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MIDDLE EAST POLITICAL MOVEMENTS. 1920s. ARAB WORLD IS UNDER CONTROL OF EUROPEAN POWERS REGARDED AS BETRAYAL OF PROMISES WESTERN CULTURAL INFLUENCES: SOME ARABS ADOPT THEM, OTHERS ARE REPELLED. ARAB NATIONALISM. INDEPENDENCE.

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1920s
1920s
  • ARAB WORLD IS UNDER CONTROL OF EUROPEAN POWERS
  • REGARDED AS BETRAYAL OF PROMISES
  • WESTERN CULTURAL INFLUENCES: SOME ARABS ADOPT THEM, OTHERS ARE REPELLED
independence
INDEPENDENCE
  • Egypt’s Gamal Abdel Nasser becomes most charismatic leader of Arab world in 1953.
  • Defies West by seizing Suez Canal
  • Anti-Israel
  • Leader of neutral countries in Cold War-gets aid from USSR when US refuses it.
attempts at unity
ATTEMPTS AT UNITY
  • Union of Syria and Egypt in 1958.
  • Union of Syria and Iraq in 1957.
  • Both break up because of bickering

over power.

ba ath movement
BA’ATH MOVEMENT
  • Started by three Syrian intellectuals in early 1940s
  • Michel Aflaq, right, an Orthodox Christian
  • Believe in nonviolently opposing both colonialists and native aristocrats
  • Advocates pan-Arab nationalism, socialism, is strictly secular
ba ath continued
BA’ATH continued
  • Name means “Arab Renaissance” or “Rebirth”
  • Hope is to unite all Arab states as one Arab nation.
1963 ba athists take over in syria and iraq
1963 BA’ATHISTS TAKE OVERIN SYRIA AND IRAQ
  • Iraqi President Kassem assasinated
  • Military coup in Syria
assad
ASSAD
  • Hafez Assad, a military officer, eventually comes to power in Syria.
  • Today, his son Bashar is President.
  • Ruthlessly destroys any attempt at rebellion – Hama, 1982 – 10-20,000 fundamentalists and civilians killed
  • Is an Alawite Shi’ite in a Sunni country
  • State-sponsored terrorism
saddam hussein
SADDAM HUSSEIN

Member of Iraq’s ruling council from 1968 on.

  • Comes to full power in 1978.
  • Ruthlessly suppresses any signs of rebellion, esp. Kurds and Shi’ites
  • Is a Sunni Muslim in a Shi’ite majority country
slide12

WHAT HAPPENED TO BA’ATH MOVEMENT’S PROMISE?

  • IT PRODUCED DICTATORS AND “ROGUE STATES”
  • BA’ATH PARTIES IN IRAQ AND SYRIA SPLIT, BECAME ENEMIES
rise of islamic fundamentalism
RISE OF ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISM
  • ISLAM IS A POLITICAL RELIGION
  • ISLAM SHOULD BE GUIDE OF STATE
  • SHARIA or ISLAMIC LAW SHOULD BE THE SOURCE OF LAWS
first fundamentalist state
FIRST FUNDAMENTALIST STATE
  • IRAN
  • IRANIAN REVOLUTION – 1979
  • BRINGS CLERICS TO POWER
  • US is “GREAT SATAN”
  • USSR is not much better.
  • HOWEVER, IRAN IS SHI’ITE - influence doesn’t spread immediately to Sunni areas.
state sponsored terrorism
STATE-SPONSORED TERRORISM
  • Iran sponsors Hezbollah (“Party of God”) in Lebanon, which takes American hostages
  • Today it is involved with helping the Palestinians also, although few of them are Shi’ites
  • Iran interested in spreading its influence as a dominant power in the region, rivalling Turkey, Egypt and Saudi Arabia
  • It does this by opposing Israel and US
spread of fundamentalism
SPREAD OF FUNDAMENTALISM
  • Saudi Arabia sponsors Wahhabi schools and radio broadcasts around the world
  • Pakistan adopts sharia law in 1980.
  • Rise of Taliban in Afghanistan in 1995-96
muslim brotherhood
MUSLIM BROTHERHOOD
  • Founded in Egypt in 1928.
  • Opposed to Western influences
  • Stresses brotherhood of Muslims
  • Has spawned most Islamic terrorist organizations.
  • Today, is a peaceful political party in Egypt.
sayyid qutb
SAYYID QUTB
  • Leading theorist of Islamic fundamentalism
  • Born in Egypt
  • Member of Muslim Brotherhood
  • Earned doctorate in US
  • Totally repulsed by American lifestyles
  • Arrested by Egyptian authorities
  • His published works are still popular
assassination of sadat
ASSASSINATION OF SADAT
  • 1982
  • Muslim Brotherhood gunmen kill President Sadat of Egypt – Why?
among those arrested
AMONG THOSE ARRESTED:
  • Ayman al-Zawahiri, Egyptian doctor, student of Qutb, member of Islamic Jihad offshoot of Muslim Brothers
  • Now second-in-command of al-Qaeda
al qaeda the network
AL QAEDA – “THE NETWORK”
  • LOOSELY KNIT GROUP FUNDED BY BIN LADEN AND ZAWAHIRI
  • WANTS TO RESTORE CALIPHATE
  • UNITE ALL MUSLIMS – PAN-ISLAMIC
  • MAIN GOAL IS TO OVERTHROW ARAB GOVTS IT REGARDS AS CORRUPT AND AS SPONSORS OF WESTERNIZATION
  • USE OF TERROR – JUSTIFIED SINCE AMERICAN TROOP PRESENCE IN SAUDI ARABIA DEFILES HOLY GROUND
  • USE WESTERN WEAPONS AGAINST WEST
  • EXPLOIT VULNERABILITIES OF LIBERAL DEMOCRACIES
hamas
HAMAS
  • Palestinian offshoot of Muslim Brotherhood – doesn’t believe Israel has a right to exist.
  • Main group carrying out suicide bombings
  • Won elections last year to take over Palestinian Authority
  • Presently in conflict with PLO