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Unit 6 Stress and Distress. Recognizing Excessive Stress Stress Related Behaviors Helping Out a “Stressed-Out” Buddy Personal Stress Management Distress Signs of Distress Self-Rescue Observable Surface Problems Rescue Effecting a Rescue. Recognizing Excessive Stress.

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unit 6 stress and distress
Unit 6Stress and Distress
  • Recognizing Excessive Stress
  • Stress Related Behaviors
  • Helping Out a “Stressed-Out” Buddy
  • Personal Stress Management
  • Distress
  • Signs of Distress
  • Self-Rescue
  • Observable Surface Problems
  • Rescue
  • Effecting a Rescue
recognizing excessive stress
Recognizing Excessive Stress
  • Determining if you are under excessive stress:
  • Feelings generated by excessive stress:
stress related behaviors
Stress Related Behaviors
  • Gear-fumbling:
  • Blabbering:
  • Behavioral extremes:
  • Obsessive behavior:
helping out a stressed out buddy
Helping Out a “Stressed-Out” Buddy
  • If your buddy shows signs of stress:
  • Learn to listen.
personal stress management
Personal Stress Management
  • The best way to remove negative stress:
  • If stress does start to build before a dive:
distress
Distress
  • When stress becomes distress:
signs of distress
Signs of Distress
  • Distress is obvious and observable.
  • Passive distress:
self rescue
Self-Rescue
  • You are your own best buddy.
  • At the first hint of a problem:
observable surface problems
Observable Surface Problems
  • A person in distress at the surface is in obvious, easily recognizable trouble.
  • The first task of the rescuer:
underwater signs of distress impending problems
Underwater Signs of Distress/Impending Problems
  • Bubbles:
  • Buoyancy problems:
  • Erratic, jerky movement:
  • Trim problems:
  • Gear rejection:
rescue
Rescue
  • Is it safe to intervene?
effecting a rescue
Effecting a Rescue
  • Scenario for an unconscious victim:
stress and distress end of unit 6
Stress and DistressEnd of Unit 6
  • Recognizing Excessive Stress
  • Stress Related Behaviors
  • Helping Out a “Stressed-Out” Buddy
  • Personal Stress Management
  • Distress
  • Signs of Distress
  • Self-Rescue
  • Observable Surface Problems
  • Rescue
  • Effecting a Rescue
unit 7 dealing with out of air situations
Unit 7Dealing with Out of Air Situations
  • Prevention is everything
  • Self-rescue for an out-of-air emergency
  • Emergency swimming ascent
  • Emergency buoyant ascent
  • Extra air in an emergency
  • Shared air ascents
  • Mutual emergency planning
  • Alternate second stage air sharing
  • Redundant scuba ascent
  • Buddy breathing
  • Buddy breathing method
  • Problems with sharing air
prevention is everything
Prevention is Everything
  • Monitoring your air:
  • Air consumption rate:
emergency swimming ascent
Emergency Swimming Ascent
  • NAUI Worldwide recommends:
emergency buoyant ascent
Emergency Buoyant Ascent
  • From depths beyond 10-15 meters (30-45 feet):
extra air in an emergency
Extra Air in an Emergency
  • Redundant scuba systems:
    • Spare air
    • Pony bottles
shared air ascents
Shared Air Ascents
  • The concept of buddy pairs:
mutual emergency planning
Mutual Emergency Planning
  • All effective buddy briefings must include:
  • Most emergency plans include:
  • Type of equipment chosen:
alternate second stage air sharing
Alternate Second Stage Air Sharing
  • There is no “one correct method”.
  • Octopus:
  • BC-mounted integrated second stage:
redundant scuba ascent
Redundant Scuba Ascent
  • When a needy diver signals that air is needed:
buddy breathing
Buddy Breathing
  • Once the standard for out of air emergencies.
buddy breathing method
Buddy Breathing Method
  • When a needy diver signals that air is needed:
problems with sharing air
Problems with Sharing Air
  • Physiological changes:
  • Use the eyes as the mirrors of the problem:
dealing with out of air situations end of unit 7
Dealing with Out of Air SituationsEnd of Unit 7
  • Prevention is everything
  • Self-rescue for an out-of-air emergency
  • Emergency swimming ascent
  • Emergency buoyant ascent
  • Extra air in an emergency
  • Shared air ascents
  • Mutual emergency planning
  • Alternate second stage air sharing
  • Redundant scuba ascent
  • Buddy breathing
  • Buddy breathing method
  • Problems with sharing air
unit 8 underwater rescue
Unit 8Underwater Rescue
  • Responsibility vs. Duty
  • Risk Assessment
  • A Responsive Victim
  • An Unresponsive Victim
  • Underwater Panic
  • Warning Signs of Impending Panic
  • Is it Safe to Intervene?
  • Monitoring a Panicked Diver
  • Underwater Attack
  • A Final Note
responsibility vs duty
Responsibility vs. Duty
  • As an SRD or ASRD, absent some pre-arranged, documented assumed burden of duty with another diver or divers, such as when acting in a well-defined position as a diving leader, you have no responsibility to risk yourself for another diver.
risk assessment
Risk Assessment
  • All rescues begin with a difficult question:
  • The next question is where is the buddy?
a responsive victim
A Responsive Victim
  • Approach any diver in distress with extreme caution.
  • Once you decide to intervene:
an unresponsive victim
An Unresponsive Victim
  • An unresponsive diver will drown without immediate assistance.
  • Steps to take:
underwater panic
Underwater Panic
  • Panic can strike any diver:
warning signs of impending panic
Warning Signs of Impending Panic
  • Seeing any diver struggling with equipment:
is it safe to intervene
Is it Safe to Intervene?
  • If a diver is bolting to the surface:
monitoring a panicked diver
Monitoring a Panicked Diver
  • Once you see the diver is out of control:
underwater attack
Underwater Attack
  • You should do whatever you must in order to break free:
a final note
A Final Note
  • There is little if anything you can do to prevent a panicked diver from getting to the surface quickly under most circumstances.
underwater rescue end of unit 8
Underwater RescueEnd of Unit 8
  • Responsibility vs. Duty
  • Risk Assessment
  • A Responsive Victim
  • An Unresponsive Victim
  • Underwater Panic
  • Warning Signs of Impending Panic
  • Is it Safe to Intervene?
  • Monitoring a Panicked Diver
  • Underwater Attack
  • A Final Note
unit 9 diving maladies
Unit 9Diving Maladies
  • Pulmonary Barotrauma
  • Signs vs. Symptoms
  • Types of Lung Over-expansion Injuries
  • Understanding Decompression Sickness
  • Types of Decompression Sickness
  • Signs and Symptoms of Diving Maladies
  • Basic Principles of Neurological Assessment
  • Performing the Exam
pulmonary barotrauma
Pulmonary Barotrauma
  • The reason divers are so vigorously taught to “never hold your breath”:
  • If breathing is interrupted during ascent:
signs vs symptoms
Signs vs. Symptoms
  • Signs are observable.
  • Symptoms are felt.
types of lung over expansion injuries
Types of Lung Over-expansion Injuries
  • Subcutaneous Emphysema:
  • Mediastinal Emphysema:
  • Pneumothorax:
  • Arterial gas embolism (AGE):
understanding decompression sickness
Understanding Decompression Sickness
  • Decompression results from:
  • The damage caused:
  • Dive planning to reduce the risk of DCS:
types of decompression sickness
Types of Decompression Sickness
  • “Skin bends”:
  • “Limb bends”:
  • “Neurological bends”:
  • “Inner ear bends”:
  • “Chokes”:
signs and symptoms of diving maladies
Signs and Symptoms of Diving Maladies
  • React immediately to the signs:
  • The trouble with symptoms:
  • Dealing with denial:
  • Neurological assessment:
performing the exam
Performing the Exam
  • Following a check list:
diving maladies end of unit 9
Diving Maladies End of Unit 9
  • Pulmonary Barotrauma
  • Signs vs. Symptoms
  • Types of Lung Over-expansion Injuries
  • Types of Decompression Sickness
  • Understanding Decompression Sickness
  • Signs and Symptoms of Diving Maladies
  • Basic Principles of Neurological Assessment
  • Performing the Exam
unit 10 treatment of diving maladies
Unit 10Treatment of Diving Maladies
  • Why Oxygen?
  • Handling Oxygen
  • Types of O2 Delivery Systems
  • Recompression Therapy:The Necessary Second Step
why oxygen
Why Oxygen?
  • The nature of the injury:
  • The process simplified:
handling oxygen
Handling Oxygen
  • Oxygen must be handled with care.
  • Simple precautions:
types of o2 delivery systems
Types of O2 Delivery Systems
  • Constant flow:
  • Demand:
recompression therapy the necessary second step
Recompression Therapy:The Necessary Second Step
  • Oxygen is merely the beginning first step.
  • A “typical” multi-lock, multi-place recompression chamber:
treatment of diving maladies end of unit 10
Treatment of Diving MaladiesEnd of Unit 10
  • Why Oxygen?
  • Handling Oxygen
  • Types of O2 Delivery Systems
  • Recompression Therapy: The Necessary Second Step