Enlightenment Ideas Spread Chapter 5 section 2 Define the terms below: Censorship Salon Enlightened despot Baroque Rococo
Enlightenment Ideas Spread • Read Setting the Scene on page 149 as well as the Global Connections section
Enlightenment Ideas Spread Chapter 5 Section 2
The Challenge of New Ideas • Educated people all over Europe eagerly read and consumed information. • Because of advances in printing technology, printers were making copies faster and cheaper • Pamphlets were made on a broad range of issues, that made readers see the need to change society .
The Challenge of New Ideas • Things were not as they were in the Middle Ages. Government and the Church felt they needed to defend the old ways • Censorship was used by the old orders in an attempt to control the Enlightenment • Enlightenment thinkers attempted to outsmart the censors, by creating works that were disguised as fiction, but addressed societal ills. (Persian Letters, Montesquieu, Candide, Voltaire, pg149)
The Challenge of New Ideas • The new ideas of the time were discussed in salons • Middle class citizens could meet with the nobility and exchanged enlightenment ideas across locations and social classes.
Enlightened Despots • Some enlightened thinkers attempted to reform society by enlightening the ruling class. • These “enlightened despots used their power to bring about political and social changes.
Frederick the Great • King of Prussia from 1740-1786 • Saw himself as the “first servant of the state,” though he ruled his people with tight control • Accepted religious diversity “in my kingdom, everyone can go to heaven in his own fashion.” • Wanted Prussian government to be more efficient which lead to more power for himself
Catherine the Great • Was a major fan of Voltaire and Diderot • Influenced by enlightenment ideas and limited reforms in law and government early in her reign as empress • Like Frederick the Great she believed in the enlightenment ideas, but used them as justificationtoincrease her power and expand her empire Catherine the Great
Joseph II Joseph II Catherine the Great • The most radical of the enlightened despots • Traveled in disguise amongst his subjects in order to learn their problems • Reformist, he granted toleration to Protestants and Jews within Catholic empire • Put an end to censorship and attempted to put the Church under royal control. • He did the most to reform the lives of his subjects
The Arts and Literature • 1600’s and 1700’s, the arts evolved to meet changing tastes • Artists and composers had to please their patrons so they could get more commissions • Courtly art was art done in the Greek and Roman tradition, or a grand and complex style known as Baroque
Baroque Painting – The Nightwatch The Nightwatch is an oil painting by Rembrandt. This painting was completed in 1642 and is one of the most famous paintings in the world and is a great example of Baroque paintings.
Baroque Architecture - Trevi Fountain Is a fountain in the Trevi district in Rome, Italy, designed by Italian architect Nicola Salvi and completed by PietroBracci in 1762. It is the largest Baroque fountain in the city and one of the most famous fountains in the world.