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HUT. China - Japan - India Jaana Pukkila. Cultural Differences. Values: right/wrong, truth ... Religions, philosophies -> making sense of the world, legitimising values: Social norms, attitudes, customs Dos & Don’ts Organisations Communication Etc.

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slide1
HUT

China - Japan - India

Jaana Pukkila

cultural differences
Cultural Differences
  • Values: right/wrong, truth ...
  • Religions, philosophies

-> making sense of the world, legitimising values:

  • Social norms, attitudes, customs
  • Dos & Don’ts

Organisations

Communication

Etc.

slide3
Some Asian Religions, Philosophies
  • Buddhism
  • Taoism
  • Confucianism
  • Japan: Shinto
  • India: Hinduism
slide4
East Asian cultural sphere

China

Koreas

Japan

Vietnam

Overseas Chinese

slide5
Confucianism
  • Leading philosophy in East Asia
  • Confucius 551-479 BCE
  • Best way to organise society, governance ????
  • Goal: maintaining harmony and order
slide6
Main points:
  • Harmony
  • Hierarchy
  • Etiquette & Tradition
  • Family & Groups
  • Study & Learning
  • China: balinghou, jiulinghou, Japan: “space aliens”
slide7
Hierarchy:

Age

Seniority

Rank & title

Education

No equal relationships

One should only do things / utter words appropriate to one’s rank in family/society (Confucius)

slide8
Hierarchy:
  • Who (rank) is talking? ”the Truth”
  • Boss is boss
  • In negotiations: top negotiators do the talking
  • High power distance cultures / Low power distance cultures
slide9
Groups
  • Group more important than an individual
  • Remember your place
  • Role & duties
  • Family
  • China: family, guanxi friends, outsiders

---> not know-how but know-who, companies do not do business - people do,

need of a go-between -> in Japan a must (shokaisha)

Chinese guanxi = Japanese ningen kankei

How to build/maintain guanxi: extra curricular activities...

slide10
Hierarchy & Groups

Face

  • Group passport Honour
  • Maintain/give/lose face
  • Keeping face: harmonious behaviour, communication
  • Reciprocity principle
slide11
Communication
  • Direct vs. Indirect
  • Non-hierarchical vs. hierarchical
  • Meaning of ”yes”?
  • Can I say ”no”?

TIPS:

  • Use open-ended questions
  • Coffee-break talk
  • Read non-verbal communication
slide12
Example: Japanese communication:
  • Tatemae: polite front
  • Honne: true feelings, opinions
  • Haragei (“belly language”): non verbal communication
slide13
Non verbal communication
  • Facial expressions & gestures
  • Tone of voice & silence
  • Eye contact
  • Use of space & touching
slide14
Virtual Communication
  • Same rules: direct / indirect

TIPS:

  • Establish yourself
  • Tell exactly what you want - “salami vs. ham”
  • 2-3 bullets/email - prioritising
  • c.c. the boss
  • Telcos: clear agenda & stick to it - no surprises
slide15
Chinese (Japanese) negotiations:
  • There is no word for negotiation in trad. Chinese, the modern tan pan = discussion + making judgement. Tan pan has not the connotations of bargaining, conflict resolution and final agreement implicit in the term negotiation. Tan pan is an ongoing dialogue
  • Chinese view: the Western approach to negotiation is like signing an elaborate prenuptial agreement, a contract that could doom the relationship to failure before it starts.
  • Negotiation rituals
  • Don’t lose your patience
slide16
Organisation and Management Style: Hierarchies
  • Flat hierarchies vs. steep hierarchies

In a hierarchical organisation:

  • Boss is boss - status authority
  • Little delegation
  • Few matrices
  • One can not have two bosses
  • Top down decisions: “Information is power”
japanese style decision making
Japanese style decision making
  • Ringi
  • Middle-up
  • Group decisions
  • Ringi-sho
  • Nemawashi
  • Slow decision making - fast implementation
project work
Project work
  • Active - Proactive ?

Kick-off meetings:

  • Clear agenda - stick to it
  • Discussing the goals - atomism vs. holism
  • Delegation of tasks and responsibilities
  • Timetables and follow-up

In general:

  • Plan carefully: GI-GO
  • Prioritising
india
India
  • Cultural Diversity:
    • geography
    • religions (Hindu 83%, Muslim 11%, Christian 2,6%, Sikh 1,9% etc)
    • caste system
    • languages (24 official languages in the Constitution)
    • social strata, exposure to outside world
  • British Rule (Raj) (1763 -15.8.1947 Independence)

--> no one culture

--> no one business culture (e.g. bureaucrats, traditional industries, high tech e.g. ICT…)

--> In business: general polite manners suffice

some indian values
Some Indian values
  • Hierarchy
  • Family
  • Networks
  • Religion
  • (Caste)
negotiations
Negotiations
  • Hierarchy and bureaucracy
  • Aim the top
  • Top-down decision making
  • Win-lose / win-win
  • (Internationally) seasoned negotiators
  • Contracts: mostly literal interpretation -> still: follow-up
  • Handling conflicts: negotiate
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