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Imperialism. Old & New Imperialism. Imperialism. Definition: the control of one people by another (can be political, economic or cultural) Old vs. New Imperialism. “Old Imperialism”. Occurred between 16th and 18th centuries

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Old & New Imperialism


  • Definition: the control of one people by another (can be political, economic or cultural)

  • Old vs. New Imperialism

Old imperialism
“Old Imperialism”

  • Occurred between 16th and 18th centuries

  • European powers did not usually acquire territory (except for Spain in Americas and Portugal in Brazil) but rather built a series of trading stations

  • Respected and frequently cooperated with local rulers in India, China, Japan, Indonesia, and other areas where trade flourished between locals and European coastal trading centers.

  • Economic penetration of non-European regions in the 19th century

New imperialism
New Imperialism

  • Began in 1870s colonized Asia and Africa by using military force to take control of local governments

  • Exploiting local economies for raw materials required by Europe’s growing industry

  • Imposing Western values to benefit the “backwards” colonies.


  • Only major Asian power to resist being swallowed up by the imperialists.

  • Commodore Matthew Perry (U.S.): forced Japan to open trade in 1853


  • Unlike China, Japan quickly modernized and became an imperial power by late 19th century

  • Meiji Restoration, 1867: resulted in series of reforms to compete with the West

Russo japanese war 1904
Russo-Japanese War (1904)

  • Russia and Japan both had designs on Manchuria and Korea

  • Japanese concerned about Russian Trans-Siberian Railway across Manchuria

  • Japan destroyed Russian fleet off coast of Korea and won major battles on land although Russians turned the tide on land subsequently.

  • Westerners horrified that Japan had defeated a major Western power.

Russo japanese war 19041
Russo-Japanese War (1904)

  • Treaty of Portsmouth (mediated by U.S. president Theodore Roosevelt) ended war with Japan winning major concessions (preferred position in Manchuria, protectorate in Korea, half of Sakhalin Island

  • Long-term impact of war: Russia turned to the Balkans, Russian Revolution, and revolt of Asia in 20th century (Asians hoped to emulate Japan power and win their independence); annexation of Korea


  • France: Jules Ferry – Indochina

  • Britain: Burma, Malay Peninsula, North Borneo

  • Germany: certain Pacific islands

  • Russia: Persia, outlying provinces of China

  • Spanish-American War, 1898: U.S. defeated Spain, took Philippines, Guam, Hawaii.

  • Responses to Western Imperialism in Asia

    • India was the jewel of the British Empire

    • Mogul Empire: Muslims empire in Indian subcontinent fell apart in the 17th century


  • Secured unequal treaty with Samoa for naval station

  • Agreed to share between US, Brit and Germany.

  • 1893 US sugar planters overthrew Queen Liliukalani and asked US govern to take over

  • Helped Philippines against Spain and then took it – modernized Philippines.

Siam buffer between france and britain s empires
Siam- buffer between France and Britain’s empires.

  • Survives as King Mongkut studied west

  • Learned languages, modern science and math

  • Reformed government and modernized army

  • Hired westerners to modernize

  • Allowed some women’s rights and abolished slavery


  • 1763 France lost Canada to Britain

  • 1791 Brit created 2 provinces English speaking and French speaking.

  • 1840 Durham Report reunited Canada with elected representative body for domestic issues. Britain for foreign affairs and trade.

  • 1867 Dominion of Canada – British crown but almost full self government.


  • Native peoples pushed into western area

  • Rule by European descendants

  • Modernization

  • Immigration from all over

  • French speaking Canadians wanted own state


  • 1770s US revolution closed US to Britain as penal colony

  • 1770 Captain James Cook claimed Australia for Britain as used for convicts

  • 1788 1st convicts sent for stealing bread, books etc and had to clear land to build.

  • 1800 offers of free land to settlers


  • 1851 Gold Rush brought more people

  • Settled as ranchers and farmers

  • Worry about other Western powers claiming Australia, Britain gave self rule

  • 1901 Commonwealth of Australia with Britain monarch. (British descendants)

  • Votes for women and secret ballot.

New zealand
New Zealand

  • 1769 claimed by Captain Cook.

  • 1814 Missionaries arrived

  • Settlers attracted by climate and soil.

  • Maoris fought but eventually lost and population fell

  • 1907 NZ demanded self rule and as govern would be all Brit descendents won it

  • 1893 1st votes for women


  • Why Canada, Australia and New Zealand little trouble getting independence from Britain?

Latin america
Latin America

  • Had already been colonized in 1700s by Spain, Portugal, Dutch, Brit, France

  • By 1840 had won independence and set up own countries.

  • Inequalities of class, limited rights, weakened by regionalism

  • Local leaders (caudillos) with private armies

Latin america1
Latin America

  • Power struggles, corruption

  • Britain and US trying to replace Spain and Portugal economically with trade etc.

  • Economic success but money at top of society

  • Mestizos, mulattoes, blacks and native Indios suffered the most

Latin america and us
Latin America and US

  • Monroe Doctrine – European countries stay out of political affairs of Americas.

  • War for Texas won by USA.

  • Reforms in Mexico attempted.

  • 1898 US war with Spain gave US Puerto Rico, bases in Cuba and rights for Panama Canal.

  • 1904 Roosevelt Corollary claimed international police power in Americas.

European migration
European Migration

  • Between 1815 and 1932 more than 60 million people left Europe

  • Migrants went primarily to European-inhabited areas: North and South America, Australia, New Zealand, and Siberia.

  • European migration provided further impetus for Western expansion

  • Most were poor from rural areas, though seldom from the poorest classes (due to oppressive land policies)

England s empire
England’s Empire

  • By 1900, Britain controlled 1/5 of world's territory: including Australia, Canada, India

  • "The Empire upon which the sun never sets": Possible to travel around world by railroad & sea, moving only through British territories.

Anti imperialism

  • J. A. Hobson believed imperialism benefited only the wealthy

  • anti-imperialism increased

Impact of imperialism
Impact of Imperialism

  • See text book Ch 13 section 5.