Parent implemented intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders
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Parent Implemented Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Dawn R. Hendricks, Ph.D.

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Parent implemented intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders
Parent Implemented Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Dawn R. Hendricks, Ph.D.

National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorders (2008). In Foundations of autism spectrum disorders: An online course. Chapel Hill: FPG Child Development Institute, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.


Parent implemented intervention session topics
Parent Implemented Intervention: Spectrum DisordersSession Topics

  • Rationale for parent involvement in their child’s program

  • Measures of efficacy for parent implemented intervention

  • Skills targeted through parent implemented intervention

  • Effective components of parent training programs


Objective 1 describe the rationale to involve parents in their child s program

Objective #1 Spectrum Disorders

Describe the rationale to involve parents in their child’s program


Parent involvement why is it needed with children with asd
Parent Involvement: Spectrum DisordersWhy is it needed with children with ASD?

  • Early intervention

  • Intensive intervention

  • Intervention agents throughout his/her lifespan

  • Challenging behavior

  • Generalization


Parent involvement why use it with individuals with asd
Parent Involvement: Why use it with individuals with ASD? Spectrum Disorders

  • Parents of children with ASD report higher levels of stress and depression

  • Two of the most frequently described sources of stress for family members are:

    • Potentially disruptive behavior in public places

    • The corresponding restrictions this behavior places on family activities

  • Involved parents report increased feelings of competence and decreased feelings of depression and stress


Objective # 2 Spectrum Disorders

Describe the measures used to determine the efficacy of parent implemented intervention


Measures of efficacy
Measures of Efficacy Spectrum Disorders

Child Progress

  • Immediate

  • Long Term


Measures of efficacy1
Measures of Efficacy Spectrum Disorders

Koegel, Koegel, Harrower, & Carter (1999)

  • Family/environment “goodness of fit”

  • Parents’ implementation (frequency & fidelity)

  • Parents’ generalization to novel skills/situations

  • Parents’ concerns/issues/values

    Symon (2001)

  • Cost-benefit analysis


Objective # 3 Spectrum Disorders

Describe the skills targeted through parent implemented intervention


Child progress
** Spectrum DisordersChild Progress

Sufficient Evidence Base:

-Reduction of problem behaviors

-Improvement in adaptive behavior

-Improvement in communication

-Improvement in social skills

-Improvement in cognitive performance

-Improvement in on task behavior


Strategies employed to reduce problem behavior
Strategies Employed to Reduce Problem Behavior Spectrum Disorders

  • Functional Behavior Assessment

  • Functional Communication Training

  • Prompting

  • Reinforcement

  • Natural Environment Strategies

  • Environmental Arrangement

  • Visual Strategies

  • Social Stories

  • Pivotal Response Training


Strategies employed to improve communication social
Strategies Employed to Improve Communication / Social Spectrum Disorders

  • Natural Environment Strategies

  • Imitation and Modeling

  • Joint Action Routines/Joint Attention

  • Pivotal Response Training

  • Prompting

  • Reinforcement

  • Environmental Arrangement

  • Functional Behavior Assessment

  • Functional Communication Training

  • Discrete Trial / Structured Teaching

  • Picture Exchange Communication System


Objective #4 Spectrum Disorders

Describe the components of parent training programs that have been demonstrated to be effective


Six essential steps

Presented by the Virginia Autism Resource Center Spectrum Disorders

Six Essential Steps:

1) Determine needs of the family

2) Determine goals

3) Develop the intervention plan

4) Train parents

5) Implement the intervention

6) Monitor progress


Step 1 determine needs of the family

Presented by the Virginia Autism Resource Center Spectrum Disorders

Step 1 Determine Needs of the Family

  • Areas of concerns and needs regarding the child

  • Strengths of the child and family

  • Child behaviors that impact family functioning

  • Parent-child interactions including type, frequency, nature, and reciprocity of interactions

  • Family activities, routines, and physical layout of the home

  • Supports and resources within the immediate and extended family and community


Step 2 determine goals
Step 2 Spectrum DisordersDetermine Goals

  • Address areas of concern and priority for the child, parents, and/or family members

  • Create a positive impact on family functioning and not cause additional stress to the parents or family

  • Can be implemented by parents with consistency

  • Are appropriate for parents to implement in home and/or community settings


Goals
Goals Spectrum Disorders


Goals examples
Goals: Examples Spectrum Disorders

Jake will use a spoon to feed himself pudding, yogurt, and other viscous foods for a minimum of 10 bites during snack.

Megan will make a choice between two items visually presented by pointing to the desired item on at least 3 out of four occasions.

Jamar will independently complete the 5 steps of his bed time routine on Friday and Saturday evenings.

  • Callie will state 3 things she did at school when asked by her parent.


Goals examples1
Goals: Examples Spectrum Disorders

  • Jake’s sister will participate in motor exercises three times each week by modeling the exercises and interacting with Jake.

  • Megan’s brother will present two choices for a play activity and will play for five minutes.

  • Paris will independently clean up her play area when visiting her grandmother.

  • When asking Callie a question or giving an instruction, Callie’s family members will first gain her attention by standing in front of her, tapping her on the shoulder, and pointing to his/her mouth.


Step 3 develop the intervention plan
Step 3 Spectrum DisordersDevelop the Intervention Plan

  • Incorporates intervention within the context where target behaviors occur

  • incorporates intervention into naturally occurring daily routines to the maximum extent possible

  • Includes practices that have an evidence base and have been shown to be effective when implemented by parents

  • Includes instructional practices that are compatible with parent knowledge, characteristics, routines, and preferences


Step 3 develop the intervention plan1
Step 3 Spectrum DisordersDevelop the Intervention Plan

  • Instructional strategy broken down into step-by-step directions

  • Frequency and duration of instruction

  • When and where to provide instruction

  • Who will implement

  • Materials required

  • How long to implement

  • Consequences / reinforcement


Step 4 provide training
Step 4 Spectrum DisordersProvide Training

Location

  • Home

  • Community

  • Clinic

  • School

Format

  • Individual Sessions

  • Group Workshop


Teaching activities
Teaching Activities Spectrum Disorders

  • Modeling

  • Didactic Instruction

  • Live Feedback / Coaching


Teaching activities1
Teaching Activities Spectrum Disorders

  • Role Playing / Behavioral Rehearsal

  • Individual videotape analysis

  • Videotape vignettes

  • Individualized discussion of concerns / individualized problem solving


Objective # 5 Spectrum Disorders

Describe the areas of need for future research


Development of a standardized protocol
Development of a Standardized Protocol Spectrum Disorders

Standardization should include:

  • Components that have empirical support

  • Training that can be implemented in a variety of settings, including a school or clinic

  • Components that can be delivered uniformly in a multi-site study

  • Components that can be replicated

  • Components that can be applied more broadly


Summary
Summary Spectrum Disorders

The literature demonstrates that parent training does work to produce a positive effect on the skills of the child and the performance and mental health of the parent.


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