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Table of Contents. Chapter Preview 14.1 The Body’s Transport System 14.2 Blood and Lymph 14.3 The Respiratory System 14.4 Cardiovascular and Respiratory Diseases. 14.1 The Body’s Transport System 14.2 Blood and Lymph 14.3 The Respiratory System 14.4 Cardiovascular and Respiratory Diseases.

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table of contents
Table of Contents

Chapter Preview

14.1 The Body’s Transport System

14.2 Blood and Lymph

14.3 The Respiratory System

14.4 Cardiovascular and Respiratory Diseases

  • 14.1 The Body’s Transport System
  • 14.2 Blood and Lymph
  • 14.3 The Respiratory System
  • 14.4 Cardiovascular and Respiratory Diseases
chapter 14 preview questions
Chapter 14 Preview Questions
  • 1. Which part of the heart pumps blood through arteries,
  • delivering oxygen to tissues?
  • a. the right side
  • b. the left side
  • c. both the right and left sides
  • d. the outside
chapter 14 preview questions1
Chapter 14 Preview Questions
  • 1. Which part of the heart pumps blood through arteries,
  • delivering oxygen to tissues?
  • a. the right side
  • b. the left side
  • c. both the right and left sides
  • d. the outside
chapter 14 preview questions2
Chapter 14 Preview Questions
  • 2. Oxygen-poor blood returns to the heart through veins from the
  • a. body.
  • b. lungs.
  • c. both the lungs and the body.
  • d. neither the lungs nor the body.
chapter 14 preview questions3
Chapter 14 Preview Questions
  • 2. Oxygen-poor blood returns to the heart through veins from the
  • a. body.
  • b. lungs.
  • c. both the lungs and the body.
  • d. neither the lungs nor the body.
chapter 14 preview questions4
Chapter 14 Preview Questions
  • 3. Blood moving from the heart to the lungs is rich in
  • a. air.
  • b. oxygen.
  • c. carbon dioxide.
  • d. oxygen and carbon dioxide.
chapter 14 preview questions5
Chapter 14 Preview Questions
  • 3. Blood moving from the heart to the lungs is rich in
  • a. air.
  • b. oxygen.
  • c. carbon dioxide.
  • d. oxygen and carbon dioxide.
chapter 14 preview questions6
Chapter 14 Preview Questions
  • 4. What action allows the intake of oxygen into the body?
  • a. circulation
  • b. inhaling
  • c. exhaling
  • d. pumping by the heart
chapter 14 preview questions7
Chapter 14 Preview Questions
  • 4. What action allows the intake of oxygen into the body?
  • a. circulation
  • b. inhaling
  • c. exhaling
  • d. pumping by the heart
section 14 1 the body s transport system
Section 14.1: The Body’s Transport System
  • What are the functions of the cardiovascular system?
  • What is the function and structure of the heart?
  • What path does blood take through the cardiovascular system?
  • What are the functions and structures of arteries, capillaries, and veins?
the cardiovascular system
The Cardiovascular System
  • carries needed substances to cells
  • carries waste products away from cells.
  • In addition, blood contains cells that fight disease.
the heart
The Heart
  • The heart is a hollow, muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body.
  • The right side of the heart is completely separated from the left side by tissue called the septum.
  • Each side has an upper chamber, or atrium, and a lower chamber, or ventricle.
the heart1
The Heart
  • As blood flows out of the heart and toward the lungs, it passes through a valve like the one here.
two loops
Two Loops
  • Blood circulates through the body in two loops, with the heart at the center.
  • In the first loop, blood travels from the heart to the lungs and then back to the heart.
  • In the second loop, blood is pumped from the heart throughout the body and then returns to the heart.
blood vessels
Blood Vessels
  • Arteries:
  • When blood leaves the heart it travels through arteries.
  • The walls of arteries are thick consisting of 3 layers.
  • The aorta is the largest artery in the body.
  • Every organ in the body receives blood from arteries that branch off the aorta.
  • Arteries are strong and flexible.
  • Arteries are able to withstand enormous pressure from the heart.
  • Your pulse is caused by expansion of the artery wall.
artery and vein
Artery and Vein
  • In this photo, you can compare the wall of an artery with the wall of a vein.
veins
Veins
  • Veins carry blood back to the heart and lungs
  • Blood moves from the capillaries into veins.
  • Veins are thinner than arteries but still have 3 layers
  • Large veins have valves to prevent blood from flowing backward.
blood vessels1
Blood Vessels
  • The walls of arteries and veins have three layers. The walls of capillaries are only one cell thick.
blood pressure
Blood Pressure
  • Caused by the force created when the ventricles contract
  • As blood moves away from the heart the pressure decreases.
  • Blood Pressure is measured using a sphygmomanometer
  • (sfigmohmuhnam u tur).
  • Blood Pressure is measured as a fraction with the hearts contraction pressure over the relaxation pressure. 120/80 is a typical pressure reading for a young adult
capillaries
Capillaries
  • Blood flows from small arteries to tiny tubes called capillaries.
  • Blood cells pass through capillaries single file!
  • Capillaries are thin walled vessels.
  • Oxygen, Glucose, and Carbon Dioxide pass through capillary walls by the process diffusion.
  • When a capillary gives oxygen to an organ it will take away the waste carbon dioxide made by that organ.
calculating a rate
Calculating a Rate
  • A rate is the speed at which something happens. When you calculate a rate, you compare the number of events with the time period in which they occur. Here’s how to calculate the pulse rate of a person whose heart beats 142 times in two minutes.
  • 1. Write the comparison as a fraction:
  • 2. Divide the numerator and the denominator by 2:
  • The person’s pulse rate is 71 heartbeats per minute.
calculating a rate1
Practice Problem

Calculate your pulse rate if your heart beats 170 times in 2.5 minutes.

68 beats per minute

Calculating a Rate
section 14 2 blood and lymph
Section 14.2: Blood and Lymph
  • What are the components of blood?
  • What determines the type of blood that a person can receive in a transfusion?
  • What are the structures and functions of the lymphatic system?
blood
Blood
  • Blood is made up plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.
  • Plasma
  • 90% of plasma is made up of water.
  • Plasma carries fats, glucose, vitamins’ minerals and hormones.
  • Proteins in plasma give it its yellow color.
  • Red Blood Cells
  • Take up oxygen in the lungs and carry it to the body.
  • Red Blood Cells have Hemoglobin, an iron containing protein that binds to oxygen.
  • RBC’s are made in bone marrow.
  • White Blood Cells
  • Are made in bone marrow-they fight disease
  • Are bigger than RBC’s
  • WBC’s are fewer in numbers, only about one for every 500-1000 RBC’s.
  • WBC’s can live from months to years they have a nucleus.
blood1
Blood
  • Blood consists of liquid plasma and three kinds of cells—red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
blood types
Blood Types
  • The marker molecules on your red blood cells determine your blood type and the type of blood that you can safely receive in transfusions.
blood type distribution
Blood Type Distribution
  • The circle graph shows the percentage of each blood type found in the U.S. population.
the lymphatic system
The Lymphatic System
  • The lymphatic system is a network of veinlike vessels that returns the fluid to the bloodstream.
the lymphatic system and
The Lymphatic System and
  • The Lymphatic System
  • Some fluid in blood leaks out to surrounding tissues to bath cells with necessary materials.
  • Fluid is then collected into vessels that carries fluid back to the bloodstream.
  • Lymph nodes filter lymph, trapping bacteria and germs that cause disease.
section 14 3 the respiratory system
Section 14.3: The Respiratory System
  • What are the functions of the respiratory system?
  • What structures does air pass through as it travels to the lungs?
  • What happens during gas exchange and breathing?
the respiratory system
The Respiratory System
  • The respiratory system moves oxygen into the body and Carbon Dioxide out.
  • The respiratory equation is:
  • C6H12O6 + 6O2 ---------- 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP (energy)
  • Respiration takes place in every cell in the body
the path of air
The Path of Air:
  • Nose and Mouth: lined with cilia and mucus
  • Pharynx = where the nose and mouth connect.
  • Trachea: lined with cilia and mucus.
  • Larynx: below the epiglottis, vocal cords vibrate with air to produce sound.
  • Bronchi: direct air into the lungs.
  • Lungs: are the main organs of respiration
  • Alveoli: tiny sacs in the lungs where
  • exchange occurs
the path of air1
The Path of Air
  • As air travels from the outside environment to the lungs, it passes through the following structures: nose, pharynx, trachea, and bronchi.
gas exchange
Gas Exchange
  • After air enters an alveolus, oxygen passes through the wall of the alveolus and then through the capillary wall into the blood. Carbon dioxide and water pass from the blood into the alveoli.
how you breathe
How You Breathe
  • When you breathe, the actions of your rib muscles and diaphragm expand or contract your chest. As a result, air flows in or out.
diaphragm
Diaphragm
  • The diaphragm is a dome shaped muscle that helps get air in and out of the lungs. It also separates the thoracic cavity from the abdomen.
breathing and speaking
Breathing and Speaking
  • Two vocal cords, folds of connective tissue that produce your voice, stretch across the opening of the larynx. Air moving over the vocal cords causes them to vibrate and produce sound.
respiratory system functions
Respiratory System Functions
  • Oxygen from the air and glucose from digested food are both carried to the cells by the blood. During respiration, oxygen reacts with glucose to release energy.
the air you breathe
The Air You Breathe
  • The air you breathe in contains several different gases, shown in the circle graph on the left. The air you breathe out contains the same gases, but in the amounts shown in the circle graph on the right.
the air you breathe1
Percent of a gas breathed in or out

Reading Graphs:

What does each wedge of the graphs represent?

The Air You Breathe
the air you breathe2
Oxygen; less oxygen is breathed out than breathed in—meaning that some must have been used by the body.

Interpreting Data:

Based on the data, which gas is used by the body? Explain.

The Air You Breathe
the air you breathe3
There is a higher percentage of carbon dioxide in exhaled air. Carbon dioxide is a waste product of cellular activity.

Drawing Conclusions:

Compare the percentage of carbon dioxide in inhaled air with the percentage in exhaled air. How can you account for the difference?

The Air You Breathe
the air you breathe4
Nitrogen is not used by the body and is not a waste product.

Inferring:

Explain why the percentage of nitrogen is the same in both inhaled air and exhaled air.

The Air You Breathe
section 14 4 cardiovascular and respiratory diseases
Section 14.4: Cardiovascular and Respiratory Diseases
  • What are some diseases of the cardiovascular system?
  • How may tobacco smoke affect the body?
  • What are some respiratory diseases that result from infections or other physical conditions?
cardiovascular health
Cardiovascular Health
  • Atherosclerosis = when artery walls thicken inside because of a buildup of fatty tissue.
  • Reduces blood flow.
  • Caused by cholesterol build-up.
  • Chronic (long term)
heart attack
Heart attack
  • When blood flow to the heart is blocked.
hypertension
Hypertension
  • When blood pressure is higher than normal.
  • Causes are lack of exercise, being overweight and too much salt in the diet.
health problems and smoking
Health Problems and Smoking
  • Tobacco smoke damages the respiratory system and strains the circulatory system, resulting in such diseases as emphysema, cancer, and chronic bronchitis.
smoking and your health
Smoking and Your Health
  • Cigarette smoke contains over 4000 different chemicals. Some of the most deadly are:
  • Carbon Monoxide: a colorless, odorless gas that robs your cells of oxygen because it binds to hemoglobin. Carbon monoxide causes the heart rate and breathing rate it increase.
  • Tar = a dark sticky substance that causes cilia to clump together.
  • Nicotine: Causes people to become addicted to cigarettes. It speeds up the nervous system and heart.
  • Smoking causes respiratory problems such as:
  • Chronic Bronchitis: when the air passages become inflamed and filled with mucus.
  • Emphysema: when the air sacs are destroyed along with the lung tissue
  • Lung Cancer: cancerous growths or tumors take over the lungs. 140,000 Americans die of lung cancer each year.
  • Passive smoking causes 300,000 children to develop respiratory problems each year.
respiratory diseases
Respiratory Diseases
  • During an asthma attack, air passages narrow and breathing is more difficult.
staying healthy
Staying Healthy
  • Exercise.
  • Eat Right.
  • Avoid smoking, alcohol, and drugs.