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What is a Clinical Laboratory Professional and What Are They Doing With My Body Fluids?. Division of Medical Technology University of Minnesota http://medtech.umn.edu. What is in blood?. Plasma - the liquid portion Platelets - the clot forming components

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what is a clinical laboratory professional and what are they doing with my body fluids

What is a Clinical Laboratory Professional and What Are They Doing With My Body Fluids?

Division of Medical Technology

University of Minnesota

http://medtech.umn.edu

what is in blood
What is in blood?
  • Plasma - the liquid portion
  • Platelets - the clot forming components
  • White Blood Cells - the infection fighters
  • Red Blood Cells - the oxygen transporters
how do blood tests tell us what s going on in other parts of the body
How do blood tests tell us what’s going on in other parts of the body?
  • The body of an adult contains over 60,000 miles of blood vessels!
  • An adult’s heart pumps nearly 4,000 gallons of blood each day!
  • As the blood travels around the body, products from those cells are absorbed into the bloodstream.
chemistry
CHEMISTRY!!

Water

Proteins

Vitamins

Enzymes

RNA

DNA

Cholesterol

Amino Acids

Minerals

Fats

Sugars

Hormones

pH

chemistry of the human body
Chemistry of the Human Body
  • Each cell of the body contains about 90 trillion atoms (90,000,000,000)
  • The human body contains about

60 different elements.

  • Over 96% of those atoms are

oxygen (61%), carbon (23%), hydrogen (10%), and nitrogen (2.6%)

how those atoms are put together in the cell determines
How those atoms are put together in the cell determines:
  • What the cell looks like
  • What jobs the cell can do in the body
  • How the cell communicates with other cells in the body
slide8

So Bone Cells look and

act differently than

Blood Cells,

Muscle Cells

Fat Cells

slide9

These chemical differences in cells allow us to determine if something is wrong with the part of the body where that those cells are found.

For example …..

what happens in a heart attack
What happens in a heart attack?
  • Blood stops flowing to part of the heart
  • This can be caused by:
    • Blood clots
    • Fat deposits
  • When blood stops flowing, heart cells don’t get enough oxygen and they begin to die.

Blood vessel with fatty deposits

slide11
When cells are damaged or dying, they begin to leak some of the compounds from inside their cell membrane.
  • Those compounds then get into the bloodstream.
  • Because many of the compounds inside the cell are specific to that type of cell, we can identify problems by the amount of certain compounds in the blood.
what compounds are released by the damaged heart
What compounds are released by the damaged heart?
  • Proteins
    • Myoglobin
      • Myoglobin is the oxygen-binding protein of the muscles
      • It only takes 1 to 2 hours after a heart attack before you find myoglobin in the blood
      • Myoglobin peaks at 6-9 hours.
      • It returns to normal within 24 hours because it is rapidly excreted in the urine.
what compounds are released by the damaged heart1
What compounds are released by the damaged heart?
  • Proteins
    • Troponin-I and Troponin-T
      • Troponins are structural proteins found in heart muscle.
      • It only takes 2 to 4 hours after a heart attack before you find troponins in the blood.
      • Troponin-I peaks at 24 hours.

Troponin-T peaks at 12-48 hours.

      • They remain elevated for 9-14 days.
what compounds are released by the damaged heart2
What compounds are released by the damaged heart?
  • Enzymes
    • Creatine Kinase (CK)
      • It takes 4 to 10 hours before you find the CK enzyme in the blood
      • It peaks at 24 hours
      • It returns to normal levels in 2 or 3 days
what compounds are released by the damaged heart3
What compounds are released by the damaged heart?
  • Creatine Kinase (CK), continued
    • Different forms of CK, called isoenzymes, are found in different tissues.
    • CK-MM occurs in high concentrations in skeletal muscle and heart.
    • CK-MB is present in high concentrations in heart, but it is also present in lungs, small intestine, uterus, prostate, and healthy skeletal muscle.
    • CK-BB occurs in high concentrations in the brain, but it is also found in lung, stomach, prostate, the gastrointestinal tract, and the bladder.
what compounds are released by the damaged heart4
What compounds are released by the damaged heart?
  • Creatine Kinase (CK), continued
    • The different isoenzymes of CK each have a different electrical charge.
    • This difference in electrical charges allows the lab to separate the CK forms from each other and determine the amount of each form present in the blood by placing the sample in an electrical field. The forms with the greater charge will move the fastest and farthest.
creatine kinase electrophoresis patterns
Creatine Kinase Electrophoresis Patterns

CK-BB is rarely seen in the blood.

ck concentrations in the blood
Normal Concentrations

CK-MM >95%

(Muscle)

CK-MB <5 %

(Heart)

CK-BB 0%

(Brain)

Normally, there is a small amount of CK-MB in the blood, and almost no CK-BB.

After a heart attack, there is more CK-MB in the blood.

CK Concentrations in the Blood
what compounds are released by the damaged heart5
What compounds are released by the damaged heart?
  • Enzymes
    • Lactate Dehydrogenase (LD)
      • It takes 6 to 12 hours to appear in the blood
      • It peaks in 1 to 3 days
      • Levels return to normal in 8 to 14 days
determining the amounts of these compounds in the blood helps determine
Determining the amounts of these compounds in the blood helps determine:
  • Whether or not a heart attack has occurred
  • How long ago the heart attack occurred
  • To some extent, how much damage the heart attack caused
slide22
In the same way that each type of cell has its own particular chemistry, each disease has its own particular chemistry.
what specimens usually go to the lab for a physical exam
What specimens usually go to the lab for a physical exam?
  • Two, three, or more tubes of blood
    • Purple top
    • Red top
    • Blue top
  • Urine specimen
so why do labs need two or more different tubes of blood why can t they just use one tube
So why do labs need two (or more!) different tubes of blood?Why can’t they just use one tube?
slide25
When blood leaves the veins, it will come in contact with factors that will initiate the formation of a blood clot.
slide26

The red top tube either contains nothing or something to activate the formation of the clot.The liquid portion is no longer called plasma, but is called serum because it no longer contains the clotting components.Serum is often preferred for testing because all of the cellular components are more easily removed so they can’t clog sensitive instruments.

slide27

The purple top tube contains an anticoagulant, EDTA, which prevents the blood from clotting, so cells remain separated. It also preserves the cells so they can be identified by how they look when using particular stains.

slide28

The blue top tube also prevents blood from clotting, but it uses a different anticoagulant, sodium citrate, which preserves more of the clotting factors.This is the tube used to evaluate the ability of the blood to clot.

specimen processing
Specimen Processing
  • The red top tube is centrifuged to separate the serum from the cells.
  • The blue top tube is also centrifuged and then sent to the coagulation laboratory.
  • The purple top tube is not centrifuged, but sent to hematology so they can begin to prepare slides and look at the cells.

Centrifuge

the serum can now be tested for
The serum can now be tested for:
  • Cholesterol
  • Blood glucose (sugar)
  • Electrolytes (sodium,

potassium, chloride)

  • Enzymes from the heart,

liver, pancreas, etc.

  • Kidney function (blood

urea nitrogen or creatinine)

  • Hormones
  • Vitamins
  • Drug levels
  • Hundreds of other compounds
the purple top tube goes to the hematology lab
The Purple Top Tube Goes to the Hematology Lab
  • This tube is mixed
  • well, then placed
  • in an instrument
  • that determines:
  • Red blood cells
  • • White blood cells
  • • Platelets
  • • Hematocrit (percentage of blood that is cells)
  • • Hemoglobin (oxygen-carrying protein)
red blood cell size and color are studied
Red Blood Cell Size and Color are Studied

NORMAL RED BLOOD CELLS

Normal area of central pallor should be about one-third of the cell’s diameter.

HYPOCHROMIC Decreased hemoglobin concentration

in pale cells.

ANISOCHROMIA Pale and filled cells can both be seen following blood transfusion.

red blood cell shape is observed
Red Blood Cell Shape is Observed

Target Cells -

Abnormal hemoglobins, liver disease, thalassemias

Elliptocytes -

Hereditary condition,

some anemias

Sickle Cells -

Sickle cell anemia (Hb SS), Hb SC.

Hb S/thal

more red blood cell shapes
More Red Blood Cell Shapes

Schistocytes -

RBC fragments found in severe burn patients, disseminated intravascular coagulation

Spherocytes -

Red cells without a pale center are seen in hereditary spherocytosis, some immune-mediated hemolytic anemias

Acanthocytes -

“Spiked” red cells are observed in liver disease, asplenic patients (spleens removed)

white blood cells
White Blood Cells

Neutrophils -

Engulf bacteria and cellular debris

37-77%

Basophils -

Hypersensitivity,

Release histamine

0-1.6%

Eosinophils -

Parasitic infections,

Allergic response

1-7%

Monocytes -

Engulf cellular debris, antigen processing

2-10%

Lymphocytes -

Produce antibodies, regulate the immune response

10-44%

abnormal blood smears
Abnormal Blood Smears

Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

Infectious Mononucleosis

(Reactive Lymphocytes)

Malaria

(Plasmodium

falciparum)

the blue top tube goes to the coagulation lab
The Blue Top Tube Goes to the Coagulation Lab
  • These tubes are often drawn on people who are on anti-coagulant therapy (coumadin), also called “blood thinners”

The plasma is tested to determine how long it takes blood to clot.

the urine goes to the urinalysis lab
The Urine Goes to the Urinalysis Lab

Urine can provide information about:

  • Kidney function
  • Urinary tract disorders
  • Diabetes
  • Liver disorders
  • Metabolic disorders
  • Muscle trauma
  • Hormonal disorders
  • Drug use
urinalysis
Urinalysis

A complete urinalysis consists of examining the physical, chemical, and microscopic characteristics of the urine.

slide43
Chemical analysis is performed using a reagent strip with pads containing chemicals specific for each test.
what chemicals do labs test for in urine
What chemicals do labs test for in urine?
  • Sugar
    • Normal urine should not contain glucose (blood sugar)
    • Found in diabetes
  • Ketones
    • Normal urine should not have ketones
    • Ketones form when you break down fats instead of sugar for energy
    • Found in diabetes, starvation
what chemicals do labs test for in urine1
What chemicals do labs test for in urine?
  • Protein
    • Normal urine should contain very little protein
    • Suggests possible kidney damage, certain cancers
  • Hemoglobin
    • Normal urine should not contain hemoglobin (from red blood cells)
    • Seen in injury, kidney stones, infection
what chemicals do labs test for in urine2
What chemicals do labs test for in urine?
  • Leukocyte esterase
    • Normal urine should not contain this enzyme found in white blood cells
    • Suggests urinary tract infection
  • Nitrite
    • Normal urine should not contain nitrites
    • Nitrites form when bacteria convert urine nitrates to nitrite
urine microscopic exam
Urine MicroscopicExam

Yeast

Epithelial Cells

Calcium Oxalate Crystals

clinical microbiology
Clinical Microbiology

Identify organisms

Determine antibiotic sensitivity

the virology lab tests the serum for antibodies directed against viruses such as hiv or hepatitis
The virology lab tests the serum for antibodies directed against viruses such as HIV or hepatitis.
slide51

Medical technologists in the Blood Bank will determine which antibodies are present in your plasma so a compatible cross-match can be found if you need a blood transfusion.

slide52
The serum or plasma will be tested for antibodies, and the red cells will be tested for surface antigens.
what is a clinical laboratory professional
What is a clinical laboratory professional?
  • A laboratory professional is a person who performs laboratory testing on blood, urine, feces, spinal fluid and other body fluids.
  • They provide 70-80% of the objective data used to make clinical decisions.
laboratory professionals conduct tests to
Laboratory Professionals Conduct Tests To:
  • Verify a potentially dangerous drug level
  • Detect a cancerous tumor with DNA techniques
  • Identify toxic agents, such as anthrax, in cases of bioterrorism
  • Monitor the level of anti-rejection drugs in transplant patients
  • Type and cross-match blood samples for transfusions
  • Identify the causative microorganism in a blood or wound infection
who is a laboratory professional
Who is a Laboratory Professional?
  • Phlebotomist
  • Clinical Laboratory Technician/Medical Laboratory Technician
  • Clinical Laboratory Technologist/Medical Technologist
  • Cytotechnologist
  • Histotechnologist
skills and abilities
Skills and Abilities
  • Good manual dexterity
  • Enjoy problem solving
  • Work independently
  • Interest in science,

especially biology

  • Detail oriented
  • Work well under pressure
  • Organized
  • Accurate and Precise
  • Desire to help others
clinical laboratories
Clinical Laboratories
  • 7.25 billion tests

are performed

annually by

350,000

laboratory

professionals.

  • Bureau of Labor

Statistics reports

the demand for

laboratory will result in a 17% increase in testing

from 1998-2008.

what s a phlebotomist
What’s a phlebotomist?
  • A person who has been trained to draw blood for laboratory tests.
  • A phlebotomist goes through a training program, which is usually about three to four months long, or
  • They can do on-the-job training at a hospital.
  • Starting salaries are about $10-13/hour ($23,000/year).
how can i become a phlebotomist
How can I become a phlebotomist?

Programs available at:

  • College of St. Catherine’s Phlebotomy Program
  • Alexandria Technical College
  • Lake Superior Community College
  • Rochester Community and Technical College
  • South Central Technical College
  • Or call your local hospital to find out if they offer training.
what s an histology technician
What’s an histology technician?
  • An histology technician is a person who prepares solid tissues such as biopsy samples and tumors for examination under the microscope
  • A person with an associate degree in histotechnology and certification as an histology technician.
  • Starting salary for professionals with an associate degree in histotechnology is about $13-16/ hour ($30,000/year).
how can i become an histology technician
How can I become an histology technician?

Program available at:

  • Argosy University
    • www.argosyu.edu
what s a clinical laboratory technician medical laboratory technician
What’s a clinical laboratory technician/ medical laboratory technician?
  • A person with an associate degree and certification as a clinical laboratory technician (CLT) or medical laboratory technician (MLT).
  • Starting salary for professionals with an associate’s degree is about $12-16/hour ($30,000/year).
minnesota s clt mlt programs
St. Paul College

North Hennepin Community College

Alexandria Technical College

Fergus Falls Community College

Hibbing Community College

Minnesota West, Worthington

Lake Superior Community College

Northwest Technical College

South Central Technical College

Argosy University

Minnesota’s CLT/MLT Programs
what s a clinical laboratory scientist medical technologist
What’s a clinical laboratory scientist/ medical technologist?
  • A person with a baccalaureate degree and certification as a clinical laboratory scientist (CLS) or medical technologist (MT).
  • Starting salary for professionals with a baccalaureate degree is about $17-22/hour ($41,500/year).
general job duties
General Job Duties
  • Run Lab tests
  • Develop and evaluate the tests
  • Interpret data
  • Analyze the results
  • Communicate with physicians regarding test results

Medical technologists use a light microscope to check blood smears for abnormalities

minnesota s cls mt programs
University of Minnesota’s Medical Technology Program

(612) 625-9490

http://medtech.umn.edu

Hennepin County Medical Center’s Medical Technology Program

(612) 347-3009

http://www.hcmc.org/a_z/EducationPrograms/CLS.htm

Minnesota’s CLS/MT Programs
university of minnesota s medical technology program
University of Minnesota’s Medical Technology Program
  • The oldest baccalaureate medical technology program in the country (first graduates in 1923)
  • Currently, about 32 graduates/year
  • Admission in junior year (senior year if space available and prerequisite coursework is completed)
  • 22 weeks of clinical experience
what s a cytotechnologist
What’s a cytotechnologist?
  • A cytotechnologists prepares and examines slides of cells. They are best known for the performance of Pap tests for cervical cancer, but they examine many other types of specimens as well.
  • A person with a baccalaureate degree and certification as a cytotechnologist
  • Starting salary for professionals with a baccalaureate degree is about $19-20/hour ($40,500/year).
how can i become a cytotechnologist
How can I become a cytotechnologist?

Program available at:

  • Mayo Clinic School of Health Sciences
    • www.mayo.edu/mshs
what s the job market like
What’s the job market like?
  • Currently, there is a 9-20% vacancy rate across the country.
  • Increased testing demands and retirements will result in the need for 12,000 new lab professionals per year.
  • There are currently only 4,100 new laboratory professional graduates per year.