Imperialism Old & New Imperialism
Imperialism • Definition: the control of one people by another (can be political, economic or cultural) • Old vs. New Imperialism
“Old Imperialism” • Occurred between 16th and 18th centuries • European powers did not usually acquire territory (except for Spain in Americas and Portugal in Brazil) but rather built a series of trading stations • Respected and frequently cooperated with local rulers in India, China, Japan, Indonesia, and other areas where trade flourished between locals and European coastal trading centers. • Economic penetration of non-European regions in the 19th century
New Imperialism • Began in 1870s colonized Asia and Africa by using military force to take control of local governments • Exploiting local economies for raw materials required by Europe’s growing industry • Imposing Western values to benefit the “backwards” colonies.
Japan • Only major Asian power to resist being swallowed up by the imperialists. • Commodore Matthew Perry (U.S.): forced Japan to open trade in 1853
Japan • Unlike China, Japan quickly modernized and became an imperial power by late 19th century • Meiji Restoration, 1867: resulted in series of reforms to compete with the West
Russo-Japanese War (1904) • Russia and Japan both had designs on Manchuria and Korea • Japanese concerned about Russian Trans-Siberian Railway across Manchuria • Japan destroyed Russian fleet off coast of Korea and won major battles on land although Russians turned the tide on land subsequently. • Westerners horrified that Japan had defeated a major Western power.
Russo-Japanese War (1904) • Treaty of Portsmouth (mediated by U.S. president Theodore Roosevelt) ended war with Japan winning major concessions (preferred position in Manchuria, protectorate in Korea, half of Sakhalin Island • Long-term impact of war: Russia turned to the Balkans, Russian Revolution, and revolt of Asia in 20th century (Asians hoped to emulate Japan power and win their independence); annexation of Korea
Asia • France: Jules Ferry – Indochina • Britain: Burma, Malay Peninsula, North Borneo • Germany: certain Pacific islands • Russia: Persia, outlying provinces of China • Spanish-American War, 1898: U.S. defeated Spain, took Philippines, Guam, Hawaii. • Responses to Western Imperialism in Asia • India was the jewel of the British Empire • Mogul Empire: Muslims empire in Indian subcontinent fell apart in the 17th century
US • Secured unequal treaty with Samoa for naval station • Agreed to share between US, Brit and Germany. • 1893 US sugar planters overthrew Queen Liliukalani and asked US govern to take over • Helped Philippines against Spain and then took it – modernized Philippines.
Siam- buffer between France and Britain’s empires. • Survives as King Mongkut studied west • Learned languages, modern science and math • Reformed government and modernized army • Hired westerners to modernize • Allowed some women’s rights and abolished slavery
Canada • 1763 France lost Canada to Britain • 1791 Brit created 2 provinces English speaking and French speaking. • 1840 Durham Report reunited Canada with elected representative body for domestic issues. Britain for foreign affairs and trade. • 1867 Dominion of Canada – British crown but almost full self government.
Canada • Native peoples pushed into western area • Rule by European descendants • Modernization • Immigration from all over • French speaking Canadians wanted own state
Australia • 1770s US revolution closed US to Britain as penal colony • 1770 Captain James Cook claimed Australia for Britain as used for convicts • 1788 1st convicts sent for stealing bread, books etc and had to clear land to build. • 1800 offers of free land to settlers
Australia • 1851 Gold Rush brought more people • Settled as ranchers and farmers • Worry about other Western powers claiming Australia, Britain gave self rule • 1901 Commonwealth of Australia with Britain monarch. (British descendants) • Votes for women and secret ballot.
New Zealand • 1769 claimed by Captain Cook. • 1814 Missionaries arrived • Settlers attracted by climate and soil. • Maoris fought but eventually lost and population fell • 1907 NZ demanded self rule and as govern would be all Brit descendents won it • 1893 1st votes for women
Wht? • Why Canada, Australia and New Zealand little trouble getting independence from Britain?
Latin America • Had already been colonized in 1700s by Spain, Portugal, Dutch, Brit, France • By 1840 had won independence and set up own countries. • Inequalities of class, limited rights, weakened by regionalism • Local leaders (caudillos) with private armies
Latin America • Power struggles, corruption • Britain and US trying to replace Spain and Portugal economically with trade etc. • Economic success but money at top of society • Mestizos, mulattoes, blacks and native Indios suffered the most
Latin America and US • Monroe Doctrine – European countries stay out of political affairs of Americas. • War for Texas won by USA. • Reforms in Mexico attempted. • 1898 US war with Spain gave US Puerto Rico, bases in Cuba and rights for Panama Canal. • 1904 Roosevelt Corollary claimed international police power in Americas.
European Migration • Between 1815 and 1932 more than 60 million people left Europe • Migrants went primarily to European-inhabited areas: North and South America, Australia, New Zealand, and Siberia. • European migration provided further impetus for Western expansion • Most were poor from rural areas, though seldom from the poorest classes (due to oppressive land policies)
England’s Empire • By 1900, Britain controlled 1/5 of world's territory: including Australia, Canada, India • "The Empire upon which the sun never sets": Possible to travel around world by railroad & sea, moving only through British territories.
Anti-Imperialism? • J. A. Hobson believed imperialism benefited only the wealthy • anti-imperialism increased
Impact of Imperialism • See text book Ch 13 section 5.