London: SWOT Analysis. Re-cap Planning System Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats of Planning System for Territorial Development; Inner London, Outer London, Edge (outside) of London – see written notes. Planning in London. London is covered by four levels of planning:
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London: SWOT Analysis
Re-cap Planning System • Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats of Planning System for Territorial Development; • Inner London, Outer London, Edge (outside) of London – see written notes
Planning in London • London is covered by four levels of planning: • National – National Planning Policy Framework (one new document 52 pages long replaced 1000 pages of old guidance) • Regional – London Plan – One plan covers 32 London Boroughs, the City Corporation (City of London), the London Thames Gateway Development Corporation and the Olympic Delivery Authority. • Local – Local Development Framework or Local Plan – produced by each of individual 32 London Boroughs • Neighbourhood Planning – a new level of planning created in 2012. • There is no regional planning level outside of London. It was abolished in 2011/12.
SWOT SWOT of the planning system post-2012 for territorial development. We examined: • The role of the Regional Tier (The Mayor and London Plan); • National Policy – National Planning Policy Framework; • New level of neighbourhood planning; • New “Duty to Co-Operate” – local authorities must work together in plan-making and making planning decisions • Community Infrastructure Levy – a new planning charge (or tax) on development. It replaces an old system. • Local Enterprise Partnerships – a partnership between local authorities and businesses to help determine local economic priorities and lead economic growth and job creation. They often carry out functions that regional planning use to outside of London.
SWOT We looked at the SWOT on these issues for: • “Central London” – where regional and local policy is strong; • “Outer London” – where regional and local policy is strong; and • “Edge of London” (i.e. outside of London) – where there is no regional policy – only local and national policies.
Strengths • Targets are set at the regional level, e.g. targets are set for the number of new houses and jobs, which encourages housing provision in the context of a severe undersupply. • Quality standards are set in regional and local policy, e.g. in London standards are set for the size of homes and balconies. High standards are therefore more likely to be met in London. • The London Regional Government (the Mayor and Greater London Authority) have control over planning, money and land, on certain issues (for example affordable housing). This means growth can be planned and delivered more effectively.
Weaknesses • Political influence: • London regional government is elected; • The regional government has different priorities to local government (there can be tensions); • Not enough affordable housing; • Viability – due to charges on new development
Opportunities • Introduction of the new “duty to co-operate”. This will encourage local authorities to work together and co-ordinate. This is positive where towns fall near a local authority border. • New level of neighbourhood planning will allow local people to be involved in planning (more democratic). • New Local enterprise partnerships link local authorities and businesses. This increases links between planning, economic growth and job creation.
Threats • Money / recession: • Local authorities have less money; • Developers have less money; • Development charges make development unviable • Viability – in London a new development charge of development from £20 - £50 per sq m for a new tube line; • Trade-off – have to decide between different priorities (affordable housing, transport, environment). National policy is pro-growth above other issues.
Conclusions • Regional planning is good in London – helps to ensure local authorities are joined up; • The Mayor also has economic, housing and transport powers as well as planning – this helps things to happen; • The “Duty-to-corporate” and Local Enterprise Partnerships are good, especially in Outer London and on the Edge/Outside of London (where there is no regional government) for territorial cohesion.