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UNIT 1 – Area of Study 1 Body Systems & Human Movement. JOINTS & HUMAN MOVEMENT. JOINTS. There are 3 classifications of joints:. 1. FIBROUS ( immovable ). skull. pelvis. JOINTS. There are 3 classifications of joints:. 2. CARTILAGENOUS ( semi-moveable ). ribs to sternum. pubic bones.

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joints
JOINTS
  • There are 3 classifications of joints:
  • 1. FIBROUS ( immovable )

skull

pelvis

joints1
JOINTS
  • There are 3 classifications of joints:
  • 2. CARTILAGENOUS ( semi-moveable )

ribs to sternum

pubic bones

joints2
JOINTS
  • There are 3 classifications of joints:
  • 3. SYNOVIAL
    • ( freely moveable )
    • ( controlled by muscles )
joints3
JOINTS
  • There are 6 different types of synovial joints
  • BALL & SOCKET -
    • The ball or head of one bones inserts into the socket or cup of another.
    • Eg: shoulder / hip.
  • HINGE –
    • Allows movement in one plane only ( flexion & extension ).
    • Eg: elbow / knee.
  • PIVOT –
    • One bone rotated around another.
    • Eg: atlas & axis.
  • GLIDING –
    • Bones glide or slide across each other.
    • Eg: carpals / tarsals.
  • SADDLE –
    • One bone sits atop another like a saddle on a horse.
    • Eg: thumb.
  • CONDYLOID –
    • Bones articulate together ( butt up against each ) but without the ball and socket structure
    • This allows not only flexion & extension but some circumduction – eg: wrist
joints4
JOINTS
  • There are 6 different types of synovial joints
  • BALL & SOCKET -
    • The ball or head of one bones inserts into the socket or cup of another.
    • Eg: shoulder / hip.
  • HINGE –
    • Allows movement in one plane only ( flexion & extension ).
    • Eg: elbow / knee.
  • PIVOT –
    • One bone rotated around another.
    • Eg: atlas & axis.
  • GLIDING –
    • Bones glide or slide across each other.
    • Eg: carpals / tarsals.
  • SADDLE –
    • One bone sits atop another like a saddle on a horse.
    • Eg: thumb.
  • CONDYLOID –
    • Bones articulate together ( butt up against each ) but without the ball and socket structure
    • This allows not only flexion – extension but some circumduction – eg: wrist
joints5
JOINTS
  • All synovial joints have the same features :
joints6
JOINTS
  • All synovial joints have the same features :
  • HYALINE CARTILAGE
    • Lines the bones / protects / reduces friction
joints7
JOINTS
  • All synovial joints have the same features :
  • HYALINE CARTILAGE
    • Lines the bones / protects / reduces friction
  • JOINT CAPSULE
    • Surrounds the joint / adds stability / stops substances entering or leaving joint
joints8
JOINTS
  • All synovial joints have the same features :
  • HYALINE CARTILAGE
    • Lines the bones / protects / reduces friction
  • JOINT CAPSULE
    • Surrounds the joint / adds stability / stops substances entering or leaving joint
  • SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE
    • Lines the inside of the capsule / produces & secretes synovial fluid
joints9
JOINTS

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  • HYALINE CARTILAGE
    • Lines the bones / protects / reduces friction
  • JOINT CAPSULE
    • Surrounds the joint / adds stability / stops substances entering or leaving joint
  • SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE
    • Lines the inside of the capsule / produces & secretes synovial fluid
  • SYNOVIAL FLUID
    • Lubricates the inside of the joint
  • All synovial joints have the same features :

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joints10
JOINTS

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  • LIGAMENTS
    • Hold bones together / control movement
  • SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE
    • Lines the inside of the capsule / produces & secretes synovial fluid
  • All synovial joints have the same features :
  • SYNOVIAL FLUID
    • Lubricates the inside of the joint
  • HYALINE CARTILAGE
    • Lines the bones / protects / reduces friction
  • JOINT CAPSULE
    • Surrounds the joint / adds stability / stops substances entering or leaving joint

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movement
MOVEMENT
  • FLEXION
  • The angle between the bones decreases.
  • Eg: bicep curl – UP
movement1
MOVEMENT
  • FLEXION
  • The angle between the bones decreases.
  • Eg: bicep curl – UP
  • EXTENSION
  • The angle between the bones increases.
  • Eg: bicep curl – DOWN

FLEXION

movement2
MOVEMENT
  • FLEXION
  • The angle between the bones decreases.
  • Eg: bicep curl – UP
  • EXTENSION
  • The angle between the bones increases.
  • Eg: bicep curl – DOWN

FLEXION

EXTENSION

movement3
MOVEMENT
  • ABDUCTION
  • To take away from the midline of body
  • Eg: arm raise– UP
movement4
MOVEMENT
  • ABDUCTION
  • To take away from the midline of body
  • Eg: arm raise– UP
  • ADDUCTION
  • To bring back to the midline of the body
  • Eg: arm lowered– DOWN

ABDUCTION

movement5
MOVEMENT
  • ABDUCTION
  • To take away from the midline of body
  • Eg: arm raise– UP
  • ADDUCTION
  • To bring back to the midline of the body
  • Eg: arm lowered– DOWN

ABDUCTION

ADDUCTION

movement6
MOVEMENT
  • ROTATION
  • Movement around an axis
  • Eg: turning head left & right
movement7
MOVEMENT
  • ROTATION
  • Movement around an axis
  • Eg: turning head left & right
  • CIRCUMDUCTION
  • Bone makes a cone shape as it moves
  • Eg: circling the arms.
movement8
MOVEMENT
  • ROTATION
  • Movement around an axis
  • Eg: turning head left & right
  • CIRCUMDUCTION
  • Bone makes a cone shape as it moves
  • Eg: circling the arms.
movement9
MOVEMENT
  • SUPINATION – Forearm is rotated to face palm UP.
  • PRONATION – Forearm is rotated to face palm DOWN.
  • PLANTAR FLEXION – Point toes down or raise up onto tippy toes.
  • DORSI FLEXION – Raise toes up higher than the heels.
  • INVERSION – Sole of the foot is turned to face inwards.
  • EVERSION – Sole of the foot is turned to face outwards.
revision questions
REVISION QUESTIONS

1. The function of the skeletal system is to:

A/ provide protection of vital organs.

B/ allow movement.

C/ blood cell production

D/ mineral storage

E/ all of the above

F/ none of the above.

2. Which of the following form the axial skeleton ?

A/ skull, sternum, rib cage, vertebral column

B/ skull, shoulder girdle, spine, pelvic girdle

C/ skull, sternum, humerus, pelvis, femur

D/ shoulder girdle, arms, pelvic girdle, legs

3. Which of the following are examples of long bones ?

A/ face, vertebrae , femur, carpals

B/ pelvis, tarsals , humerus, digits

C/ metatarsals, digits, tibia, radius

D/ skull, ulna, femur, metacarpals

slide24

REVISION QUESTIONS

4. From inferior to superior the curvatures of the spine are the:

A/ lumbar, sacral, cervical, thoracic.

B/ cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral.

C/ sacral, lumbar, thoracic, cervical.

D/ thoracic, lumbar, sacral, cervical

5. Bones are attached to each other mainly by means of:

A/ ligaments

B/ muscle

C/ tendons

D/ skin

6. Which of the following is NOT a category of joint ?

A/ cartilagenous

B/ fibrous

C/ hyaline

D/ synovial

slide25

REVISION QUESTIONS

7. Which of the following is an example of a saddle joint ?

A/ the base of the thumb

B/ the ankle

C/ the knee

D/ the hip

8. The function of the hyaline cartilage is to:

A/ protect the bone.

B/ reduce friction in the joint.

C/ grease the surface of the joint.

D/ all of the above.

E/ none of the above.

9. Ball and socket joints permit the following movements:

A/ flexion, extension, plantar flexion, supination

B/ rotation, circumduction, eversion, inversion

C/ adduction, abduction, dorsi flexion, plantar flexion

D/ flexion, extension, abduction, adduction.

slide26

REVISION QUESTIONS

10. Which of the following joints permits rotation only :

A/ gliding

B/ pivot

C/ hinge

D/ ball and socket

11. Whilst carrying a tray in front of the body with the hands lying flat under the tray:

A/ the hands are flexed.

B/ the hands are extended.

C/ the hands are supinated.

D/ the hands are pronated.

12. The movement “adduction” involves :

A/ a decrease in the joint angle

B/ an increase in the joint angle

C/ taking a body part away from the midline of the body

D/ taking a body part towards the midline of the body