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10 th American History. U.S. Foreign Policy History. Vocabulary for the Word Wall. Foreign Affairs (Policy):

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10th American History

U.S. Foreign Policy History


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Vocabulary for the Word Wall

  • Foreign Affairs (Policy):

    • Foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how a particular country will interact with the other countries of the world. Foreign policies generally are designed to help protect a country's national interests, national security, ideological goals, and economic prosperity.

    • Creating foreign policy is usually the job of the head of government and the foreign minister (State Department)

    • International Relations


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Imperialism

  • Economic reasons- international trade and need for raw materials from Asia, Africa and Latin America

  • Military reasons- to defend their shores and protect their trade interests

  • Ideology

    • 1- Nationalism- enhancing a nation’s power and prestige.

    • 2- Cultural superiority- Social Darwinists believed in this. Social responsibility to “civilize” less developed countries.


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Imperialism

  • Manifest Destiny- expand westward to the Pacific, and beyond the shoreline

  • Hawaii- trade, sugar, bayonet constitution and annexation

  • China-trade, Treaty of Wanghia 1844- gave U.S. most favored nation status, Sphere’s of Influence, Open-Door Policy and Boxer Rebellion

  • Japan-trade, Commodore Matthew Perry, and the Treaty of Kanagawa.


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Spanish American War

  • Cuban Unrest

  • Yellow Journalism

  • Reasons-

    • Maine Explosion- “Remember the Maine”

    • De Lome Letter

    • U.S. Sugar interests

    • U.S. sympathy to the rebel cause and the evil Spanish

    • Jingoes (Hawks) and the pressure on President McKinley

  • Outcome

    • Teller Amendment on Cuban Independence and Rough Riders and San Juan Hill

    • U.S. receives Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam and Philippines in exchange it gives Spain $20 million.

    • U.S. now has over seas territories, bases for trade and navy.

    • Annexation of Philippines and three years of revolution. (Independence in 1946)

    • Anti-Imperialist League 1898- imperialism is a violation of the foundation of American self government.

    • Platt Amendment- Cuba (Guantanamo, Protectorate); Foraker Act 1900- Puerto Rico.


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T.R. Roosevelt, Taft and Wilson

  • Roosevelt and Latin America

    • Walk softly and carry a big stick

    • Great White fleet

    • Helping Panama to get independence

    • Building the Panama Canal

    • Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine

  • Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy

    • Promoting American interests in other countries

    • Using economic power to achieve American policy goals.

  • Wilson’s Moral Diplomacy

    • Rejection of dollar diplomacy

    • Use of persuasion and American ideals to advance the nation’s interest abroad.

  • Wilson and the Mexican Revolution

    • President Wilson would not recognize the de facto government of Gen. Huerta

    • Wilson used armed force against Mexico in Veracruz and against Poncho Villa

  • Rise of tariffs


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U.S. and the Panama Canal

  • U.S. interest in the Canal

  • Offering Columbia $10 million and $250,000 annually. Rejected

  • Panama’s revolution against Columbia

  • Building the Canal


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World War I

  • “M.A.I.N.E.”- European causes for the war.

  • U.S. neutrality

  • Reasons for the U.S. entrance into the war.

  • America in World War I

  • America in Post World War I

    • Wilson’s fourteen points

    • Treaty of Versailles

    • League of Nations

  • Impact of World War I


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1st Red Scare

  • Communist revolution in Russia- 1917 and the rise of the Bolsheviks

  • Fear of the “Reds”- communists who promoted the violent overthrow of the U.S. government.

  • U.S. Communist parties formed

  • Bombings- through the mail.

  • Palmer raids – deportation and incarceration.


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Lingering Effects of World War I

  • War Debts owed to the U.S.

    • $10 Billion owed by Allies to U.S.

    • Fordney-McCumber Tariff made repayment hard.

    • Reparation payments by Germany

  • Washington Naval Conference- 4 Power, 5 Power and 9 Power treaties.

    • Agreement to cut back on size of navies

    • Avoid competition for China

    • Ending the Arms Race and establishing Peace?

  • Kellogg-Briand Pact- high ideals- Peace signed by 60 nations. But no system of enforcement, just a promise.


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Effect of Great Depression on World

  • Fragile European Economies still recovering from WWI.


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World War II

  • Isolationism, Pacifism, and Neutrality Act

  • Roosevelt’s Quarantine Speech

  • Cash and Carry

  • Lend-Lease

  • Atlantic Charter

  • Attack on Pearl Harbor

  • Mobilization


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World War II

  • U.S. in World War II- European Theater

    • Atlantic

    • North Africa

    • Europe

    • Holocaust

    • V-E Day and Nuremberg Trials

  • U.S. in World War II- Pacific Theater

    • Island Hopping and Gen. Douglas MacArthur

    • Yalta conference

    • Potsdam conference

    • President Truman and the Atomic Bomb

    • V-J Day.


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Cold War

  • The Spread of Communism and the Iron Curtain

  • Truman and the Truman Doctrine

  • Marshall Plan

  • Berlin Blockade and Berlin Airlift

  • NATO

  • United Nations- 1945-

    • Peace

    • Human Rights

    • Trade and economic development (IMF and GATT)


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Cold War

  • 2nd Red Scare after World War II

    • Soviets Possess atomic weapons

    • Communists had gained control of China- Mao

    • H.U.A.C- House Un-American Activities Committee. (And the Hollywood 10)

    • Truman and the Loyalty Plan

    • Spy Cases

    • Senator Joseph McCarthy


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Korea

  • Korea before the war.

  • How it started.

  • Role of the U.S. and the U.N.

  • Pusan and Inchon

  • MacArthur and his firing

  • Fighting ends

  • Peace- Stalemate and Demilitarized Zone- 38th parallel.


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Eisenhower

  • Cold War

    • Brinkmanship

    • Massive Retaliation

    • Nikita Khrushchev

    • Warsaw Pact and the Hungarian uprising

    • Summit Meeting- U.S. and Soviets

  • Cold War Hot spots

    • Vietnam and SEATO

    • Middle East, Suez Canal, METO and Eisenhower Doctrine

  • Cold War Worries

    • Atomic Anziety- Hydrogen Bomb, Arms Race, new bombs and technology

    • Space Race-Sputnik, Explorer and NASA.

    • Civil Defense

    • Limited Test-Ban Treaty

    • Military-Industrial Complex


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President Kennedy

  • Bay of Pigs- invasion of Cuba

  • Cuban Missile Crisis and its effects

  • Berlin Crisis- The Wall and its significamce

  • Peace Corps

  • Alliance for Progress

  • Flexible response- strengthening conventional force to give alternative to nuclear weapons.

  • Space Program


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LBJ Foreign Policy

  • Johnson Doctrine-not allow the establishment of a communist dictatorship- the U.S. would intervene

  • Pueblo Incident- North Korea

  • Vietnam- Increasing U.S. involvement- Tonkin Gulf Resolution.

  • Air War, Ground War, Mobilization,

  • Public Opinion- Media effect; Hawks and Doves; anti-war movement;

  • Turning Point- Tet Offensive and credibility gap; Johnson refuses to run again.


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Vietnam War

  • Ho Chi Minh and Vietminh

  • After WWII-

    • 1st Indochina War- Vietminh v. French

    • Domino Theory

    • Geneva Conference and the 17th parallel

  • Civil War- South Vietnam v. Vietcong (NLF-communists)

    • Ngo Dinh Diem- President of South Vietnam

    • U.S. involvement- The “Domino Theory

      • Kennedy- Military advisors and Green Beret with ARVN

      • Casualties rose

      • Diem overthrown

      • LBJ and the Tonkin Gulf Resolution

      • Air War- bombing- “Operation Rolling Thunder”

      • Ground War- guerilla, pacification, Vietnamization, Search and Destroy, Tunnels

      • Mobilization- The Draft, Medical, Materials

      • Public Opinion- media, Hawks and Doves, Anti-War Movement, Credibility Gap

      • Tet Offensive and its affects and war critics

      • Peace Initiatives


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Vienam and Nixon

Vietnam

  • Vietnamazation and bringing the troops home.

  • Bombing and invasions of Laos and Cambodia- “The Madman theory” to stop the war.

  • Increasing Protests- Kent State, Weathermen and My Lai Massacre and Pentagon Papers

  • Legacy of Vietnam- Khmer Rouge, domino theory, environmental damage, dead, refugees, effects on veterans.

  • War Powers Act 1973


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Nixon Foreign Policy

  • Henry Kissinger and Realpolitik

  • Détente

  • Nixon in China and the U.S.S.R. (S.A.L.T.)

  • Middle East

    • Yom Kippur War- Egypt, Syria and Jordan v. Israel.

    • Oil Embargo and O.P.E.C.

    • Kissinger and Shuttle Diplomacy


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Ford Foreign Policy

  • Foreign policy limited by Vietnam experience.

  • Helped nearly 250,000 escape Vietnam, but Congress would allow little more.

  • Congress refused to allow Ford to aid anti-Castro forces in Cuba.

  • Cargo Ship “Mayaguez” siezed by Cambodia- Ford sent military raid.

  • Kissinger, Détente, and reduction of arms with Soviet Union.

  • U.S./Soviet joint space project- Docking in space.


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Carter Foreign Policy

  • No real personal experience in foreign affairs.

  • Committed to human rights

  • Soviets- SALT II

  • Panama Canal Treaties

  • Formally recognized Communist People’s Republic of China

  • Camp David Accords- Israel and Egypt

  • Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan

  • Iranian Hostage Crisis

  • Events in Iran disrupted the production of oil and prices shot up.


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Reagan Foreign Policy

  • Cold War

    • The “Evil Empire”- Soviet Union and relations worsened

    • Reagan increased military spending

    • Strategic Defense Iniative- “SDI or Star Wars”

    • Soviet Union weakening- Gorbachev believes only way to salvage the Soviet economy was to strike a deal with the U.S.

    • INF Treaty- destruction of a whole class of weapons.

    • Solidarity in Poland

  • Latin American civil wars- El Salvador and Nicaragua.

  • Lebanon- PLO, Israel, Christian, U.S. Marines suicide bombed.

  • Grenada and victory

  • End of Apartheid in South Africa


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George H.W. Bush Foreign Policy

  • Collapse of the Soviet Union

    • Gorbachev- glasnost and perestroika

    • Eastern European Communist government crumble.

    • Berlin War- “Mr. Gorbachev, Tear down this wall”. Gates opened 1989s and wall comes down.

    • Soviet republics began to declare independence.

    • 1991- START I; 1993- START II

  • China- Tiananmen Square massacre- democracy crushed.

  • Panama- Operation Just Cause

  • 1st Persian Gulf War- Operation Desert Storm

  • Nelson Mandela and South Africa

  • Sent Troops into Somalia


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Clinton Foreign Policy

  • Successes in the Middle East- Oslo Accords

  • Somalia- Clinton withdrew forces

  • Clinton did not sent in help to stop the genocide in Rwanda.

  • Haiti- troops sent in to bring peaceful political change.

  • Former Yugoslavia- Dayton Accords to end fighting in Bosnia and Herzegovina and stop serbs.

  • NAFTA- North American Free Trade Agreement- no tariff barriers between U.S. , Canada and Mexico.


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George W. Bush Foreign Policy

  • Felt Troops should be used to fight and win war. Military needs to be prepared.

  • Cancelled the 1972 ABM Treaty- Danger now from Terrorist state.

  • Promised to develop missile defense system.

  • Worked for better relations with Russia and China.

  • Critical of North Korea and its buildup of nuclear weapons. Axis of Evil.

  • Middle East Road map to peace- two state vision- Independent Palestinian state and Jewish State of Israel.

  • Sept. 11, 2001 lead to the Department of Homeland Security, the War in Afghanistan, and Iraq.


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