El presente
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El presente - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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El presente. Uses of the Present. Express a timeless or habitual action in the present Describe events that last up to the present Express planned events and actions in the future. Uses of the Present.

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Uses of the present
Uses of the Present

  • Express a timeless or habitual action in the present

  • Describe events that last up to the present

  • Express planned events and actions in the future

Uses of the present1
Uses of the Present

4. Describe actions and situations that have been going on for a certain period of time in the following constructions:

  • hace + length of time + que + verb in present

  • Verb in present + (desde) hace + length of time

  • To ask a question use

    • ¿Cuánto (tiempo) hace que+ verb in the present?

    • ¿Desde hace cuánto tiempo + verb in the present?

  • Uses of the present2
    Uses of the Present

    • Describe actions and situations that have been going on since a specific point in time:

      • Verb in present + desde + point in time

    • To ask a question use the following construction:

      • ¿Desde cuándo + verb in the present?

    Regular verb conjugation
    Regular Verb Conjugation

    -ar -er -ir .

    -o -amos -o -emos -o -imos

    -as -áis -es -éis -es -ís

    -a -an -e -en -e -en

    Verbs with irregular yo
    Verbs with Irregular Yo

    • caber (to fit)- quepo, cabes, cabe, cabemos, cabéis, caben

    • caer (to fall)- caigo, caes, cae,

      caemos, caéis, caen

    • dar (to give)- doy, das, da,

      damos, dais, dan

    • hacer (to do or make)- hago, haces, hace,

      hacemos, hacéis, hacen

      Deshacer (to undo), satisfacer (to satisfy)

    Verbs with irregular yo1
    Verbs with Irregular Yo

    • poner (to put)- pongo, pones, pone,

      ponemos, ponéis, ponen

      componer (to compose/repair), exponer (to expose),

      suponer (to suppose), descomponer (to break),

      imponer (to impose), disponer (to dispose),

      proponer (to propose)

    • saber (to know a fact/how to do something)

      sé, sabes, sabe,

      sabemos, sabéis, saben

    • salir (to go out/leave) salgo, sales, sale,

      salemos, salís, salen

    Verbs with irregular yo2
    Verbs with Irregular Yo

    • traer (to bring)- traigo, traes, trae,

      traemos, traéis, traen

      atraer (to attract), contraer (to contract), distraer (to distract)

    • valer (to be worth/cost)- valgo, vales, vale

      valemos, valéis, valen

    • ver (to see)- veo, ves, ve

      vemos, veis, ven

    Verbs with irregular yo and stem change
    Verbs with Irregular Yo and Stem Change

    • decir (to say/tell)- digo, dices, dice,

      decimos, decís, dicen

    • tener (to have)- tengo, tienes, tiene,

      tenemos, tenéis, tienen

      contener (to contain), entretener (to entertain), obtener (to obtain),

      detener (to detain/stop), mantener (to maintian), retener (to retain)

    • venir (to come)- vengo, vienes, viene

      venimos, venís, vienen

      convenir (to agree/be suitable), intervenir (to intervene),

      prevenir (to warn/ prevent)

    Other irregular verbs
    Other Irregular Verbs

    • estar (to be)- estoy, estás, está,

      éstamos, estáis, están

    • ir (to go)- voy, vas, va, vamos, vais, van

    • oír (to hear)- oigo, oyes, oye,

      oímos, oís, oyen

    • ser (to be)- soy, eres, es, somos, sois, son

    Stem changing verbs
    Stem-changing verbs

    • u to ue

      jugar (to play)

      juego jugamos

      juegas jugáis

      juega juegan

    Stem changing verbs1
    Stem-changing Verbs

    • o to ue

      dormir (to sleep)

      duermo dormimos

      duermas dormís

      duerma duerman

    Other o to ue verbs
    Other o to ue Verbs

    almorzar (to eat lunch) volver (to return)

    acostarse (to go to bed) costar (to cost)

    demostrar (to demonstrate) encontrar (to find)

    mostrar (to show) soñar (to dream)

    recordar (to remember) llover (to rain)

    oler (to smell) poder (to be able)

    resolver (to solve) morir (to die)

    El presente

    oler- to smell

    huelo olemos

    hueles oléis

    huele huelen

    Stem changing verbs2
    Stem-changing Verbs

    • e to ie

      querer (to want)

      quiero queremos

      quieres quieréis

      quiere quieren

    Other e to ie verbs
    Other e to ie Verbs

    pensar (to think) cerrar (to close)

    comenzar (to begin)confesar (to confess)

    despertarse (to wake up) empezar (to begin)

    nevar (to snow) sentarse (to sit down)

    entender (to understand) perder (to lose)

    preferir (to prefer) advertir (to notify)

    hervir (to boil)

    Stem changing verbs3
    Stem-changing Verbs

    • e to i

      servir (to serve)

      sirvo servimos

      sirves servís

      sirve sirven

    Other e to i verbs
    Other e to i Verbs

    despedir (to fire) impedir (to prevent)

    medir (to measure) reírse (to laugh)

    repetir (to repeat) sonreírse (to smile)

    vestir(se) (to dress)

    pedir (to ask for, request)

    despedirse (de) to say good-bye)

    El presente

    reír- to laugh

    río reimos

    ríes reís

    ríe ríen

    Uir verbs
    -uir Verbs

    • -uir verbs add a y after the u.

      construir (to build)

      construyo construimos

      construyes construís

      construye construyen

    Other uir verbs
    Other –uir Verbs

    atribuir (to attribute) concluir (to conclude)

    contribuir (to contribute) destruir (to destroy)

    distribuir (to distribute) huir (to flee)

    incluir (to include) influir (to influence)

    sustituir (to substitute)

    Iar and uar verbs
    -iar and –uar Verbs

    • -iar and –uar verbs have an accent on the i or u.

      enviar (to send) continuar (to continue)

      envío enviamos continúo continuamos

      envías enviáis continúas continuáis

      envía envían continúa continúan

    Other iar and uar verbs
    Other –iar and –uar Verbs

    • -iar

      confiar (en) (to confide [in])

      espiar (to spy) fiarse (de) (to trust)

      guiar (to guide) variar (to vary)

      resfriarse (to catch a cold)

    • -uar

      actuar (to act) graduarse (to graduate)

    Ger and gir verbs
    -ger and –gir Verbs

    • -ger and –gir verbs change g to j in the yo form.

      proteger (to protect) exigir (to demand)

      protejo protegemos exijo exigimos

      proteges protegéis exiges exigís

      protege protegen exige exigen

    Other ger and gir verbs
    Other –ger and –gir verbs

    • -ger

      coger (to grab, catch) encoger (to correct)

      escoger (to choose)

      recoger (to gather, pick up)

    • -gir

      afligir (to grieve) corregir (to correct)

      dirigir (to direct, conduct) elegir (to choose)

      fingir (to feign, pretend)

    Guir verbs
    -guir Verbs

    • Verbs that end in -guir change –gu to g in the yo.

      seguir (e i)

      sigo seguimos

      sigues seguís

      sigue siguen

    Other guir verbs
    Other –guir Verbs

    conseguir (to get, aquire)

    distinguir (to distinguish)

    extinguir (to extinguish)

    perseguir (to pursue)

    proseguir (to proceed)

    Cer verbs
    -cer Verbs

    • Verbs that end in a vowel + –cer change to –zco in the yo. (except hacer)

      ofrecer (to offer)

      ofrezco ofrecemos

      ofreces ofrecéis

      ofrece ofrecen

    Other vowel cer verbs
    Other vowel + –cer Verbs

    aborrecer (to hate) agradecer (to thank)

    aparecer (to appear) crecer (to grow)

    conocer (to know, be familiar with)

    desaparecer (to disappear) establecer (to establish)

    merecer (to deserve) nacer (to be born)

    obedecer (to obey) parecer (to seem)

    permanecer (to remain) pertenecer (to belong)

    reconocer (to recognize)

    Consonant cer verbs
    Consonant + –cer Verbs

    • Verbs that end in a consonant + –cer change to –zo in the yo.

      vencer (to defeat)

      venzo vencemos

      vences vencéis

      vence vencen

      convencer (to convince) ejercer (to exert)

    Vowel cir verbs
    Vowel + -cir Verbs

    • Verbs that end in a vowel + -cir change to

      -zco in the yo. (except decir)

      producir (to produce)

      produzco producimos

      produces producís

      produce producen

    Other vowel cir verbs
    Other vowel + -cir Verbs

    conducir (to drive, conduct)

    reducir (to reduce)

    traducir (to translate)

    Present progressive tense
    Present Progressive Tense

    • The progressive indicates an action in progress. AKA: it is going on right NOW.

    • Any tense of estar can be used but present and imperfect are the most common.

    Present progressive tense1
    Present Progressive Tense

    • The following verbs can be used in place of estar to form the progressive:

      • These are the most common:seguir(keep on or still doing something), ir(conveys the idea of gradually or little by little), andar (implies going about), continuar(continues …),

      • venir (came/comes), salir (left/leaves), entrar (entered/ enteres), and llegar(arrived/arrives) imply continuation or habitual actions.

    Present progressive tense the gerund present participle
    Present Progressive Tense:the Gerund (present participle)

    • The gerund is formed by adding:

      • -ando to the stem of –ar verbs

      • -iendo to the stem of –er and –ir verbs

  • Note:

    • -ar and –er stem changers don’t change.

    • -ir stem changers change o to uand e to i.

    • -er and –ir verbs with stems ending in a vowel change the i in –iendo to a y.