Assisting staff to prioritise their own work

  • A manager is judged by how well or how poorly your staff perform
  • Therefore time spent helping staff is beneficial.

How can you help staff prioritise their work?

prioritising work4
Prioritising work

Assisting staff to prioritise their own work

  • Ensure a quiet and private time to sit down with the person
  • Talk with them about their position duties, the goals of the organisation and the department or unit
  • Ask them to identify the most important tasks they do


prioritising work5
Prioritising work

Assisting staff to prioritise their own work

  • Assist them to consider how they will do these tasks, and the priority order they will allocate to each of them
  • Assist them to come up with a work plan to use as the basis for the actual implementation of their plan
  • Set a time to review their plans and their progress on a regular basis.
organising workflow
Organising workflow
  • Workflow is basically the order in which work is best done
  • Organising this involves determining the logical sequence of tasks
  • The aim is to make sure the job is done efficiently and effectively.
organising workflow1
Organising workflow

Things to take into account when organising workflow include:

  • How long each individual task should take
  • Recognition of staff needs and award requirements such as breaks
  • The number of people to best achieve a result or task
  • Occupational health and safety requirements
  • The most logical order of tasks to avoid duplication and gaps in service
  • The suggestions of staff who are actually doing the job.
delegate work to staff
Delegate work to staff

In this workplace context, delegation has two meanings:

  • It can mean the allocating of tasks to staff that are part of their normal duties
  • It can also mean allocating some of your own duties to staff who are willing to take these on.
delegate work to staff1
Delegate work to staff

Delegating tasks to staff that are part of their duties

  • Be clear about the task to be done
  • Explain why the task has to be done and in a certain way
  • Choose an appropriate time to inform and explain delegation
  • Provide whatever instructions are necessary in the correct sequence, explaining all of the steps


delegate work to staff2
Delegate work to staff

Delegating tasks to staff that are part of their duties

  • Provide training and demonstration
  • Continually encourage and check if the employee has any questions
  • Check their understanding
  • Give them positive feedback.
delegate work to staff3
Delegate work to staff

Delegating tasks to staff that are part of their duties

When delegating you may run up against problems such as:

  • Age differences
  • Experience differences
  • Gender issues.
delegate work to staff4
Delegate work to staff

Delegating some of your own duties to staff

There are real benefits in delegating some of your own work to other staff:

  • It frees you up to do other things
  • It gives staff experience at managerial skills
  • It promotes a team approach by sharing tasks amongst everyone
  • It supports the career advancement of staff.
delegate work to staff5
Delegate work to staff

Delegating some of your own duties to staff

However, in some instances, staff could feel exploited by taking on what they see as your work.

As a result, there are a number of rules to follow when delegating your work to others:

  • Only delegate to those staff who are interested in taking on the work
  • Delegate interesting and varied work, not the jobs you don’t like doing yourself


delegate work to staff6
Delegate work to staff

Delegating some of your own duties to staff

  • Make sure the work is suitable and achievable
  • Provide the necessary encouragement, training and support
  • Inform other staff of the delegation before the delegated work has started
  • Review progress at agreed times
  • Be available for questions and queries at all times.
principles of delegation
Principles of delegation

By way of providing a summary of the above, the principles of delegation relate to:

  • Knowledge of team strengths and weaknesses
  • Knowledge of context-specific factors
  • Self- knowledge
  • Evaluation.
assess delegation progress
Assess delegation progress

Managers should assess the performance of staff against their agreed objectives and timelines.

This should be done:

  • On an ongoing basis during work hours
  • At scheduled times in terms of formal performance appraisals.
assess delegation progress1
Assess delegation progress

Assessing workflow and progress during work

The three keys are:

  • Walking around the venue to observe what is happening
  • Mentally matching what has been achieved against what is needed
  • Taking action to assist where indicators show the necessary work will not be completed.
staff appraisals
Staff appraisals


  • What is a staff appraisal?
  • How often should they be done?
  • What is the benefit of a staff appraisal?
  • Who is involved in a staff appraisal?
  • What is covered in a staff appraisal?
staff appraisals1
Staff appraisals

The general focus is on the staff member’s performance:

  • Overall feeling of personal performance
  • Reasons why targets were or were not attained
  • Relationships with other staff which appear to be beneficial or a hindrance
  • Problems with equipment and process
  • Timelines for work giving rise to problems
  • Problems with patrons
  • Resourcing issues.
staff appraisals2
Staff appraisals

The meeting should conclude by:

  • Re-capping issues raised by both parties
  • Setting targets and measurable objectives for the next period
  • Identifying support or training required to achieve the set goals
  • Setting a time and date for the next review.
assist colleagues in prioritising workload
Assist colleagues in prioritising workload

Times will arise when there is a need for you to assist staff members in the prioritisation of their workload.

Critical elements in providing this sort of help are the use of:

  • Feedback
  • Coaching.

Feedback may be seen as the on-going support provided to staff as they seek answers to the perpetual question “How am I going?”

This support can be:

  • Verbal
  • Non-verbal.

Verbal Support

Verbal responses include answers to both asked and implied questions with statements such as:

  • “Looks like you’ve got the hang of that pretty well”
  • “Well done”
  • “Looking good”
  • “Good job”.

Non-verbal support

Non-verbal responses can include:

  • A smile or grin
  • A nod
  • A silent hand clap
  • A physical pat on the back
  • The thumbs up sign
  • Making a circle with the thumb and the forefinger.

Giving negative feedback

  • Should be communicated in a sensitive and empathetic fashion
  • Usually in private
  • Must concentrate wholly on actions not the person
  • Stick to the demonstrated facts
  • Best delivered using a technique called the ‘Positive-Negative-Positive’ sandwich.
  • It focuses on the continued development of an individual
  • It can be seen as a process of providing information, including feedback, to an employee
  • The purpose of coaching is to reinforce and extend knowledge and skills developed through other training.
principles of coaching
Principles of coaching


Employees should be encouraged to participate actively in coaching sessions through:

  • Prioritise their own workloads
  • Giving reasons, explanations and justifications for decisions
  • Actively learn
  • Appraising problems, issues, situations, demands or scarce resources for themselves
  • Outlining possible courses of action.
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Principles of coaching


  • Mutual understanding of the topics being discussed and the tasks being prioritised
  • Coaches must describe and explain the ‘big picture’
  • Coaches provide information and context clearly
  • Information should not be ‘kept secret’.
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Principles of coaching


An excellent way of ensuring mutual understanding exists is to get the employee to:

  • Define the problem in their own words
  • Describe the proposed solution in their own words.
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Principles of coaching


  • The coach must do more listening than talking
  • Effective listening will be achieved when both spoken and hidden doubts of staff are identified and addressed.
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Principles of coaching

Coaching, then, is aimed at bringing about desired changes in the actions and attitudes of employees. .

Coaches or managers may achieve this change by using one of the following approaches:

  • Changing the situation
  • Changing the employees’ perception of the situation
  • Changing the individual’s skills.
understanding staff needs
Understanding staff needs

An important part of your role as manager is to make sure the staff who report to you are:

  • Engaged in interesting and meaningful work
  • Fully occupied but not overloaded
  • Have clear tasks to perform.
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Understanding staff needs

Involving staff

In doing the work of a manager you will find you have more cooperation and interest from staff if you:

  • Involve them
  • Consider their suggestions for change or improvement.
understanding staff needs2
Understanding staff needs

Reasons for performance problems

  • There is actually too much work to do
  • There are problems in other areas or outside the organisation which are impacting on your unit’s work
  • There are unreasonable demands on your unit
  • Your staff have not been provided with the necessary training to do their job effectively and efficiently
  • Wrong staff have been hired or engaged in the first place
  • You have equipment breakdowns.
understanding staff needs3
Understanding staff needs

Notify senior management about staffing needs

  • Choose an appropriate time
  • Decide method of communication
  • Be clear about what the problems and the needs are
  • Spell out in detail how you have tried to addressed the issue
  • If possible, come up with recommendations to address the situation.

Element 3:

Maintain workplace records

maintain workplace records
Maintain workplace records

Performance Criteria for this Element are:

  • Complete workplace records accurately and submit within required timeframes
  • Where appropriate, delegate and monitor completion of records prior to submission.
workplace records
Workplace records

Workplace records are an important part of any work environment and should be accurately maintained within the required timeframes.

  • What workplace records are completed by managers?
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Workplace records

Types of workplace records

  • Staff records
  • Performance reports
  • Fire safety checks
  • OHS inspections, risk assessments and reports
  • Security records
  • Incident register


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Workplace records

Types of workplace records

  • Gaming incidents register
  • Customer comments and feedback forms
  • Orders
  • Receipt of goods documentation
  • Accident and illness register
  • Injury claims


workplace records3
Workplace records

Types of workplace records

  • Insurance claims
  • Lease agreements and renewals
  • Banking details
  • Linen cleaning records
  • Equipment maintenance records
  • Subcontracting agreements and compliance documentation.
staff records
Staff records
  • These are records relating to any and all aspects of staffing the premises
  • May be divided into overall records and individual staff records
  • Overall records are those records kept that relate to staff as a whole
  • Gain an overview of what is happening with staff movements and training.
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Staff records

Types of staff records

Overall records

  • Staffing rosters
  • Training details by operational area
  • Annual leave planning chart
  • Salary and overtime payments
  • Injury records.
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Staff records

Types of staff records

Individual records

  • Position description
  • Letter of appointment
  • Signed employment contract or offer of employment
  • Performance review records
  • Copies of certificates held by the employee


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Staff records

Types of staff records

Individual records

  • Leave records
  • Record of uniform orders
  • Training schedule
  • Direct salary deduction details
  • Injury claims.
maintaining records
Maintaining records

Ensure you:

  • Understand which records you are responsible for
  • Complete required records
  • Maintain confidentiality and privacy of information
  • Records are kept up-to-date
  • Make records easily accessible.
delegating preparation of records
Delegating preparation of records

In some cases there can be a need for you to delegate the completion of workplace records to other staff.

  • What must you do to help others prepare documents?
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Delegating preparation of records

The manager of a work area is unlikely to personally attend to all of the records in their work area.

  • But they are accountable for their accuracy
  • A manager must be prepared to delegate such tasks and have a system for regularly monitoring such records.
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Delegating preparation of records

Types of records

Staff may be given required to complete records such as:

  • Time sheets
  • Requisitions
  • Internal transfers
  • Requests for maintenance
  • Daily takings sheets.
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Delegating preparation of records

Steps to delegating records

Delegating authority and responsibility for completion of such records involves:

  • Finding the appropriate person to do the job
  • Making sure the person is capable or trained to take on the task
  • Ensuring confidentiality is maintained at all times
  • Training the person in the tasks required
  • Monitoring the process on a regular basis.
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Delegating preparation of records

Monitor completion of records

Monitoring may include:

  • Regular visual inspection and checking of records
  • Signing the records to authorise them or indicate they have been checked and approved
  • Comparing the records kept with actual workplace occurrence.

Element 4:

Solve problems and make decisions

solve problems and make decisions
Solve problems and make decisions

Performance Criteria for this Element are:

  • Identify workplace problems promptly and analyse from an operational and customer service perspective
  • Initiate corrective action to resolve the immediate problem where appropriate
  • Encourage team members to participate in solving problems they raise
  • Monitor the effectiveness of solutions in the workplace.
solving problems
Solving problems
  • Problem solving and decision making are two key tasks of any manager
  • The ability to deal quickly and effectively with workplace problems are standard ongoing requirements for any manager
  • It will be a significant indicator of their effectiveness.
nature of problems
Nature of problems

The very nature of problems is that they are often unexpected.

They seem to come at the worst of times, such as when you are:

  • Busy
  • Short staffed
  • Dealing with another problem.
types of problems
Types of problems

They can show up in many ways including:

  • Complaints
  • Poor staff performance
  • Failing equipment
  • Orders not being processed as required, within set timelines
  • Stress
  • Staff absenteeism
  • Decreases in takings and patronage.
handling problems
Handling problems

Consideration when handling problems

A solution to a problem has the best chance of succeeding if:

  • It is made early on when the problem first surfaces
  • It includes those who are directly involved
  • Reasons for the decision are explained to those who are not directly involved


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Handling problems

Consideration when handling problems

  • It is clear and unambiguous
  • It is in-line with stated organisational goals
  • It aligns with organisational policies, vision and values
  • All the implications of the decision have been thought through.
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Solving problems

Programmed and non-programmed decisions

In the hospitality industry, like many others, decisions can be described as either:

  • ‘Programmed’
  • ‘Non-programmed’.

What is the difference?

solving problems2
Solving problems

Programmed decisions

Programmed decisions are those decided beforehand in response to regular occurrences.

For example, in a restaurant:

solving problems3
Solving problems

Non-programmed decisions

Where the person responsible uses their judgement and discretion to make a decision within agreed boundaries or scope of authority.

This may happen for a problem that:

  • Has not come up before
  • Circumstances are different
  • There are other contributing factors.
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Solving problems

Problem solving guidelines

  • Look at each situation carefully
  • Considering its specific circumstances
  • Never rush into a decision
  • Don’t be pressured into making a rushed decision
  • Think of the implications of any decisions you make.


solving problems5
Solving problems

Problem solving guidelines

  • Make sure you are authorised to make the decision.
  • Ask yourself as objectively as possible, whether the decision is fair and justifiable?
  • Check whether the decision fits with organisational objectives and mission
  • Remember, there is often more than one acceptable solution to a problem
  • Spend time looking for second and third alternatives.
steps in problem solving
Steps in problem solving

Identifying the problem

Problem identification can be done by:

  • Looking at the facts
  • Talking with people and listening to their views
  • Walking around the premises and observing
  • Isolating some factors.
steps in problem solving1
Steps in problem solving

Identifying the problem

  • Consider other contributing problems
  • Sometimes a real problem can be ‘hidden’ behind a less serious issue
  • You have to be sure you are treating the cause and not the symptom.
steps in problem solving2
Steps in problem solving

Considering options

  • Identify your desired outcomes
  • Consider outcomes from an operational and a customer service perspective.
  • Look at what alternative options you have for solving the problem.
steps in problem solving3
Steps in problem solving

Making a decision

Factors to consider when making a decision are:

  • Who will be involved in the decision making process
  • How acceptable the decision is to all relevant parties
  • The impact of the decision
  • The cost of the decision
  • The resources to implement it
  • Whether your decision is likely to fix the real problem or just cover it up.
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Steps in problem solving

Convey the decision to relevant parties

It is important to convey to all relevant parties:

  • The actual decision
  • An explanation of the reason for the decision
  • In verbal and written format.
steps in problem solving5
Steps in problem solving

Reviewing the decision and making adjustments as necessary

  • It is important to build in a review process.
  • This involves checking to see if there has been an improvement to the original problem.
  • If not, you might have to look at another option.
initiate corrective action to resolve problems
Initiate corrective action to resolve problems

Actions taken within an operation workplace context can be seen as either:

  • Short term action
  • Long term action.
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Initiate corrective action to resolve problems

It is sometimes necessary to take short term action to solve a problem until it can be looked at more closely and the problem dealt with more thoroughly.

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Initiate corrective action to resolve problems

Reasons for short-term action

  • Isn’t time to stop and analyse the problem more carefully and in more detail
  • To provide the necessary or expected services to the customer
  • To meet OHS requirements
  • To deal with a complaint
  • To get staff working together again
  • To give you time to analyse and work through the problem at a later date.
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Initiate corrective action to resolve problems

Considerations for short-term action

  • Make a definite time to look at it more thoroughly later on
  • Decide who to involve in further problem solving
  • Inform staff and management it is a short term solution
  • Cost the implications of tackling the problem this way.
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Initiate corrective action to resolve problems

Need for long-term action

  • Analyse problems for any long-term impact so appropriate solutions can be devised.
  • Identify regular repeated instances of ‘emergencies’ or situations.
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Initiate corrective action to resolve problems

Need for long-term action

If a situation is a one-off event, then the need for long term planning is non-existent.

Where something happens regularly, consider:

  • How often is regular?
  • When does something fall into the category of requiring long term planning?
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Initiate corrective action to resolve problems

Need for long-term action

In the majority of cases it will become obvious, because:

  • The situation is causing problems for staff and for customers
  • Staff or customers are becoming annoyed or upset by it
  • It is adversely affecting staff performance and customer service levels.
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Initiate corrective action to resolve problems

Need for long-term action

  • It is costing the company money
  • It is involving and negatively impacting on a lot of people
  • It is presenting an obvious risk of some sort
  • It is breaching legislation, company policies and organisational values.
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Initiate corrective action to resolve problems

Suggestions for long-term action

  • Identify the problem
  • Describe the nature
  • Gain an understand the full extent of the problem
  • Identify the cause of the problem
  • Check, verify and test that what you believed to the cause is actually the cause
  • Describe and classify the people who are affected by the problem


initiate corrective action to resolve problems9
Initiate corrective action to resolve problems

Suggestions for long-term action

  • Nominate the nature and result of the adverse effects on people
  • Determine the amount of time that the problem will occur for
  • Identify if it is something that can be tolerated
  • Analyse all legal implications pertaining to the problem


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Initiate corrective action to resolve problems

Suggestions for long-term action

  • Determine the costs involved in the problem
  • Integrate the loss from the problem into the overall operation, profitability and viability of the operation
  • List all possible solutions
  • Discuss, determine and implement best solution/s.
dealing with problems raised by staff
Dealing with problems raised by staff
  • Managers should encourage and motivate staff to solve their own problems and take responsibility for implementing them, there will always be times when they come to you with a problem
  • An effective response to these situations is to continue the theme of involvement and actively engage staff in helping to identify a solution.
dealing with problems raised by staff1
Dealing with problems raised by staff

Manager solves problem

  • Throughout your working week, problems brought to you by staff will cover a range of issues
  • One way to deal with problems raised by a team member is to make a decision and ‘solve’ the problem yourself.
dealing with problems raised by staff2
Dealing with problems raised by staff

Manager solves problem

This is often necessary if:

  • The problem involves calling in others staff
  • Things are flat out and you need to make a decision to keep things moving
  • Staff do not have the authority or the ability to solve it themselves
  • Where the matter involves matters of confidentiality, security or health and safety.
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Dealing with problems raised by staff

Staff solves problem themselves

  • Where possible it is advisable to get the staff member involved in solving the problem themselves, with your support.
  • How can you encourage staff to solve their own problems?
dealing with problems raised by staff4
Dealing with problems raised by staff

Staff solves problem themselves

Techniques to facilitate this include:

  • Asking them to fully describe the details of the situation
  • Asking them what they have already done to try to resolve the situation
  • Asking them why they believe their actions to-date have not been successful


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Dealing with problems raised by staff

Staff solves problem themselves

Techniques to facilitate this include:

  • Asking them what they think the next step should be and why that is the case
  • Contributing ideas to extend and support their ideas and suggestions
  • Encouraging them to think of more alternatives


dealing with problems raised by staff6
Dealing with problems raised by staff

Staff solves problem themselves

Techniques to facilitate this include:

  • Providing your thoughts on resolving the situation including the reasons whyyou believe your ideas might work
  • Encouraging them to implement an identified possible solution.
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Dealing with problems raised by staff

Staff solves problem themselves

The key to this approach is to:

  • Build staff ability to make better decisions
  • Gain the confidence and experience to make those decisions.
monitor effectiveness of solutions
Monitor effectiveness of solutions

While it is expected decisions and actions will fix problems the reality is this is not always the case.

It is essential to track the progress of those decisions to monitor their:

  • Outcome
  • Effectiveness.
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Monitor effectiveness of solutions

Schedule monitoring activities

  • Set a time for monitoring or reviewing progress
  • This meeting simply seeks to determine whether or not the recommended action has been implemented is working as anticipated
  • The intent is simply to verify things are on track, or to identify if and where they are not.


Thank you!