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Percent Composition. The chemical composition can be expressed as the mass percent of each element in the compound. Carry out % mass to the tenths place. Example: Determine the percent composition of C 3 H 8. Assume you have one mole of the substance. 3 C = 3(12.0) = 36.0 g

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Percent

Composition


The chemical composition can be expressed as the mass percent of each element in the compound

The chemical composition can be expressed as the mass percent of each element in the compound.

Carry out % mass to the tenths place.


Example determine the percent composition of c 3 h 8
Example: Determine the percent composition of C percent of each element in the compound.3H8.

  • Assume you have one mole of the substance.

    3 C = 3(12.0) = 36.0 g

    8 H = 8(1.0) = 8.0 g

    Total MW = 44.0 g


Example determine the percent composition of iron iii sulfate
Example: Determine the percent composition of iron(III) sulfate.

  • Iron(III) sulfate = Fe2(SO4)3

    2 Fe = 2(55.8) = 111.6 g

    3 S = 3(32.1) = 96.3 g

    12 O = 12(16.0) = 192.0 g

    Total MW = 399.9 g


Hydrated compounds

Hydrated Compounds sulfate.

Some compounds exist in a “hydrated” state.

Some specific number of water molecules are present for each molecule of the compound.


Example oxalic acid cooh 2 can be obtained in the laboratory as cooh 2 2h 2 o
Example: sulfate. oxalic acid (COOH)2 can be obtained in the laboratory as (COOH)2•2H2O.

Note: the dot in (COOH)2•2H2O shows that the crystals of oxalic acid contain 2 water molecules per (COOH)2 molecule.


Example oxalic acid cooh 2 can be obtained in the laboratory as cooh 2 2h 2 o1
Example: sulfate. oxalic acid (COOH)2 can be obtained in the laboratory as (COOH)2•2H2O.

  • The molar mass of (COOH)2 = 90.0 g/mol

  • The molar mass of (COOH)2•2H2O = 126.0 g/mol

  • Water can be driven out of a hydrated compound by heating it to leave an “anhydrous” (without water) compound.


Example: sulfate. A 7.0 g sample of calcium nitrate, Ca(NO3) 2•4H2O, is heated to constant mass. How much anhydrous salt remains?

  • % mass anhydrous salt =

  • Mass of anhydrous salt remaining =


Hydration number
Hydration Number sulfate.

Some molecules attach themselves to water molecules. This is done in set numbers, depending on the molecule. For example, Magnesium sulfate attaches to 7 water molecules. We say it’s hydration number is 7

MgSO47H2O

(Magnesium Sulfate Heptahydrate)


Anhydrides
Anhydrides sulfate.

A compound that is normally a hydrate and has lost its hydration water is said to be anhydrous and is called an anhydride.

BaCl22H2O Barium Chloride Dihydrate

BaCl2 Barium Chloride Anhydride

-or-

Anhydrous Barium Chloride


Finding the hydration number
Finding the Hydration Number sulfate.

The hydration number can be conveniently found by heating the compound and measuring its mass loss. This mass loss is usually due to the hydration water molecules being driven off.

For example…

A 15.35 g sample of Strontium nitrate, Sr(NO3)2nH2O, is heated to a constant mass of 11.45 g. Calculate the hydration number.


Sample Data: sulfate.

Mass Hydrate 15.35g

Mass Anhydride 11.45g

Mass of Water (mass loss) 3.90g


Calculations
Calculations sulfate.

Moles Anhydride

Moles Water

Molar ratio…

Hydration Number is 4, Sr(NO3)24H2O

(Strontium Nitrate Tetrahydrate)


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