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DNT 200 NUTRITION FOR HEALTH SCIENCES. WATER & MINERALS. WATER & MINERALS. The cows are our friends, they give food, they give strength, they likewise give a good complexion and happiness Gautama Buddha, 500 B.C. WATER & MINERALS. Water and Body Fluids. WATER & MINERALS Water.

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water minerals
WATER & MINERALS

The cows are our friends, they give food, they give strength, they likewise give a good complexion and happiness

Gautama Buddha, 500 B.C.

water minerals1
WATER & MINERALS

Water and Body Fluids

water minerals water
WATER & MINERALSWater
  • Physiological Functions
    • Is an essential nutrient (must be consumed from exogenous sources to satisfy metabolic demand)
    • Constitutes about 60% of adult body weight
    • Catalyst for a majority of metabolic reactions including those involves with
      • Nutrient digestion
      • Absorption
      • Transport
      • Metabolism
water minerals water1
WATER & MINERALSWater
  • Physiological Functions (con’t)
    • Required for facilitation of excretion of metabolic waste by the kidneys
    • Inadequate intake compromises cell functioning by contributingto
      • Electrolyte imbalances
      • Concentration of plasma volume
      • Inability to regulate body temperature
water minerals water2
WATER & MINERALSWater
  • Groups vulnerable to dehydration -- are either not able to adequately express thirst sensations or to detect them
    • Infants
    • Elderly adults
    • Athletes
  • With extreme heat and excessive perspiration, thirst may lag behind actual water requirements
water minerals water3
WATER & MINERALSWater

Overhydration

  • Can result in hyponatremia (because of too much water)
    • Less common but more dangerous than dehydration
    • Sports drinks -- contain some sodium but not enough to make a difference
    • Women at greater risk because they are smaller
    • International Marathon Medical Directors Association advises drinking no more than about 12 - 25 oz fluid per hour
water minerals water and body fluids water intake
Sources

Water you drink

Nearly all foods contain water

Normal intake -- 2.5 liters per day

PERCENTAGE OF WATER IN SELECTED FOODS

100% -- Water; diet sodas

90-99% -- Nonfat milk, strawberries, watermelon, lettuce, cabbage, celery, spinach, broccoli

80-89% -- Fruit juice, yogurt, apples, grapes, oranges, carrots

70-79% -- Shrimp, bananas, corn, potatoes, avocados, cottage cheese, ricotta cheese

60-69% -- Pasta, legumes, salmon, ice cream, chicken breast

50-59% -- Ground beef, hot dogs, feta cheese

40-49% -- Pizza

30-39% -- Cheddar cheese, bagels, bread

20-29% -- Pepperoni sausage, cake, biscuits

10-19% -- Butter, margarine, raisins

1-9% -- Crackers, cereals, pretzels, taco shells, peanut butter, nuts

0% -- Oils

WATER & MINERALSWater and Body FluidsWater Intake
water minerals water and body fluids
WATER & MINERALSWater and Body Fluids
  • Percent of total water intake from beverages (including drinking water) and food
    • Males and females 19 and older
      • 81% from beverages
      • 19% from foods
    • Pregnant females
      • 77% from beverages
      • 22% from foods
    • Lactating females
      • 82% from beverages
      • 18% from foods

NHANES III 1988-1994

water minerals water and body fluids1
WATER & MINERALSWater and Body Fluids

Water

DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKE VALUE

  • AI
    • Males 19 and over -- 0.7 L/day from food and 3.0 L/day from beverages
    • Females 19 and over -- 0.5 L/day from food and 2.2 L/day from beverages
    • Pregnant women -- 0.7 L/day from food and 2.3 L/day from beverages
    • Lactating women -- 0.7 L/day from food and 3.1 L/day from beverages

2004 data

water minerals water and body fluids water output
Body must excrete a certain amount of water per day as urine (approx. 500ml)

Carries away waste products of metabolism

Above this amount, the water you excrete adjusts to balance your intake

If you drink more than you need, the urine becomes more dilute

WATER & MINERALSWater and Body FluidsWater Output
water minerals water and body fluids fluid electrolyte balance
WATER & MINERALSWater and Body FluidsFluid & Electrolyte Balance
  • 2/3 fluid found inside the cells
  • 1/3 fluid found outside the cells
  • Major minerals control the movement of water -- they occur in salts that dissolve in body fluids
water minerals water and body fluids fluid electrolyte balance1
WATER & MINERALSWater and Body FluidsFluid & Electrolyte Balance
  • Ions
    • When mineral salts are dissolved in water (body fluids) they separate (dissociate) into ions (cations and anions) that carry electricity
    • Cations carry positive charges; anions carry negative charges
  • Electrolytes are fluids that have ions dissolved in them such that they have electrical properties
water minerals water and body fluids fluid electrolyte balance2
WATER & MINERALSWater and Body FluidsFluid & Electrolyte Balance

Water’s Attraction To Electrolytes

  • Electrolyte solutions
    • They must have a balanced charge
    • Can conduct electricity
  • Cells sort out the mineral ions
    • Outside the cells -- notably sodium and chloride ions
    • Inside the cells -- potassium, magnesium, phosphate, and sulfate ions
  • When electrolytes move across membranes water follows -- water follows salt
water minerals water and body fluids fluid electrolyte balance3
WATER & MINERALSWater and Body FluidsFluid & Electrolyte Balance

Water’s Attraction To Electrolytes

  • Water moves to concentrated solutions
  • Osmosis -- the movement of water across a membrane to area with more solutes --solutes refer to the number of molecules in a given volume of solution
  • Examples of osmosis
    • Raisins plump in water
    • Vegetables sweat when salted
water minerals water and body fluids fluid electrolyte balance4
WATER & MINERALSWater and Body FluidsFluid & Electrolyte Balance

Regulation

  • The amount of various salts in body must remain nearly constant
  • If salts are lost, they must be replaced from external sources -- foods and beverages
  • Proteins regulate the flow of fluids and ions
    • Cell membrane contains transport proteins that regulate the passage of positive ions and other substances from one side of the membrane to the other
    • Negative ions follow positive ions
    • Water flows toward the more concentrated solution
water minerals water and body fluids dehydration
WATER & MINERALSWater and Body FluidsDehydration

Signs to watch for (adults)

  • Consumption less than 6 cups per day
  • Dry mouth, cracked lips, sunken eyes, or dark urine
  • Needs help drinking
  • Has trouble swallowing
  • Vomiting, diarrhea, or fever
  • Confused or tired
  • Environmental factors (seasonal temperatures and room temperatures)
water minerals water and body fluids dehydration1
WATER & MINERALSWater and Body FluidsDehydration

What to do

  • Report observations and warning signs
  • Check swallowing
  • Encourage drink
    • Including other than at meal time
    • Caffeinated coffee and tea to be used with caution due to natural diuretic effect
  • Record intake and output
  • Offer ice chips
  • Drink with client
  • Place light pitcher and cup near
  • Offer assistance
water minerals minerals overview
WATER & MINERALSMineralsOverview
  • Are inorganic elements
    • Always retain their chemical identity
    • Once they enter the body, they remain there until excreted
  • Some are required in small amounts and therefore are essential nutrients
    • Bioavailability varies -- some foods contain binders that combine chemically with minerals preventing absorption
    • Have varied roles
  • Major minerals are present in the largest amounts (larger than 5 grams)
  • Trace minerals -- found in amounts less than 5 grams
water minerals minerals major minerals
WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor Minerals

Calcium

DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKE VALUE

  • AI
    • Adults 19-50 -- 1000 mg NOTE: Values do not change with pregnancy and lactation
    • Adults over 50 -- 1200 mg
  • UL -- 2500 mg

1998 data

water minerals minerals major minerals1
WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor Minerals

Calcium

  • Is the most abundant mineral in the body
  • Chief functions
    • With phosphorus, is the chief mineral of the bones and teeth
      • 99% stored in bones
      • Bones act as a bank for calcium
      • Formulation and dissolution takes place every minute, day and night
      • Blood calcium changes in response to changed regulatory control, not diet -- bones are depleted by calcium deficiency
water minerals minerals major minerals2
WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor Minerals

Calcium

  • Chief functions (continued)
      • Calcium balance
        • Regulated by Vitamin D, calcitonin (from the thyroid gland), and parathormone (from the parathyroid glands)
water minerals minerals major minerals3
WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor Minerals

Calcium

  • Chief functions (continued)
      • Calcium balance
        • If blood calcium is too high
          • Rising blood calcium signals the thyroid gland to secrete calcitonin, which

--Limits calcium absorption in the intestines

--Inhibits the activation of Vitamin D

--Stimulates calcium excretion in the kidneys

--Inhibits osteoclast cells from breaking down bone, preventing a rise in blood calcium

          • All of these actions lower blood calcium, which inhibits calcitonin secretion
water minerals minerals major minerals4
WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor Minerals

Calcium

  • Chief functions (continued)
      • If blood calcium is too low
          • Falling blood calcium signals the parathyroid glands to secrete parathormone
          • Vitamin D enhances absorption in the intestines
          • Parathormone stimulates the activation of Vitamin D
          • Vitamin D and parathormone stimulate osteoclast cells to break down bone, releasing calcium into the blood
          • All of these actions raise blood calcium, which inhibits parathormone secretion
water minerals minerals major minerals5
WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor Minerals

Calcium

  • Chief functions (continued)
    • Aids in normal muscle contractions and relaxations -- maintains normal heart rhythm
      • Above normal blood levels causes calcium rigor -- muscles contract resulting in hardness and stiffness
      • Below normal levels cause calcium tetany -- intermittent spasm of the extremities
      • Not reflective of lack of dietary calcium
        • Are caused by lack of Vitamin D or
        • Abnormal secretion of the regulatory hormones
water minerals minerals major minerals6
WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor Minerals

Calcium

  • Chief functions (continued)
    • Blood pressure
      • Adequate calcium intake can lower blood pressure, superceding the effects of a high sodium diet
    • Assists in nerve functioning
    • Is involved in blood clotting
    • Aids in immune defenses
water minerals minerals major minerals7
WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor Minerals

Calcium

  • Deficiency symptoms
    • Stunted growth in children
    • Osteoporosis (adult bone loss)
      • Is a reduced density of the bones
      • Both genetic and environmental factors can contribute
      • Is 8 times more prevalent in women than men
        • Women tend to consume less calcium than men
        • Women’s bone mass is lower than men (because of smaller body size)
        • Bone loss begins earlier in women than men accelerates after menopause
      • Other nutrients also are involved in preventing osteoporosis
        • Magnesium
        • Fluoride
        • Vitamin A
water minerals minerals major minerals8
WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor Minerals

Calcium

  • Toxicity symptoms
    • Constipation
    • Increased risk of urinary stone formation and kidney dysfunction
    • Interference with absorption of other minerals
water minerals minerals major minerals9
WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor Minerals

Calcium

  • Absorption
    • Adults absorb about 30% of calcium consumed
    • Factors that enhance absorption
      • Stomach acid -- helps to keep it soluble
      • Vitamin D -- helps the absorptive cells of the intestine make the necessary calcium-binding protein
      • Lactose
      • Phosphorus when consumed in an equal amount as calcium
      • Growth hormones
water minerals minerals major minerals10
WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor Minerals

Calcium

  • Absorption
    • Factors that inhibit absorption
      • Lack of stomach acid
      • Vitamin D deficiency
      • High phosphorus intake
      • High fiber diet
      • Phytates, a non-nutrient component of plant seeds (in seeds, nuts, and grains)
      • Oxalates, a binder (in beets, rhubarb, and spinach)
water minerals minerals major minerals calcium
Significant Sources

Milk and milk products

Small Fish (with bones)

Tofu (bean curd)

Greens (broccoli, chard)

Legumes

Broccoli: 36mg per 1/2 cup cooked

Sardines: 324mg per 3 oz

Milk: 316mg per cup

Pork and beans: 77mg per 1/2 cup

Cheddar Cheese: 305mg per 1-1/2 oz

Almonds: 80mg per 2 Tbsp.

WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor MineralsCalcium
water minerals minerals major minerals11
WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor Minerals

Phosphorus

DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKE VALUE

  • RDA
    • Adults over 19 -- 700 mg
  • UL
    • 3000-4000 mg, depending on age, sex, pregnancy, or lactation status

1998 data

water minerals minerals major minerals12
WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor Minerals

Phosphorus

  • After Calcium, is the second-most abundant mineral in the body
  • Approximately 85% is found as hydroxyapatite, the major calcium-containing crystal of the bones and teeth
water minerals minerals major minerals13
WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor Minerals

Phosphorus

  • Chief functions
    • A chief mineral of the bones and teeth
    • Phosphates occur in all cells as part of a major buffer system (phosphoric acid and its salts)
    • Occurs as part of genetic material
      • DNA and RNA present in every cell
      • Therefore necessary for growth
water minerals minerals major minerals14
WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor Minerals

Phosphorus

  • Chief functions (continued)
    • Assists in energy transfers during cellular metabolism
      • Many enzymes and the B-vitamins become active only when a phosphate group is attached
      • ATP, the energy carrier of the cells, uses three phosphate groups to do its work
    • Part of phospholipids
      • Helps transport other lipids in the blood
      • Major structural components of cell membranes
water minerals minerals major minerals15
WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor Minerals

Phosphorus

  • Deficiency symptoms
    • Weakness, bone pain
      • Dietary deficiency rarely occurs
      • Some drugs can bind with phosphorus making it unavailable resulting in bone loss that is characterized by weakness and pain
    • Diets that provide enough protein and calcium will provide enough phosphorus
  • Toxicity symptoms
    • Excess phosphorus may draw calcium out of the body in being excreted
water minerals minerals major minerals16
WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor Minerals

Phosphorus

  • Significant sources
    • All animal tissues -- best sources
    • Phosphorus from additives in processed foods can add significantly to people’s intakes
    • Vegetables and fruits are fair to poor sources
water minerals minerals major minerals17
WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor Minerals

Magnesium

DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKE VALUE

  • RDA
    • Males 19-30 -- 400 mg
    • Males 31 and over -- 420 mg
    • Females 19-30 -- 310 mg
    • Females 31 and over -- 320 mg
  • UL
    • 350 mg, (as a pharmacological agent only -- not from food and water)

1998 data

water minerals minerals major minerals18
WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor Minerals

Magnesium

  • Bone magnesium is a “reservoir” to make sure some will be on hand for vital reactions, regardless of recent dietary intake
water minerals minerals major minerals19
WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor Minerals

Magnesium

  • Chief functions
    • Involved in bone mineralization -- over half of the body’s magnesium is in the bones
    • Building of protein -- acts in all of the cells of the soft tissue
    • Enzyme action
      • Is a catalyst in the reaction that adds the last phosphate to ATP
    • Normal muscle contraction
      • Dynamic interaction with calcium (calcium promotes, magnesium inhibits)
    • Nerve impulse transmission
    • Maintenance of teeth -- holds calcium in the tooth enamel
    • Supports functioning of the immune system
water minerals minerals major minerals20
WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor Minerals

Magnesium

  • Deficiency symptoms
    • Rarely occur without disease -- may develop in
      • Alcohol abuse
      • Protein malnutrition
      • Kidney or endocrine disorders
      • Prolonged vomiting or diarrhea
    • Characterized by
      • Weakness
      • Confusion
      • If extreme
        • Convulsions
        • Bizarre muscle movements
        • Hallucinations
        • Difficulty swallowing
        • Growth failure in children
water minerals minerals major minerals21
WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor Minerals

Magnesium

  • Toxicity symptoms -- unknown
water minerals minerals major minerals magnesium
Significant Sources

Nuts

Legumes

Whole Grains

Dark Green Vegetables

Seafood

Chocolate

Cocoa

Oysters: 93mg per 3 oz

Dried Figs: 33mg per 1/4 cup

Black Eyed Peas: 45mg per 1/2 cup cooked

Spinach: 78mg per 1/2 cup cooked

Baked Potato: 55mg per whole small potato

Sunflower Seeds(shelled): 21mg per 2 tbs.

WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor MineralsMagnesium
water minerals minerals major minerals22
WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor Minerals

Sodium

DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKE VALUE

  • AI
    • Men and women 19 - 50 -- 1500 mg daily
    • Men and women 51 - 70 -- 1300 mg daily
    • Men and women 70 and older -- 1200 mg daily
  • UL
    • Men and women 19 and over 2,300 mg daily
  • Typical consumption averages 3,300 mg

2004 data

water minerals minerals major minerals23
WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor Minerals

Sodium

  • Chief functions
    • Is the principle electrolyte in the extracellular fluid and the primary regulator of extracellular fluid volume
      • When blood sodium rises (as when a person eats salted foods) thirst ensures that the person will drink until the appropriate sodium to water ratio is restored
    • With chloride and potassium, maintains the cells normal fluid balance
    • Maintains acid-base balance
      • Kidneys excrete hydrogen ions in exchange for sodium ions
    • Nerve impulse transmission
    • Muscle contraction
water minerals minerals major minerals24
WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor Minerals

Sodium

  • Deficiency
    • Causes of depletion
      • Overly strict use of low sodium diets
      • Vomiting
      • Diarrhea
      • Heavy sweating
    • Symptoms
      • Muscle cramps
      • Mental apathy
      • Loss of appetite
    • When blood sodium drops, both sodium and water must be replaced to restore balance
      • Salt losses can be safely replaced with “regular foods”
      • Salt tablets are not recommended -- too muchsalt, especially with too little water can incur dehydration
water minerals minerals major minerals25
WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor Minerals

Sodium

  • Toxicity
    • Prolonged excessive sodium intake , especially when the sodium is derived from salt, may be related to the development of hypertension in sensitive people
    • Immediate symptoms
      • Edema
      • Hypertension
      • Typically not a problem as long as water needs are met
water minerals minerals major minerals27
WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor Minerals

Sodium

  • Sodium in foods
    • Table salt
      • Is about 40% sodium
      • 1 tsp. of table salt contains about 2000 mg of sodium
      • 15% of the sodium in the U.S. diet comes from salt added during cooking
    • Processed foods have the highest sodium contents
      • 3/4 of the sodium in the U.S. diet comes from salt added to foods during processing and manufacturing
        • Do not always taste salty -- may contain sodium without its chloride
water minerals minerals major minerals28
WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor Minerals

SODIUM IN SELECTED FOODS

  • 1 portion fruit -- 0 mg
  • 1 cup milk -- 100 mg
  • 3/4 cup corn flakes -- 172 mg
  • 1/2 cup instant vanilla pudding -- 372 mg
  • 1 cup cottage cheese -- 700 mg
  • Big Mac -- 890 mg
  • 1 Tbsp. Soy sauce -- 1,027 mg
  • 3 oz sausage -- 1,100 mg
  • 1 large pickle -- 1,450 mg
  • KFC 2-piece combo -- 1,801 mg
water minerals minerals major minerals29
WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor Minerals

Chloride

DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKE VALUE

  • AI
    • Adults 19-50 -- 2.3 grams per day
  • UL
    • Adults 19 and over -- 3.5 grams per day
  • Typical consumption averages 3,300 mg daily

2004 data

water minerals minerals major minerals30
WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor Minerals

Chloride

  • Chief functions
    • Fluid and electrolyte balance
      • Major anion of the extracellular fluids (occurs mostly in association with sodium)
      • Associates with potassium inside the cells -- Can move freely across the cell membranes
    • Part of the hydrochloric acid found in the stomach -- is necessary for proper digestion
water minerals minerals major minerals31
WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor Minerals

Chloride

  • Deficiency
    • Does not occur under normal circumstances
    • Sodium depleting conditions such as heavy sweating, or chronic diarrhea and vomiting also deplete chloride
    • Symptoms
      • Growth failure in children
      • Muscle cramps
      • Mental apathy
      • Loss of appetite
      • Death (uncommon)
  • Toxicity
    • Normally harmless
    • Only known cause is dehydration due to water deficiency
    • Symptomized by vomiting
water minerals minerals major minerals32
WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor Minerals

Chloride

  • Chloride in foods
    • Table salt -- is about 60% chloride
    • Large amounts in processed foods
    • Moderate quantities in whole unprocessed foods
water minerals minerals major minerals33
WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor Minerals

Potassium

DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKE VALUE

  • AI
    • Adults 18 and over --4.7 g/day

2004 data

water minerals minerals major minerals34
WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor Minerals

Potassium

  • Chief functions
    • Is the principle electrolyte in the intracellular fluid
    • With chloride and sodium, maintains the cells normal fluid balance
    • Supports cell integrity
    • Nerve impulse transmission
    • Muscle contraction -- is critical to maintaining the heartbeat
water minerals minerals major minerals35
WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor Minerals

Potassium

  • Deficiency
    • Dietary deficiency unlikely but diets low in fresh fruits and vegetables make it possible
    • Accompanies dehydration
    • Regular use of certain drugs
      • Potassium depleting diuretics
      • Steroids
      • Strong laxatives
    • Characterized by
      • Muscular weakness
      • Paralysis
      • Confusion
      • Death
water minerals minerals major minerals36
WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor Minerals

Potassium

  • Toxicity
    • Does not result from overeating foods high in potassium
      • Given more potassium than the body needs, the kidneys accelerate their excretion
      • Vomiting reflex is triggered if ingestion exceeds the kidneys’ limit
    • Can result from overuse of potassium salt (salt substitutes)
    • Characterized by
      • Muscular weakness
      • Vomiting
    • If given into a vein, can stop the heart
water minerals minerals major minerals37
WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor Minerals

Potassium

  • Potassium in foods
    • All whole foods are good sources
      • Meats
      • Milk
      • Fruits
      • Vegetables
      • Grains
      • Legumes
water minerals minerals major minerals38
WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor Minerals

Sulfur

DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKE VALUE

  • Sulfur -- None
  • Sulfate -- Requirements are met when intakes include recommended levels of sulfur amino acids
    • Neither an EAR nor AI are established
    • Insufficient information is available to establish an UL

2004 data

water minerals minerals major minerals39
WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor Minerals

Sulfur

  • Body does not use sulfur by itself as a nutrient but it occurs in essential nutrients that the body does use
water minerals minerals major minerals40
WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor Minerals

Sulfur

  • Sulfate
    • Inorganic sulfate (SO42-) required for the synthesis of 3’-phosphoadenosine-5’-phosphosulfate (PAPS)(a sulfate carrier used to transfer sulfate groups to sulfatides, a component of the myelin sheath in the brain, and in the kidney, and retina)
    • Significant levels are found in foods and various sources of drinking water
    • Major source is from biodegradation due to body protein turnover of sulfur-containing amino acids methionine and cysteine
water minerals minerals major minerals41
WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor Minerals

Sulfur

  • Chief functions
    • Stabilizes the shape of some proteins
    • Component of some amino acids
      • Methionine
      • Cysteine
    • Part of the vitamins biotin and thiamin
    • Part of the hormone insulin
    • Combines with toxic substances to form harmless compounds
water minerals minerals major minerals42
WATER & MINERALSMineralsMajor Minerals

Sulfur

  • Deficiency
    • None known
    • Protein deficiency would occur first
  • Toxicity
    • Would occur only if sulfur-containing amino acids were eaten in excess (in animals, this depresses growth)
  • Significant sources
    • All protein-containing foods
water minerals minerals trace minerals
WATER & MINERALSMineralsTrace Minerals

Iodine

DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKE VALUE

  • RDA
    • 150 micrograms for males & females over 14
  • UL
    • 1,100 micrograms
    • Toxic dose is thought to be over 2,000 micrograms for adults

2000 data

water minerals minerals trace minerals1
WATER & MINERALSMineralsTrace Minerals

Iodine

  • Traces of the iodine ion (called iodide) are indispensable to life
  • Any iodine that is ingested in foods is converted into iodide in the GI tract
  • Therefore, iodine is the nutrient in food; iodide is how is used in the body
water minerals minerals trace minerals2
WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Iodine

  • Average consumption has increased over the last several decades and now approximates 200-500 micrograms, down from a high of 800 micrograms in 1974
    • Fast foods use iodized salt liberally
    • Iodates are present in dough conditioners used in the baking industry
    • Milk produced by cows exposed to iodide containing medications and disinfectants provide other sources
water minerals minerals trace minerals3
WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Iodine

  • Roles in the body
    • Integral part of two thyroid hormones
      • T-3 (triiodothyronine), the active form
      • T-4 (tetraiodothyronine), commonly known as thyroxin
      • Regulates
        • Body temperature
        • Metabolic rate
        • Reproduction
        • Growth
        • The making of blood cells
        • Nerve and muscle function
        • The rate at which the body cells use oxygen
      • Is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones
    • Controls the rate at which energy is released from energy-yielding nutrients
water minerals minerals trace minerals4
WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Iodine

  • Deficiency
    • When deficient, thyroid hormone concentrations fall
      • Body responds by increasing thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion in a futile attempt to stimulate iodine uptake by the thyroid gland
      • If deficiency persists, thyroid cells enlarge so as to trap as many atoms of iodide as possible
      • Simple goiter results when the gland becomes enlarged and visible because of iodine deficiency
      • Toxic goiter results when people who over-consume foods containing Goitrogens (thyroid antagonists), antithyroid substances whose effect is not countered by dietary iodide
        • These goitrogens include plants of the cabbage family
        • Toxic goiter represents 4% of the cases of goiter
water minerals minerals trace minerals5
WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Iodine

  • Deficiency (continued)
    • Symptoms
      • Sluggishness
      • Weight gain
      • May impair fetal development during pregnancy
      • Cretinism -- an iodine deficiency disease where, a maternal deficiency results in mental and physical retardation in the child
      • Goiter
      • Poor school performance
water minerals minerals trace minerals6
WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Iodine

  • Toxicity
    • Symptoms
      • Goiter-like thyroid enlargement -- may block the airways in children and cause suffocation
      • Depressed thyroid activity
water minerals minerals trace minerals7
WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Iodine

  • Significant sources
    • Iodized salt (first began in the 1930’s)
    • Seafood
    • Plants grown in most parts of the country (where landmasses were once under the ocean)
    • Animals that graze the above noted plants
water minerals minerals trace minerals8
WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Iron

DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKE VALUE

  • RDA
    • Females under 50 -- 18mg
    • Females over 50 and males -- 8mg
  • UL
    • 45mg

2001 data

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WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Iron

Absorption

  • Normally, only 10-15% of dietary iron is absorbed
    • Increases in response to
      • Diminished supply
      • Increased need
    • Absorption regulated by transferrin (a blood protein which captures iron from food and carries it to tissues throughout the body)
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WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Iron

Absorption

  • Food factors
    • Heme (the non-protein component of hemoglobin bound to the iron carrying proteins of meat, poultry and fish) iron is absorbed at a rate of about 23%
    • Non-heme iron (found in vegetables, grains, eggs, meat, fish, and poultry) is absorbed at a rate of 2-20%
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WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Iron

Absorption

  • Food factors (con’t)
    • Absorption enhancers
      • Meat, fish, and poultry contain MFP factor (a factor other than heme) that promotes iron absorption -- even the iron from other foods eaten at the same time
      • Vitamin C, eaten at the same meal, doubles or triples non-heme iron absorption
      • Citric acid (in citrus fruits) and lactic acid (in milk) from foods
      • HCl from the stomach
      • Sugars
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WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Iron

Absorption

  • Food factors (con’t)
    • Absorption inhibitors
      • Tannic acid in tea and coffee interferes with iron absorption
      • Phytates (a non-nutrient component of plant seeds) and fibers in soy products
      • Whole grain cereals and nuts
      • Calcium and phosphorus in milk
      • Ethylenediamine tetra acetate ([EDTA], added in food additives to retard crystal formation and promote color retention)
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WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Iron

  • Chief Functions
    • Part of the protein hemoglobin which carries oxygen to the blood
    • Part of the protein myoglobin that makes oxygen available for muscle contraction
    • Necessary for the utilization of energy
      • Works with several electron transport chain proteins enabling the body to capture the energy from nutrients
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WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Iron

Most of the body’s iron is in the blood

  • Iron losses are greatest when blood is lost
  • Other sources of loss include urine, sweat, and shed skin
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WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Iron

  • Worldwide, iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency
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WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Iron

  • Deficiency Symptoms
    • Weakness, fatigue
      • When iron stores are exhausted, the body cannot make enough hemoglobin to fill its new red blood cells
      • They then can’t carry enough oxygen from the lungs to the tissues
      • Consequently energy release is hindered
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WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Iron

  • Deficiency Symptoms (con’t)
    • Pallor (abnormally pale skin)
    • Reduced resistance to infection (lowered immunity)
    • Inability to concentrate
    • Lowered cold tolerance
    • Reduced learning ability
    • Itching
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WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Iron

  • Deficiency Symptoms (con’t)
    • Impaired wound healing
    • Concave nails
    • Pale nail beds, eye membranes, and palm creases
    • Pica -- an appetite for ice, clay, paste, or other non-nutritious substances
      • Seen in iron as well as zinc deficiencies
      • Clears dramatically as soon as iron is added to the diet
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WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Iron

  • Stages of iron deficiency
    • Iron stores diminish
      • Measures of serum ferratin reflect iron stores
    • Iron being transported within the body decreases
      • Serum iron falls
      • Iron carrying protein transferrin increases (an adaptation that enhances iron absorption)
      • The more transferrin and the less iron in the blood, the more advanced the deficiency is
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WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Iron

  • Stages of iron deficiency (con’t)
    • Lack of iron limits hemoglobin production
      • Erythrocyte protoporphryn (the hemoglobin precursor) begins to accumulate as hemoglobin (the globular protein of the red blood cells) and hematocrit (measurement of the volume of red blood cells packed by centrifuge in a given volume of blood) values decline
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WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Iron

  • Iron deficiency and anemia
    • Iron deficiency -- refers to depleted body iron stores without regard to the degree of depletion or the presence of anemia
    • Iron deficiency anemia -- refers to the severe depletion of iron stores that results in low hemoglobin concentration and small, pale, red blood cells
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WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Iron

  • Toxicity Symptoms
    • Infections -- bacteria thrive on iron-rich blood
    • Lethargy
    • Joint disease
    • Enlarged liver
    • Loss of hair
    • Death by accidental poisoning in children
    • Amenorrhea
    • Impotence
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WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Iron

  • Toxicity Symptoms (con’t)
    • Iron overload -- known as hemochromatosis
      • Usually caused by a genetic disorder that enhances iron absorption
      • Other causes
        • Repeated blood transfusions
        • Massive doses of supplementary iron
    • Hemosiderosis
      • Results from long-term over-consumption of iron
      • Characterized by large deposits of the iron storage protein hemosiderin in the liver and other tissues
water minerals minerals trace minerals iron
Significant Sources

Red Meats

Fish

Poultry

Shellfish

Eggs

Legumes

Dried Fruits

Navy Beans: 2.2mg per 1/2 cup cooked

Dried Figs: 1.3mg per 1/4 cup

Swiss Chard: 2.0mg per 1/2 cup cooked

Clams: 25.2mg per 3 oz steamed

Sirloin Steak: 2.8 mg per 3 oz cooked

Tofu: 6.7mg per 1/2 cup

WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace MineralsIron
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WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Selenium

DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKE VALUE

  • RDA -- 55 micrograms (men & women over 14)
  • UL
    • 400 micrograms
    • Associated with the highest activity of enzymes that guard against oxidants in the body

2000 data

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WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Selenium

  • Chief functions in the body
    • Part of an antioxidant enzyme (glutathione peroxidase)
      • Prevents free radical formation (molecules with one or more unpaired electrons) by donating one of it’s electrons thus blocking the oxidative chain reaction before it starts
      • Oxidative stress has been implicated in
        • The aging process
        • Development of cancer, arthritis, cataracts, heart disease
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WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Selenium

  • Chief functions in the body (con’t)
    • Works with Vitamin E -- if free radicals do form and a chain reaction starts, vitamin E stops it
    • Works closely with the enzyme that converts thyroid hormone to its active form
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WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Selenium

  • Deficiency symptoms
    • Predisposition to heart disease (cardiac tissue becomes fibrous)
    • Keshan disease
      • The heart disease associated with selenium deficiency
      • Characterized by heart enlargement and insufficiency -- fibrous tissue replaces the muscle tissue that normally composes the middle layer of the walls of the heart
      • Prevalent in regions of China and probably caused by a virus
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WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Selenium

  • Toxicity symptoms
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
    • Diarrhea
    • Loss of hair and nails
    • Lesions of the skin and nervous system
    • Irritability
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WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Selenium

  • Significant Sources
    • Seafood
    • Meat
    • Grains, dependant on soil conditions
    • Vegetables, dependant on soil conditions
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WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Zinc

DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKE VALUE

  • RDA
    • Males over 14 -- 11 milligrams
    • Females over 19 -- 8 milligrams
  • UL
    • 40 milligrams

2001 data

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WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Zinc

  • Absorption rate ranges from 15 to 40% depending on a person’s zinc status -- if more is needed, more is absorbed
  • Recommendations assume 20% of dietary zinc is absorbed
  • Fiber and phytates bind zinc, limiting its bioavailability
  • Zinc toothpaste reduces plaque
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WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Zinc

  • Chief functions in the body
    • Part of the hormone insulin and many enzymes -- more than 70 enzymes require it as a co-factor
    • Involved with making genetic material and proteins
    • Immune reactions
    • Transport of Vitamin A
    • Taste perception
    • Wound healing
    • The making of sperm
    • Normal development of the fetus -- protects from heavy metal poisoning (e.g. lead)
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WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Zinc

  • Deficiency Symptoms -- so pervasive that generalized malnutrition and sickness are more likely to be diagnosed
    • Growth failure in children (even seen in mild deficiencies)
    • Sexual retardation
    • Poor sensitivity to taste of salt
    • Anorexia
    • Poor wound healing
    • Hindered digestion and absorption
    • Impaired immune response
    • Impairs vitamin A metabolism -- vitamin A deficiency symptoms may appear
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WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Zinc

  • Toxicity Symptoms
    • High doses appear to accelerate the development of atherosclerosis
    • Noted in doses greater than 2 grams
      • Vomiting
      • Diarrhea
      • Fever
      • Exhaustion
      • Muscular pain and incoordination
    • Noted in doses just a few milligrams above the recommended intake (especially when taken regularly over time)
      • Lowers the body’s copper content
water minerals minerals trace minerals zinc
Significant Sources

Protein-containing foods

Meat

Fish

Poultry

Whole grains

Vegetables

Black Beans: 1.0mg per 1/2 cup cooked

Crabmeat: 3.6mg per 3 oz steamed

Yogurt: 2.2mg per cup

Green Peas: 1.0mg per 1/2 cup

Sirloin Steak: 5.5mg per 3 oz cooked

Oysters: 154mg per 3 oz steamed

WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace MineralsZinc
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WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Others

  • Copper

DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKE VALUE

    • RDA
      • 900 micrograms (male & female over 19)
    • UL
      • 10,000 micrograms

2001 data

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WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Others

  • Copper
    • Is a part of several enzymes
    • Helps to make red blood cells
    • Involved in making collagen
    • Ensures proper utilization of iron
    • Deficiency is rare -- dietary factors such as phytates and high intakes of vitamin C, zinc, and iron interfere with copper absorption
    • Zinc competes with copper for absorption, -- people taking over-the-counter zinc pills may develop copper deficiency
    • Best sources -- organ meats, seafood, nuts, seeds
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WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Others (con’t)

  • Manganese

DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKE VALUE

    • AI
      • Males over 19 -- 2.3 milligrams
      • Females over 19 -- 1.8 milligrams
    • UL
      • 11 milligrams

2001 data

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WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Others (con’t)

  • Manganese
    • Cooperates with many enzymes helping to facilitate many of the different metabolic processes
    • Widely distributed in foods -- deficiencies have not been seen in humans
    • Toxicity may be severe
      • Symptoms
        • Brain disease
        • Abnormalities in appearance and behavior
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WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Others (con’t)

  • Fluoride

DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKE VALUE

    • AI
      • Males over 19 -- 3.8 mg
      • Females over 14 -- 3.1 mg
    • UL
      • 10.0 mg

1998 data

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WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Others (con’t)

  • Fluoride
    • Aids in formation of tooth crystals that strongly resist acid & inhibits the growth of bacteria
    • Where diets are high in fluoride, tooth decay is reduced
    • Drinking water is the most significant source -- water with 1 ppm fluoride offers the greatest protection with virtually no risk of toxicity
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WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Others (con’t)

  • Fluoride
    • Excess fluoride during tooth development can cause fluorosis (discoloration and pitting of tooth enamel)
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WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Others (con’t)

  • Chromium

DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKE VALUE

    • AI
      • Males under 50 -- 35 micrograms
      • Males 50 and older -- 30 micrograms
      • Females under 50 -- 25 micrograms
      • Females 50 and older -- 20 micrograms

2001 data

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WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Others (con’t)

  • Chromium
    • Participates in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism
    • Works closely with insulin facilitating the uptake of glucose into the cells
    • Deficiencies unlikely; toxicity unknown as a nutritional disorder
    • Best sources -- unrefined foods
      • Liver
      • Whole grains
      • Nuts
      • Brewer’s yeast
      • Cheeses
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WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Others (con’t)

  • Molybdenum

DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKE VALUE

    • RDA
      • 45 micrograms (Adults 19 and over)
    • UL
      • 2,000 micrograms

2001 data

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WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Others (con’t)

  • Molybdenum
    • Is a working part of many enzymes
    • Deficiencies and toxicity unknown as nutritional disorders
    • Sources are widespread to include
      • Legumes
      • Breads & other grains
      • Leafy green vegetables
      • Milk
      • Liver

*****

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WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Others (con’t)

  • Nickel
    • Deficiencies harm the liver and other organs

DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKE VALUE

    • UL
      • 1.0 milligram

2001 data

****

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WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Others (con’t)

  • Silicon
    • Involved in bone calcification in animals

DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKE VALUE

    • UL
      • Not determined

2001 data

***

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WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Others (con’t)

  • Boron
    • May play a role in bone development and prevention of osteoporosis

DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKE VALUE

    • UL
      • 20 milligrams

2001 data

**

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WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Others (con’t)

  • Vanadium
    • No biological function in humans has been identified

DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKE VALUE

    • UL
      • 1.8 milligrams (based on adverse effects on laboratory animals)

2001 data

*

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WATER & MINERALSMinerals Trace Minerals

Others (con’t)

  • Cobalt
    • Mineral in vitamin B-12
    • Is not an essential nutrient
  • Tin
    • Necessary for growth in animals