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Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

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Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

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  1. Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration Chapter 15 Backup and Recovery

  2. Objectives • Discover the difference between backup, restore, and recovery • The difference between cold and hot backups • Learn about different tools used for backup and recovery • Learn about different types of failure that create a need to recover a database Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  3. Objectives (continued) • Learn about different backup strategies • Learn about essential configuration as applied to making a database fully recoverable • Learn about the specific backup and recovery scenarios Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  4. Introduction to Backup and Recovery • Backup is the process of making some kind of copies of parts of a database, or an entire database • Recovery is the process of rebuilding a database after some part of a database has been lost • Restoration is the process of copying files from a backup • Recovery is the process of executing procedures in Oracle Database to update the recovered backup files to an up to date state Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  5. What is Backup? Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  6. What is Restoration? Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  7. What is Recovery? Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  8. What is Recovery? (continued) • Redo logs and archive logs consist of records of all transactions made to a database • Controlfiles contain pointers to datafiles, dictating where datafiles should be in relation to redo log entries • If a datafile is restored from a backup, then the controlfile will be ahead of the datafile in time • Restoration of recovered backup is a simple process of applying redo log entries to the datafile, until the datafile “catches up” to the time indicated by controlfile • Archive logs are copies of old redo log files, copied just before redo log files are reused • Restoration can utilize entries in both redo log files and archive log files to complete a recovery Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  9. Methods of Backup and Recovery • Two basic methods of backup and recovery: • Cold backups • Hot backups Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  10. What is a Cold Backup? Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  11. What is a Hot Backup? • Hot backup: performed when DB is online, active, and available for use • Many tools and methods for performing hot backups • Takes a snapshot of a database one file or type of file at a time • Not necessarily consistent across all files in backup • Made of pieces of a DB, where those files making up a complete DB backup are not recoverable to a working database as a group • Individual files can be slotted into a running DB, and can be recovered individually, or as a group Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  12. Tools for Backup and Recovery • Tools used for backup and recovery of an Oracle database are as follows: • Export and Import Utilities • Backup Mode Tablespace Copies • RMAN (Recovery Manager) • Oracle Enterprise Manager and the Database Control Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  13. Types of Failure • Different types of failure can occur, ranging from the loss of a single file to a complete loss of an entire database server • Important to understand what the various types of failure are so that you can be better prepared Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  14. Media Failure • Media failure is storage device failure, such as when a disk fails • Fortunately rare because of many modern striping and mirroring utilities using specialized hardware such as RAID arrays • What can be done to ensure that media failure can be recovered from quickly? • Always multiplex controlfiles and duplex redo logs • Use a RAID array for underlying disk storage, or some type of HW and/or SW architecture that allows for some type of mirroring of underlying file structures Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  15. User and Application Failure • User and application failure is much more likely than any other failure situation • Applications can be improperly coded, causing errors to occur at the database level • What can be done to ensure that user and application failure will cause minimal disruption? • User and application errors are usually object-centric; sometimes those tables can be individually restored, particularly if a table contains static data • Export utility dump files can be used to recover • RMAN is capable of recovering individual objects using log entries, so the export utility is somewhat outdated Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  16. Oracle Database-Induced Failure • Can be result of a bug or overload applied to DB • Or, due to administrator-induced problem • E.g., repetitive use of the SHUTDOWN ABORT command, or pulling the power plug out of the wall • What can be done to avoid failure at this level? • Use an uninterrupted power supply so a clean shutdown can be performed on a power failure • Don’t pull the plug • Never execute a SHUTDOWN ABORT, kill a process (Unix/Linux), stop and start the service (Windows), or reboot your DB server computer unless you have to • Always use SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE rather than SHUTDOWN ABORT (difference in speed is minimal) Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  17. Backup Strategy • A backup strategy is required to plan ahead: • What types of backups should you use? • Which tools should you use to back up, and what tools will you use in the event of failure? • How often should you back up your database? • Establish a plan before implementing a backup plan • Establish a strategy to allow for a better selection of options when implementing backups • Backup strategy is dependent on factors such as the type of DB, how much data can be lost, and available equipment Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  18. Type of Database • An OLTP database can be large and active • Performing regular cold backups is generally unacceptable as it requires a complete DB shutdown • OLTP DBs must often be available all 24-hours • OLTP DBs tend to change rapidly, in small chunks, in many different parts of the database, or all at once • Incremental backups using RMAN are useful (they only copy what has changed since previous backup) • Same rule applies to data warehouses because the amount of regular updating is small in relation to the physical size of the entire data warehouse • Large parts of data warehouses are often static, and even read-only, so they need a single backup Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  19. Database Availability (24x7x365) • A database must be available globally without interruption • Hot backups are essential • Additionally, hot backups, especially in the case of using RMAN, can allow for recovery of failure due to partial errors such as a single disk failure in a collection of disks, or the loss of a single table • Essential requirement is availability • More likely to apply to high-concurrency OLTP data, rather than to data warehouse data Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  20. Data Change Speed • OLTP DBs and data warehouses can change rapidly • However, where a data warehouse has new data appended at regular intervals, an OLTP DB has small amounts of data changed in all parts of DB, around the clock • In terms of recoverability, a data warehouse could simply have batch processing re-executed • An OLTP DB has to recall all transactions from log files and essentially re-execute them on recovery • Devise a backup strategy based on how long it will take to recover the database to an acceptable point, and perform the recovery as fast as possible Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  21. Acceptable Loss Upon Failure • Acceptable loss: how much data can a company lose while maintaining usability/availability of data • The less acceptable loss allowed, the more complex and longer backups will take to execute (and more time needed if restoration/recovery is required) • Examples: • An OLTP database requires zero loss • A data warehouse can often be rebuilt by re-executing batch processing • Factors include: amount of storage capacity available for backups, type of media used for backups, and minor factors like network bandwidth Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  22. Available Equipment • Backup to disk is much faster than backup to tape • However, if you need to retain backups for a number of years, using tape backups is much easier • Typically, many database installations will use a combination of both disk and tape backup storage • Recent backups will be stored on disk, allowing for rapid and specific recovery scenarios • After a while, disk backups could be transferred to a sequential media such as tape, where recovery would be naturally slower and more cumbersome, but less expensive and easier to manage Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  23. Planning for Potential Disaster and Recovery • Always plan for a potential disaster! • If you begin a new job, backup and recovery should be at the top of your list of priorities • Automate the backup process if possible • Use scripting and scheduling to perform backups periodically and automatically • RMAN allows full automation of a backup strategy and even allows for embedded scripting, and even executing backup processing in parallel or on a specific node in a clustered environment • Test existing backup implementation if possible and always test anything you construct as new, preferably off the production server environment Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  24. Other Approaches to Backup and Recovery Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  25. Other Approaches to Backup and Recovery (continued) Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  26. Other Approaches to Backup and Recovery (continued) Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  27. Other Approaches to Backup and Recovery (continued) Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  28. Other Approaches to Backup and Recovery (continued) Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  29. Other Approaches to Backup and Recovery (continued) Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  30. Other Approaches to Backup and Recovery (continued) Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  31. Configuring a Database for Possible Recovery • Various things you can do with Oracle 10g configuration to ensure proper functioning of backups • The most important thing is making sure that your database is archived Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  32. Setting the Database in Archive Log Mode • In archive log mode, the database will create archive logs for you • Archive logs are files that are copied from redo logs when a redo log file is switched out for recycling • Redo logs contain entries of all transactional activity in a database as transactions occur • Redo logs are recycled • If a redo log is recycled, unless the redo log is copied to an archive log, all entries in that redo log group are effectively lost • A database must be in archive log mode to duplicate redo logs to archive logs Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  33. Setting the Database in Archive Log Mode (continued) ARCHIVE LOG LIST; ARCHIVE LOG STOP; SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE; STARTUP MOUNT; ALTER DATABASE NOARCHIVELOG; ALTER DATABASE OPEN; SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE; STARTUP MOUNT; ALTER DATABASE ARCHIVELOG; ALTER DATABASE OPEN; Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  34. Checkpoints, Redo Logs, Archive Logs, and Fast Starts • The combination of archive logs and redo logs allows you to recover your DB from a point in time • Checkpoint: point in time where all buffers are flushed to disk • Writes all pending redo log buffer and database buffer cache changes to disk, writing the redo log buffer first, followed by the database buffer cache • By default, executed automatically when the log buffer is one-third full of pending changes, every three seconds, when a log switch occurs, or when COMMIT or ROLLBACK commands are executed • To alter configuration: LOG_CHECKPOINT_INTERVAL and LOG_CHECKPOINT_TIMEOUT Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  35. Sacrificing Recoverability for Performance • Sacrificing recoverability for performance means that you can limit the number of checkpoints that occur, thereby potentially speeding up database performance • However, because checkpoints are not executed as frequently, your DB becomes less recoverable because you could lose what has not been written to disk from buffers at the time of failure • This simply involves tweaking checkpoint parameter settings either directly in the parameter file or from within the Database Control Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  36. Flash Recovery and Backups • Flashback recovery allows retention of potential flashback data for a specified time • Simplifies backup and recovery management • Can speed up recovery performance • Difference between regular physical recovery and flashback recovery is a physical versus a logical one • Capabilities: flashback queries, flashback version queries, flashback transaction queries, flashback DB • Technology relies generally on a combination of undo data and the recycle bin • When retention period is exceeded, log files are used, combined with log entry records recovery Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  37. Flash Recovery and Backups (continued) Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  38. The MTTR (Mean Time To Recovery) Advisor Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  39. The MTTR (Mean Time To Recovery) Advisor (continued) Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  40. The MTTR (Mean Time To Recovery) Advisor (continued) Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  41. The MTTR (Mean Time To Recovery) Advisor (continued) Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  42. Database Backup • We will now experiment with executing some backups, using different methods • Cold backups • Hot Backups • Consistent Backups Using Exports • Tablespace Backups Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  43. Cold Backups • For a cold backup, shut down the database completely and then copy all the files • All datafiles • All redo log files • All archive log files • All controlfiles • Optionally you can also back up parameter files and any networking configuration files • Restore at least all the datafiles and controlfiles • Optionally use more current redo log files, archive log files, and controlfiles—allowing a recovery by applying redo log entries to datafiles Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  44. Hot Backups • The objective of a hot backup is to obtain a snapshot of all data in the database • Can create a backup that is reconstructable by applying log entries to datafiles, based on SCN matches between datafiles, controlfiles, and redo log entries • Different methods include export plus import utilities (or Data Pump technology), RMAN, or even traditional tablespace backups Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  45. Consistent Backups Using Exports • Export can be used to create a consistent backup • Export can scan through all types of data, including tables, redo and archive logs, and undo data • Allows for a consistent backup (export) based on a snapshot of data • In other words, regardless of any changes occurring to DB, during an export, the export utility will read datafiles and undo space to get a consistent backup • Examples: exp system/<password>@oraclass file=classmate.dat owner=classmate consistent=Y exp classmate/classpass@oraclass file=classmatetables.dat tables=(client,customer) Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  46. Tablespace Backups • In a tablespace backup, you switch a tablespace into a special mode called backup mode • This allows a physical operating system-level copy of that tablespace • In Oracle 10g, allows a backup mode setting to be applied to all tablespaces at once • Problem with backup mode is a performance issue • Forces all change activity for that tablespace to be copied to the redo logs • If there are enough redo entries produced to recycle a redo log group, then archive log files will be used too • The longer a tablespace remains in backup mode, the more performance is affected, the longer any potential recovery is, and more redo log data is produced Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  47. Tablespace Backups (continued) Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  48. Database Recovery • Various scenarios can occur with different DB failures because there are different types of failure, as discussed in this chapter • With an up-and-running Oracle 10g database, the following errors can occur: • Losing a controlfile • Losing a redo log file • Losing the SYSTEM or SYSAUX tablespace datafile • Losing an application tablespace datafile Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  49. Losing a Control File • Easiest way to resolve this problem is to shut down DB and copy back in a current controlfile copy • If this can’t be done, rebuild controlfile from trace copy • Always multiplex controlfile so you have a copy that can simply be plugged into a shutdown database • There is no danger of the controlfile being mismatched in time with the other datafiles and redo logs in the database, because loss of the controlfile does not allow any change activity to continue, until that controlfile is repaired or replaced Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration

  50. Losing a Redo Log File • Redo logs should always be duplexed • Replacing a redo log file involves shutting down the DB and restoring an exact copy into the location of the erroneous redo log file, from a duplexed copy • Other methods of recovering redo log files, when duplexed copies do not exist, involve restarting the database but with cleared redo log files • This is a problem, and undesirable, because you will lose whatever is cleared from the redo log files Oracle 10g Database Administrator: Implementation and Administration