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Cellular Respiration: Phase 1 Glycolysis: It takes 10 enzymes, it takes 10 steps…. Essential Question(s). How does cellular respiration enable heterotrophs to harvest free energy from simple carbohydrates?. Harvesting Stored Energy. Glucose. Redox in Cellular Respiration.

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slide1

Cellular Respiration: Phase 1

Glycolysis: It takes 10 enzymes, it takes 10 steps…

slide2

Essential Question(s)

  • How does cellular respiration enable heterotrophs to harvest free energy from simple carbohydrates?
slide5

Redox in Cellular Respiration

glucose + oxygen  energy + water + carbon

dioxide

oxidation

respiration

ATP

+

6H2O

+

6CO2

+ heat

C6H12O6

+

6O2

reduction

slide11

Glycolysis: Glucose Priming

CH2OH

O

Glucose

1

ATP

hexokinase

ADP

CH2

O

P

O

Glucose 6-phosphate

2

phosphoglucose

isomerase

CH2

P

O

CH2OH

O

Fructose 6-phosphate

3

ATP

phosphofructokinase

P

O

CH2

CH2

O

P

O

ADP

Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate

aldolase

O

CH2

4,5

P

H

isomerase

C

O

C

O

Dihydroxyacetone

phosphate

Glyceraldehyde 3

-phosphate (G3P)

CH2OH

CHOH

CH2

O

P

NAD+

Pi

NAD+

Pi

6

glyceraldehyde

3-phosphate

dehydrogenase

NADH

NADH

P

O

O

CHOH

1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate

(BPG)

1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate

(BPG)

CH2

O

P

slide12

Glycolysis: Energy Harvest

DHAP

P-C-C-C

G3P

C-C-C-P

Pi

Pi

NAD+

NAD+

6

NADH

NADH

7

ADP

ADP

O-

phosphoglycerate

kinase

C

ATP

ATP

CHOH

3-Phosphoglycerate

(3PG)

3-Phosphoglycerate

(3PG)

CH2

P

O

8

O-

phosphoglycero-mutase

O

C

H

C

O

P

2-Phosphoglycerate

(2PG)

2-Phosphoglycerate

(2PG)

CH2OH

O-

9

H2O

H2O

enolase

C

O

O

C

P

Phosphoenolpyruvate

(PEP)

Phosphoenolpyruvate

(PEP)

CH2

O-

10

ADP

ADP

C

O

pyruvate kinase

ATP

ATP

C

O

CH3

Pyruvate

Pyruvate

slide14

Substrate-Level Phosphorylation

O-

9

H2O

H2O

enolase

C

O

O

C

P

Phosphoenolpyruvate

(PEP)

Phosphoenolpyruvate

(PEP)

CH2

O-

10

ADP

ADP

C

O

pyruvate kinase

ATP

ATP

C

O

CH3

Pyruvate

Pyruvate

slide15

Glycolysis: Summary

  • Endergonic
  • Invest some ATP
  • Exergonic
  • Harvest a little ATP and NADH
  • Net Yield
  • + 2 ATP
  • + 2 NADH
slide16

Energy Accounting of Glycolysis

2 NAD+

4 ADP

ATP

4

2

2 ATP

2 ADP

glucose  pyruvate

6C

3C

2x

slide17

Enduring Understandings

  • Heterotrophs capture free energy present in carbon compounds produced by other animals, and metabolize carbs, lipids, and proteins by hydrolysis.
  • Cellular respiration in eukaryotes involves a series of coordinated enzyme-catalyzed reactions that harvest free energy from simple carbohydrates.
  • Glycolysis rearranges the bonds in glucose molecules, releasing free energy to form ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate, and resulting in the production of pyruvate.
  • Different energy-capturing processes use different types of electron acceptors