Blood and Other Fluids - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Blood and Other Fluids

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  1. Blood and Other Fluids

  2. Body Fluids • Body fluids constitute over ½ of an adult’s weight • Transport nutrients to cells • Remove waste • Water is the most important component to body fluids

  3. Body Fluids Composition Intra- = within Extra = outside Cellul(o) = cell or compartment -ar = pertaining to Intracellular = within a cell Extracellular = outside a cell

  4. Body Fluids Composition Vascul(o) = vessel Intervascular = inside blood vessels Blood remains inside blood vessels ¼ of extracellular fluid is plasma: the liquid portion of the blood

  5. Body Fluids Composition Inter- = between Interstitialfluid = extracellular fluid located between cells and tissue spaces Fluid Balance is maintained by proper intake of water and output of wastes Edema (dehydration): is caused when fluid balance is not maintained

  6. Blood • Hematology: the study of blood and blood-forming tissues • Blood forming tissues • Bone marrow • Lymphoid: spleen, thymus, tonsils and lymph nodes

  7. Blood -poiesis = production Hematopoiesis = production of blood cells Coagulation = when blood clots when removed from the body -ant = that which causes Anitcoagulant = acts against blood coagulation Coagulant = promotes blood coagulation

  8. Blood Coagul(o) = coagulation Write a word that means any disease or disorder of coagulation Coagulopathy

  9. Blood Invitro = occurring in a test tube in an artificial environment Hematocrit = test that measures the percentage of red blood cells (HCT test)

  10. Blood • Blood • Hemat(o) • Hem(o) • Hem(a)

  11. Blood Erythrocytes: red blood cells (RBC) Also called corpuscles Biconcave disks that have no nucleus when mature Function is to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide What is the name for red blood cell formation? Erythropoiesis Erythropoietin: hormone that stimulates erythropoiesis

  12. Blood • Leukocyte: white blood cell (corpuscle) WBC • Leukemia: increased white blood cell condition • Many cells are deformed or do not function • Function: to protect the body against pathogenic organisms • What does pathogenic mean? • Capable of causing disease

  13. Blood • Thrombocyte: blood platelet: Cell fragments without a nucleus • Initiates the formation of blood clots • Thrombus: a blood clot that obstructs a blood vessel • -genesis = beginning • Thrombogenesis = the formation of blood platelets

  14. Blood -lytic = dissolved or destoyed -lysin = substance that dissolves or destroys Write a word that means destroying a clot Thrombolytic Write a word that means a substance that destroys a clot Thrombolysin

  15. Blood Thrombosis = presence of a blood clot (thrombus) What is the name of surgical removal of a blood clot? Thrombectomy Thrombolysis= destruction of a clot What is hemolysis? Destruction of a blood cell

  16. Blood Leukemia: condition of whit blood cells -emia: blood condtion Anemia: without blood: deficiency in the number of RBCs or hemoglobin Not a disease but a sign of many diseases Hemoglobin = blood protein that is the red pigment in blood

  17. Blood -penia = deficient or decreased Erythropenia: decreased RBC count Leukopenia: decreased white blood cell count Irondeficiency: anemia can occur when iron levels are unbalanced in the blood Thrombopenia: deficiency in blood platelets Could cause clotting disorder Phil(o) = attraction Hemophilia: disorder where there is a deficiency of one coagulation factor in the blood Causes uncontrollable bleeding after minor injuries

  18. Blood Erythrocytosis: increase in the number of RBC’s Leukocytosis: increased number of WBC’s In leukemia, WBC production is uncontrollable PrimaryPolycythemia: a chromosomal defect where bone marrow overproduces many types of cells SecondaryPolycythemia: a physiologic reponse to prolonged exposure to high altitudes, lung or heart disease Both are caused by not enough oxygen reaching tissues Causes blood to flow through the body sluggishly

  19. Blood Nucle(o) or kary(o) = nucleus Nucleoprotein: a protein found in the nucleus Karyomegaly: enlargement of the nucleus -oid: like or resembling Nucleoid: resembling a nucleus Morph(o) = shape Polymorphonuclear: a WBC cell is divided in such a way that it looks like it has more than one nucleus

  20. Blood Abnormalities Microcyte: small cell Macrocyte: large cell Both seen in forms of anemia Scop(o) = to view or examine -scope = and instrument to view Macroscopic: examining with the naked eye Megal(o) = enlarged Megalocytes: large cells

  21. Blood Abnormalities Norm(o): normal Normocytes: normal cells (normocytic) Is(o) = equal Isocytosis: cells are of equal size Anisocytosis: cells are not of equal size Isotonic: (equal tension) a solution in which cells will not get damaged Spher(o): round Spherocyte: round cell

  22. Blood Abnormalities Poikil(o): irregular Poikilocytes: irregular cells Sicklecellanemia: blood has an irregular type of hemoglobin and RBC’s are irregularly shaped Hemoglobin: Hb or Hgb Chrom(o): color Hypochromia: below normal color in RBC’s

  23. Blood Abnormalities Hemoglobinopathy: any disease of hemoglobins Hemoglobinelectrophoresis: identifies abnormal hemoglobins Dycrasia: disease associated with the blood or bone marrow Aplastic: having no tendency to develop new tissue Aplasticanemia: bone marrow produces too few cells Hemolyticanemia: RBC’s are destroyed early Malaria: a blood parasite invades

  24. Blood Clotting Coagulation: a series of chemical reactions that results in a blood clot Fibrin: protein involved in clotting Fibrinoid: resembling fibrin Fibriniogen: a protein that is changed into fibrin in the process of coagulation Fibrinolysis? Destruction of fibrin

  25. Blood Clotting Trans- = through or across Transfusion: blood is passed from one person to another Agglutination: blood clumping Transfusion reaction: an adverse reaction to a blood transfusion