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Starter 10/3. Classifying Items

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starter 10 3
Starter 10/3

Classifying Items

People organize or classify objects for different reasons. Classifying foods into groups, such as grains, vegetables, and fruits helps people plan meals that maintain a healthy diet. Biologists classify organisms into groups that have similar characteristics, which makes the relationships among organisms easier to see.

1. Devise a classification system for the following items: orange, lime, plum, apple, pear, rose, violet, daisy, gold, and silver.

2. Explain what criteria you used to place items into each category of your classification system.

slide2
Matter – anything that has mass or takes up space.

Are these matter?

- you, desk, water, dust, air

properties
Properties
  • Properties – characteristics used to describe an object
  • Ex. Mass, volume, color
slide4

Mass- is a measure of the amount of matter in anobject.UNITS – grams (g) or kilograms (kg).Volume – is a measure of how much space matter takes up.UNITS- cm3 & m3 OR mL & L

volume of an irregularly shaped solid object
Volume of an irregularly shaped solid object
  • You can not measure an irregularly shaped solid object by using

volume= length x width x height

  • You can measure its volume by measuring the volume of water the object displaces.
  • The volume of water displaced by the object is equal to it’s volume.

1 ml = 1cm3

matter can be classified into two categories
Matter can be classified into two categories.
  • 1. Pure Substances:
    • Element
    • Compound
  • 2. Mixture
slide7
Pure Substance
    • Matter that ALWAYS has the same composition and properties.
    • Ex. Every pinch of sugar will be equally sweet as the pinch before. Salt is another example.
    • (Composition= how something is put together)
slide8
Elements
    • Made of only one type of atom
    • CAN NOT be broken down
    • Can be solid, liquid or gas
    • Ex. Hydrogen (H), Neon (Ne)
slide9
Compounds
    • Two or more elements CHEMICALLYcombined in a specific ratio
    • CAN be broken down
    • Items in a compound take on new properties
    • Ex. Salt (NaCl) Water (H2O)
classifying matter
Classifying Matter
  • Mixture
    • two or more elements PHYSICALLY combined with no specific ratio
    • No specific properties or distribution of parts
    • NOT A PURE SUBSTANCE
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Starter 10/4
  • What is the formula for calculating volume ?
  • 2. In 1-2 lines, explain what can you infer from the information given on the chart and how you know.
  • 3. Calculate the volume of one item.
slide12
Classified by how well it is mixed
    • HOMOGENEOUS- very well mixed, can’t pick out the parts
      • ex. Iced tea, ocean water
    • HETEROGENEOUS- not well mixed, easily notice different parts
      • Ex. Salad, chex mix, sand
slide13
Solutions – when something dissolves to form a homogeneous mixture
    • Transparent
    • Kool aid, tap water, chlorine
  • Suspension- heterogeneous mixture that separates over time
    • salad dressing, oil and water
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Starter 10/5

MATTER

PURE SUBSTANCE

MIXTURE

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Starter 10/6
  • Combinations of elements can be compounds OR mixtures
  • In 1-2 lines, describe the difference between compounds & mixtures
  • 2. Make an inference: which combination could be a mixture? Why?
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Starter 10/7
  • Create two practice quiz questions using your flip book or notes.
    • Make sure to write out the question and write the answer too.
  • Quiz your neighbor
physical properties
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
  • Can be used to identify a material
  • Can be observed without measuring or changing the item’s composition
slide18
Viscosity –
    • tendency of a liquid to keep from flowing
    • Higher = slower moving, thick
    • Lower = faster moving, thin/runny

- Heat decreases viscosity

  • Hardness-
    • testing the strength by scratching it against something
slide19
Conductivity
    • allows heat or electricity through it
    • Metals are good conductors
  • Malleability
    • Ability to hammer (mallet) out without breaking
    • Opposite = brittle
slide20

Density: d= m/v

    • amount of mass inside an object’s shape
    • Unit – g/cm3
    • Dense objects feel heavier because they have lots of matter tightly packed in their shape
    • The density of water is1.0 g/cm3
    • Objects with density less than 1.0 g/cm3 will float.
find the density
FIND THE DENSITY
  • The block’s mass is 90 g

Height (2 cm)

Width (3 cm)

Length (5 cm)

slide22
Melting Point
    • temperature when substances change from Solid  liquid
  • Boiling Point
    • temperature when substances boil

***changes for each substance***

chemical properties
Chemical Properties
  • Chemical Property
    • something that leads to a change in composition of matter
slide24
Flammability –
    • ability to burn when oxygen is present
    • Can be a good and bad property (lighter fluid SHOULD be flammable, Carpet is bad to be flammable)
    • Solids, liquids or gases.
slide25
Reactivity-
    • the ability to combine with another substance easily
    • Oxygen reacts with most substances
      • Causes rusting of metals, allows fire to burn
      • Nitrogen is not very reactive and is often added to reduce the other element side effects
slide26
Flammability –
    • ability to burn when oxygen is present
    • Can be a good and bad property (lighter fluid SHOULD be flammable, Carpet is bad to be flammable)
    • Solids, liquids or gases.
slide27
Reactivity-
    • the ability to combine with another substance easily
    • Oxygen reacts with most substances
      • Causes rusting of metals, allows fire to burn
      • Nitrogen is not very reactive and is often added to reduce the other element side effects
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Starter 10/9
  • Which is the MOST dense item?
  • Which is the LEAST dense item?
  • Which items will float?
  • Draw a diagram of what a beaker might look like if you put water, oil and a cork in it.
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Starter 10/11

Creating and Interpreting Graphs

Many people have pets. One survey of pet owners showed the following breakdown of the type of pets owned: 35% dogs; 35% cats; 10% birds; 5% hamsters, gerbils, mice, rats; 5% reptiles; and 10% other.

1. Copy the incomplete circle graph below on your paper. Complete the graph using the survey data. Estimate the angle of each section of your completed circle graph. Give your graph a title and label what each section of the graph represents.

2. In 1-2 lines, explain how viewing a graph

might be easier for the reader