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Task Force on Hemispheric Transport on Air Pollution , Brussels, 1-3 June PowerPoint Presentation
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Task Force on Hemispheric Transport on Air Pollution , Brussels, 1-3 June
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  1. Task Force on Hemispheric Transport on Air Pollution, Brussels, 1-3 June Overview on the Hemispheric Transport on POPs Sergey Dutchak EMEP/MSC-E EMEP/MSC-E

  2. Task Force on Hemispheric Transport on Air Pollution, Brussels, 1-3 June Recent studies • 1. Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Arctic AMAP,2002 • 2. Regionally Based Assessment of Persistent Toxic Substances UNEP, 2002 • 3. Canadian Arctic Contaminants Assessment Report II 2003 • 4. Impact of warming ARCTIC ACIA, 2004 • 5. Persistent Toxic Substances, Food security, and Indigenous Peoples AMAP, 2004 • 6. Evaluation of B[a]P and -HCH transport from European and North American emission sourcesOSPAR, 2005 • 7. Scientific Journals 2004-2005 • 9. EMEP/MSC-E Reports of POPs EMEP, 2005 EMEP/MSC-E

  3. Task Force on Hemispheric Transport on Air Pollution, Brussels, 1-3 June International programmes on POPs: AMAP OSPAR HELCOM OECD . . . Protocol on POPs UN ECE Stockholm Convention UNEP POPs: PCBs, D&Fs, HCB, PAHs, -HCH, 10 pesticides New substances: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers Endosulfan, Dicofol . . . EMEP/MSC-E

  4. Task Force on Hemispheric Transport on Air Pollution, Brussels, 1-3 June Differences in physical-chemical properties of POPs -HCH PCB-153 Vegetation Air Air Vegetation Soil 4% 1% 2% 1% Sea 15% 3% Soil Sea 92% 82% Distribution of pollutants between media EMEP/MSC-E

  5. Task Force on Hemispheric Transport on Air Pollution, Brussels, 1-3 June • Monitoring and Modelling Evidence ofHemispheric Transport of POPs • Atmospheric transport • Oceanic transport • Riverine transport • Transpolar ice transport Main transport pathways: AMAP Assessment 2002: Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Arctic EMEP/MSC-E

  6. Task Force on Hemispheric Transport on Air Pollution, Brussels, 1-3 June Monitoring evidence of POPs transport AMAP, EMEP, OSPARUNEP – under development EMEP/MSC-E

  7. Task Force on Hemispheric Transport on Air Pollution, Brussels, 1-3 June Time series of HCB, -HCH and PCBs in Arctic air HCB -HCH PCB10 AMAP Assessment 2002: Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Arctic EMEP/MSC-E

  8. Task Force on Hemispheric Transport on Air Pollution, Brussels, 1-3 June Concentrations ofPCDD/Fs in ringed seals, in the CanadianArctic, pg/g ww AMAP Assessment 2002: Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Arctic EMEP/MSC-E

  9. Task Force on Hemispheric Transport on Air Pollution, Brussels, 1-3 June New substances to the Protocol on POPs Worldwide PeBDE production, kt/yr PeBDE concentration, ng/g lw Production Beluga Ringed seal Trends of ΣPeBDE inringed seals and beluga in the Canadian Arctic and global production AMAP Assessment 2002: Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Arctic EMEP/MSC-E

  10. Task Force on Hemispheric Transport on Air Pollution, Brussels, 1-3 June Monitoring evidence of transport Comments: Available monitoring data in remote regions of theNorthern Hemisphere clearly show that POPs: • are global pollutants • are accumulated in different environment compartments and in some species, particularly in marine mammals. Needs: • - Long term observations in different environmental compartments on hemispheric scale • - Exchange of measurement data between international programmes • - Agreed monitoring strategy on global level • - Measurement campaigns EMEP/MSC-E

  11. Task Force on Hemispheric Transport on Air Pollution, Brussels, 1-3 June Model evidence of POPs hemispheric transport CHEMICAL TRANSPORT MODEL BOX MODELS ChemRange CliMoChem GLOBO-POP Canada SimpleBox Netherlands EVN-BETR andUK-MODEL ELPOS Germany G-CIEMS Japan } Switzerland CAM/POPs MEDIA DEHM-POP Denmark MSCE-POP EMEP/MSC-E ADOM-POP Germany HYSPLIT 4 USA } Canada UK EMEP/MSC-E Technical Report 1/2004 EMEP/MSC-E

  12. Task Force on Hemispheric Transport on Air Pollution, Brussels, 1-3 June Typical structure of POP multicompartment models EMEP/MSC-E

  13. Task Force on Hemispheric Transport on Air Pollution, Brussels, 1-3 June Model evidence of POPs hemispheric transport EMEP region Outflow EMEP/MSC-E

  14. Task Force on Hemispheric Transport on Air Pollution, Brussels, 1-3 June EMEP Multicompartment Hemispheric Transport Model (MSCE-POP-Hem) Atmospheric transport EMEP Horizontal grid structure: 2.52.5 Atmospheric vertical grid structure EMEP/MSC-E

  15. Task Force on Hemispheric Transport on Air Pollution, Brussels, 1-3 June Distribution of emission sources in the Northern Hemisphere, 1996 PCB-153 -HCH Expert estimates EMEP/MSC-E

  16. Task Force on Hemispheric Transport on Air Pollution, Brussels, 1-3 June Annual deposition in 2002 B[a]P -HCH EMEP/MSC-E

  17. Task Force on Hemispheric Transport on Air Pollution, Brussels, 1-3 June Comparison of modelling results with monitoring data European sites, PCB-153 Arctic sites, PCB-153 3 3 3.5 30 Observed 3 Observed 25 2.5 Model Model 20 2 15 1.5 Mean annual concentrations, pg/m Mean annual concentrations, pg/m 1 10 0.5 5 0 0 Pallas 96 Alert 93 Alert 94 Dunai 93 Tagish 92 Tagish 93 Tagish 94 Svanvik 92 Storhofdi 95 Storhofdi 96 Ny Alesund 92 Ny Alesund 93 Ny Alesund 94 Rorvik 94 Rorvik 95 Rorvik 96 Karvatn 92 Kosetice 96 Hazelrigg 93 Hazelrigg 94 Hazelrigg 95 EMEP/MSC-E

  18. Task Force on Hemispheric Transport on Air Pollution, Brussels, 1-3 June Comparison of hemispheric and regional models resolution: 2.5ox2.5o resolution: 50x50 km2 Deposition fluxes of -HCH to OSPAR region, 2000 (North Atlantic) EMEP/MSC-E

  19. Task Force on Hemispheric Transport on Air Pollution, Brussels, 1-3 June Intercontinental transport of PCB-153 from North American sources Air concentrations EMEP/MSC-E

  20. Task Force on Hemispheric Transport on Air Pollution, Brussels, 1-3 June Seasonal variability January March July Monthly averages of PCB-153 surface atmospheric concentrations caused by sources from North-western Europe EMEP/MSC-E

  21. Task Force on Hemispheric Transport on Air Pollution, Brussels, 1-3 June Source-receptor relationships Deposition to the Arctic Canadian Arctic Deposition to the Arctic South-eastern North-western Asia NorthAmerica Europe Africa and Russia 3% Central Asia 21% 18% 5% 39% South- NorthAmerica South-eastern eastern Europe Europe 17% 17% 15% Africaand CentralAsia South- Russia eastern North-western Europe 11% Asia 40% 8% 6% Contributions of main source groups to PCBs deposition to the Arctic EMEP/MSC-E

  22. Task Force on Hemispheric Transport on Air Pollution, Brussels, 1-3 June POP ocean transport model EMEP/MSC-E

  23. Task Force on Hemispheric Transport on Air Pollution, Brussels, 1-3 June PCB-153 concentrations in the upper 100 m layer of ocean, ng/m3 1985 2000 EMEP/MSC-E

  24. Task Force on Hemispheric Transport on Air Pollution, Brussels, 1-3 June Sea currents, relative units 1st year 10th year Changes of concentrations of PCB-153 in seawater during 10 years (European source) EMEP/MSC-E

  25. Task Force on Hemispheric Transport on Air Pollution, Brussels, 1-3 June Sea currents, relative units 1st year 10th year Changes of concentrations of PCB-153 in seawater during 10 years (American source) EMEP/MSC-E

  26. Task Force on Hemispheric Transport on Air Pollution, Brussels, 1-3 June River flux of -HCH ~ 30% of totalinput to the Arctic Ocean Changes in mean annual concentrations in the upper layer, ng/m3 EMEP/MSC-E

  27. Task Force on Hemispheric Transport on Air Pollution, Brussels, 1-3 June POP transport with the sea ice Mean annual rate of ice melting in the Arctic, mm/day Main ice transport directions EMEP/MSC-E

  28. Task Force on Hemispheric Transport on Air Pollution, Brussels, 1-3 June γ-HCH Input into Arctic Ocean, t/y 2002 Rivers Atmosphere 37% 25% Sea currents Ice+Snow 21% Pacific ocean Atlantic ocean 3% 14% EMEP/MSC-E

  29. Task Force on Hemispheric Transport on Air Pollution, Brussels, 1-3 June Climate change Changes associated with temperature, precipitation, ice cover and with ecosystems have a great potentialto alter pathways of POPs. Canadian Arctic Contaminants Assessment Report II EMEP/MSC-E

  30. Task Force on Hemispheric Transport on Air Pollution, Brussels, 1-3 June Climate change Increases in annual average arctic temperature projected by an average of ACIA models for A2 and B2 emissions scenarios ~ 5-7oC ACIA – Arctic Climate Impact Assessment Impacts of a Warming Arctic: ACIA. Highlights [2004] EMEP/MSC-E

  31. Task Force on Hemispheric Transport on Air Pollution, Brussels, 1-3 June Climate change and hemispheric transport Gas/particle partitioning for three POPs (temperature dependence) Wet deposition velocity via temperature 0.25 100% 0.2 80% 0.15 t, cm/s 60% PCBs 50% we 0.1 Fraction of particulate phase d V 40% PCB-153 0.05 20% 0 0% 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 T, C o T, C POPs behaviour is strongly temperature dependent EMEP/MSC-E

  32. Task Force on Hemispheric Transport on Air Pollution, Brussels, 1-3 June Satellite Data on Changes of Sea Ice Impacts of a Warming Arctic: ACIA. Highlights [2004] EMEP/MSC-E

  33. Task Force on Hemispheric Transport on Air Pollution, Brussels, 1-3 June Climate change with sea ice without sea ice Annual average concentration of PCB-153, pg/L in the upper sea layer for 1996 EMEP/MSC-E

  34. Task Force on Hemispheric Transport on Air Pollution, Brussels, 1-3 June Conclusions • Most of the total quantity of POPs measured in the Arctic environment is derived from distant source of Northern Hemisphere • The atmosphereoften predominates initially as a rapid transportingmediumbut with time other slower-moving (ocean)orstationary media (lake water, soil, vegetation) becomethe dominant reservoirs or transporting media. • Multicompartment transport models could generate information on global/hemispheric transport including intercontinental transport, source-receptor relationships, seasonal variability, transport with sea currents, etc. EMEP/MSC-E

  35. Task Force on Hemispheric Transport on Air Pollution, Brussels, 1-3 June • Atmospheric transport, ocean currents, ice cover, and water-air exchange of POPs are all subject to alteration as a results of climate change. • Close cooperation of various international bodies and national experts in the field of emission inventories and projections, monitoring and modeling is highly appreciated. EMEP/MSC-E