10 th American History. Unit II- Becoming a World Power Chapter 8 Section 1 A World Crisis. A World Crisis. The Main Idea Rivalries among European nations led to the outbreak of war in 1914. Reading Focus What were the causes of World War I? How did the war break out?
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Unit II- Becoming a World Power
Chapter 8 Section 1
A World Crisis
Five Major factors often identified as causes of World War I (but not causes of U.S. entry)
Events or EconomicsCauses of World War I
Kaiser Wilhelm II
Emperor Franz Joseph
After the assassination, Princip was arrested, and Austro-Hungarian officials learned that the Serbian government had supplied the assassins with bombs and weapons.
Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire
The German army quickly advanced through northern France and after only one month of fighting were barely 25 miles from Paris.
Poison gas attack, Flanders, Belgium
The second major battle close to the River Marne took place during the summer of 1918. Over 85,000 American soldiers took part in the battle. The German attack on the Marne was launched on 15th July. The Germans failed to break through. This included 24 divisions of the French Army, and soldiers from the United States, Britain and Italy. Allied casualties during the 2nd Battle of the Marne were heavy: French (95,000), British (13,000) and United States (12,000). It is estimated that the German Army suffered an estimated 168,000 casualties and marked the last real attempt by the Central Power to win WWI.
Battle of Verdun - 1916, became for the French what Gettysburg is for Americans.The goal of the German commander was not territory, but to bleed his enemy to death. The battle lasted nine months and in the end the front lines were nearly the same, while over 300,000 French and Germans were killed and over 750,000 were wounded.
Battle of the Somme, where another million died. The battle also saw the introduction of the tank. 42 British tanks. The British fired 1.5 million rounds of artillery shells at the Germans in the 5 month battle. The opening barrage could be heard in England. For every yard of the 18 mile front there were two British casualties. 420,000 British casualties and 1.3 million total in the battle.
As the slaughter continued with no significant gains in territory by either side, the men in the trenches kept their sanity by using music, theater and trench newspapers to replicate the world they left behind.Slaughter on the Western Front
In the spring of 1915 the trenches along the western front were filled with millions of soldiers, at the average rate of one soldier per four inches of trench. The job behind the front lines was to keep the men fed, equipped and ready to continue the fighting until the end came.Since both sides targeted both civilians and military personnel, and mobilized men and resources at an unprecedented rate, the Great War was a "total war”.
This total war effected the lives of many different people:
Impersonal killing- Hand to hand, sword, rifle, machine gun, bomb and airplane
1914- each side lost a 1/2 million men
1915- British and French advance was less than 3 miles anywhere. France lost 1.5 million men
In early 1916, the British had over 1 million men in Belgium and France, while the French and German armies had re-supplied their front line troops. The stage was set for both sides to try to make the breakthrough on the battlefield that would assure each victory. By 1916’s end, both sides would lose nearly one million men with very little change in position of the front line trenches
1916 Battle of the Somme- 5 months. Germans lost over 600,000 men. 20,000 British soldiers died in one day.
Before the end of the war over 10 million men would die on both sides. Another 10 million civilians from disease, starvation, and revolutions.
1918- German trenches were 50 miles from Paris, the German hope was to reach Paris and defeat the French before the Americans came into the war.
British Empire 942,135
United States 116,516
Ottoman Empire 725,000
65 million mobilized both sides
8.5 million killed
21 million wounded
7.7 million POW’s and missing
37million total casualties
57% of all men mobilizedWorld War I Casualties
There was undeniably psychological value to the infantry in carrying a bayonet, even if in practice it was seldom used. Bayonets continued to be commonly issued in the Second World War.
First Use by the French
Although it is popularly believed that the German army was the first to use gas it was in fact initially deployed by the French. In the first month of the war, August 1914, they fired tear-gas grenades (xylyl bromide) against the Germans. Nevertheless the German army was the first to give serious study to the development of chemical weapons and the first to use it on a large scale
Country Casualties Deaths
Austria-Hungary 100,000 3,000
British Empire 88,706 8,109
France 190,000 8,000
Germany 200,000 9,000
Italy 60,000 4,627
Russia 419,340 56,000
USA 72,807 1,462
Others 10,000 1,000Poison Gas
During the war the Germans launched in excess of 650 flame-thrower attacks; no numbers exist for British or French attacks.
Except during an attack, life fell into a dull routine. Some soldiers stood guard. Others repaired the trenches, kept telephone lines in order, brought food from behind the battle lines, or did other jobs. At night, patrols fixed the barbed wire and tried to get information about the enemy.