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Marriage • Marriage is still popular in the United States. • 96% of U.S. adults age 75 and older have been married at least once.
Marriage • Marriage: a legal relationship that binds a couple together for reproduction, physical care, and socialization of the children • U.S. marriage:a legal contract between the couple and the state
Marriage Elements of marriage • Legal contract • Emotional relationship • Sexual monogamy • Legal responsibility for children • Announcement/ceremony
Marriage Types of Marriage • Polygamy: more than two spouses • Polygyny: one husband and two or more wives • Polyandry: one wife and two or more husbands • Polyamory: multiple emotional and sexual partners • Pantagamy: group marriage
Family U.S. Census Bureau: A family is a group of two or more people related by blood, marriage, or adoption. Sociology: A family is a kinship system of all relatives living together or recognized as a social unit.
Family • Nuclear family: family consisting of an individual, his or her spouse, and his or her children, or an individual and his or her parents and siblings • Extended family: includes a nuclear family and other relatives
Family Types • Civil union: pair-bonded relationship given legal significance in terms of rights and privileges • Domestic partnership: cohabiting individuals given official recognition by a city or corporation
Family Types • Traditional family: two-parent nuclear family with the husband as breadwinner and wife as homemaker • Modern family: dual-earner family • Postmodern family: departs from the traditional and modern family forms
Changes in Marriage and the Family Family changes with industrialization: • Economic production to economic consumption • Both parents working outside the home • Families living in cities • Increased mobility • Emphasis on individual rather than family
Changes Marriage-resilience perspective • Marriage is not in decline. • The changes have had few negative consequences for adults, children, or wider society.
Theoretical Frameworks Social Exchange Framework • Based on utilitarianism—idea that individuals rationally weigh rewards and costs • Interactions and choices are viewed in terms of cost/profit. • Power revolves around the ability to influence.
Theoretical Frameworks Family Life Course Development Framework • Emphasizes important role transitions at different periods of life and in different social contexts Family Life Cycle Framework • Emphasizes stages and developmental tasks
Theoretical Frameworks Structure-Function Framework • Views the family as a social institution with values, norms, and activities meant to provide stability for the larger society • Families • Replenish society with socialized members • Promote emotional stability • Provide economic support
Theoretical Frameworks Conflict Framework • Views individuals in relationships as competing for resources • Views conflict as natural and normal
Theoretical Frameworks Symbolic Interaction Framework • Views marriages and families as symbolic worlds in which the various members give meaning to each other’s behavior • Definition of the situation: Individuals constantly define situations and respond to definitions.
Theoretical Perspectives Family Systems Framework • Views the family as a unit of individuals with established rules for interacting. • Boundaries are borders between the system and its environment. • Family systems may be open or closed.
Theoretical Frameworks Feminist Framework • Views marriage and family as contexts of inequality and oppression for women. • Gender structures our experiences.
Choices Social Structure includes institutions, groups, statuses and roles. • Institutions: established and enduring patterns of social relationships (family, economy, education) • Social groups: two or more people who share a common identity, interact, and form a social relationship (a family, a college class, a work unit)
Choices Mating gradient • Women marry up in age and education. • Men marry down in age and education.
Choices • Status: a position a person occupies within a social group (father, mother, son, daughter) • Roles: sets of rights, obligations, and expectations associated with a status (Mother nurtures and disciplines.)
Choices Choices are also influenced by culture: the meaning and ways of living that characterize a people in a society • Beliefs: definitions and explanations about what is true • Values: standards regarding good and bad, right and wrong, desirable and undesirable
Choices Media: television, movies, music, games, print materials