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The American West Post-Civil War Issues
Review • How did we get here? • Colonies > French & Indian War > Proclamation of 1763 > American Revolution • Declaration of Independence > Common Sense > Constitution > Bill of Rights • Early leaders > Louisiana Purchase > War of 1812 • 3 branches of govt > checks & balances • Sectionalism vs. Nationalism • Manifest Destiny & Expansion > conflict • Civil War & Reconstruction
Ghost Dance Expression of deepest grief over loss of Native Amer. way of life Clashed with white settlers over control of western land White settlers Felt if land not actively settled, free to take Upset balance of buffalo (source of food & clothing) Jackson Indian Removal Act Trail of Tears Changes Mid 1800s, policy changes By 1850s, increasing number of settlers wanted more land Gov’t seized land > sent Natives to reservations Goal: to break power of Plains Indians & open their land to settlement For Indians, threat to way of life Conflict with Native Americans
Indian Wars • Sand Creek Massacre (1864) • US Army persuaded Cheyenne to stop raiding farms & return peacefully to Colorado reservation > Army troops attacked, killing 150 & burned camp > Congress did nothing • Battle of the Little Bighorn (1876) • Gov’t ordered Sioux to leave to stop raids on settlers. Sitting Bull led thousands of Sioux, Cheyenne & Arapaho against George Custer. Custer & his men were slaughtered but it was the last Sioux victory. • Wounded Knee Massacre (1890) • Dec. 1890 Army troops captured some of Sitting Bull’s followers & took them to Wounded Knee Creed. Next morning soldiers took Indians’ rifles & fighting broke out. Women & children fled but soldiers pursued them. Some 300 Sioux lay dead in the snow. • Massacre shocked Americans & broke Native Amer resistance on the Plains
Resistance Ends • Chief Joseph • “My heart is sick & sad. From where the sun now stands, I will fight no more forever.”
Americanization Goal of Indian reservations Abandon traditional culture & identity to live like white Americans Bureau of Indian Affairs Federal agency managed Native American reservation set up Gov’t schools for Indian kids far from home Had to speak English & couldn’t wear traditional clothing Dawes Act (1887) Broke up some reservations & divided the land among individuals Gov’t often sold best land & gave rest to Indians Even with land, Indians could not afford the supplies needed for farming Reservation Life
Mining • Mining Communities • After CA gold rush, each new discovery > rush • Most prospectors men (some families / women) • Came from US & other countries • Usually lived in tents but as camps grew > communities (ex. Denver, CO) • 1st with hand tools • Mining Business • By 1880s, mining dominated large companies • Dug mine shafts, tunnels, drilled ore • Dangerous with threats of cave-ins, explosions, floods
Ranching • On the Plains • After Civil War > new business on Plains: Cattle ranching • 1st were Spanish then Mexicans • Interbred Spanish & English cattle > Texas longhorn (hardy, not much water, could live on grass alone
Cattle Drives • Post Civil War • Demand for beef increased as city populations expanded • 1866 steer worth $4 in Tex. sold for $40 in East > ranching • Cowboys • Hired ranchers > drove herd to railroad town to shipping • Chisholm Trail
Homestead Act (1862) Any head of household (21 yrs+) could claim 160 acres of land Required to build home on land, make improvements & farm for 5 yrs before full ownership Nearly 2 million people attempted to claim land Pacific Railway Act Gov’t gave millions to build Railroad & telegraph lines Morrill Act Gave states land to build colleges to teach “ag & mechanic arts” *1st federal gov’t assistance for higher ed Great Plains
Oklahoma • Background • Trail of Tears: Native Americans moved to Oklahoma territory • 1879: discovered 2 million acres not assigned • Settlers • April 1889, would-be settlers lined up at border • On signal, 50,000 people rushed to stake claims on 11,000 homesteads (“Far & Away” clip)
White settlers Mostly mid-class farmers or businesspeople who could afford supplies & transportation African American settlers 1870s massive migration West Because of discriminatory Black Codes & violence by KKK European settlers Attracted by econ opportunity Especially Scandinavians, Germans, & Irish Chinese settlers 1880s Chinese who had come to CA for gold rush or Railroad Helped establish CA’s fruit industry Laws barred Asians from owning land > farmer workers not owners New Settlers
American Outlaws • Plot Summary • When a Midwest town leans that a corrupt railroad baron has captured the deeds to their homesteads without their knowledge, a group of young ranchers join forces to take back what is rightfully theirs. In the course of their vendetta, they will become the object of the biggest manhunt in the history of the Old West and, as their fame grows, so will the legend of their leader, a young outlaw by the name of Jesse James.
Questions to Consider *Answer on a separate piece of paper. • What is the background of this story? • What does the Doc warn Jesse & Frank about in their conversation? • Explain the interaction between the James Family & the gov’t. • Discuss the town meeting – what are their concerns?