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AP ESSAYS. COMPARATIVE (COMP) CHANGE & CONTINUITY-OVER-TIME (CCOT) DOCUMENT BASED QUESTION (DBQ) . CCOT Essay Scoring. BASIC CORE - Historical skills and knowledge required to show competence A – answers all parts of the question (2 pts)

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ap essays





ccot essay scoring
CCOT Essay Scoring

BASIC CORE - Historical skills and knowledge required to show competence

  • A– answers all parts of the question (2 pts)
  • G – uses global historical context effectively explain change over time and/or continuities (1pt)
  • A – analyzes the process of change and/or continuity (1pt)
  • T– has acceptable thesis (1 pt)
  • E – substantiates thesis with appropriate historical evidence (2pts)

TOTAL 7 pts


EXPANDED CORE - Historical skills and knowledge required to show excellence

  • Has clear, analytical, and comprehensive thesis.
  • Analyzes all issues of the question: global context, chronology, causation, change, continuity, effects, and content.
  • Addresses all parts of the question.
  • Provides ample historical evidence to substantiate thesis.
  • Provides links with relevant ideas, events, and trends in an innovative way.
  • TOTAL 2 pts
ripples in the water approach
Ripples in the water approach 
  • What started the ripples or waves? [Events from inside and/or outside the region]
  • What are the sizes of the waves? [What is the significance of the changes?]

Do the waves/ripples flow in any set pattern that would help analyze the changes or continuities?

    • Are they cyclical?  [e.g. a regular cyclical pattern of drought or environmental change?
    • Does the same kind/size of rock [event] produce the same results? [Or is there something different about the specific event that makes its impact greater?]
    • Do the waves/ripples affect other waves/ripples in the same time period? 
in this process you are forced to address causation
In this process you are forced to address causation
  • What caused the initial change?
  • Did anything accelerate it, what and why?
  • Did anything change the direction it was taking, what and why? 
  • Was it delayed, by what and why?
change over time essay
  • Requires that you detail a starting point
    • Requires that you detail the changes that occurred by:
    • describing the turning point of the time period
    • describing the end point of the time period
    • Requires that you detail what did not change (continuity)
    • Requires that you relate that change to a global context
Make sure your thesis statement does what your assignment asks you to do.
  • Begin by READING the prompt –
  • i.e.circle what you have to do (the verbs) and underline the big key phrases from the prompt (the when, where and what)

Pre-Write I

Describe and analyze the cultural, economic, and political impact of Islam on ONE of the following regions between 1000 CE and 1750 CE . Be sure to discuss continuities as well as changes.

West Africa

South Asia


pre write ii
Pre-Write II
  • Graphic Organizer of information
    • Three column chart – a column for each category
      • Political / Cultural / Economic
    • Three rows for:
      • Beginning / Cause / Change
  • Brainstorm information to complete chart

Your Thesis must include:

1. In your thesis include the dates or time period

For example: “Between 1000 and 1750 C.E. . . . “

2. Include the region or country you chose.

Example: “Between 1000 and 1750 C.E. Islam

impacted West Africa . . . “

3. Tell what changed and what stayed the same using the

categories stated in the prompt.


Example Thesis:

“Between 1000 and 1750 C.E. Islam impacted West Africa by changing its economics and political structure but many of its cultural aspects remained the same.”

The above thesis is a minimally acceptable thesis and will get you the point on the rubric.

A mo’ betta’ thesis would be:

Between 1000 and 1750 C.E. Islam entered West Africa and increased its trade and centralized its politics but many aspects of African religion and gender roles remained unchanged.

try adding a transitional sentence for the essay on islam
Try adding a transitional sentence for the essay on Islam

To better understand the impact of Islam on West Africa during this period, one must take a look at what this area was like prior to the introduction of Islam.

body paragraph
Body Paragraph

1st Sentence – A Change/Continuity (Topic Sentence)

2nd Sentence – Evidence (of how it was)

3rd Sentence – Evidence (before/after)

4th Sentence – Evidence (after)

5th Sentence – Analysis - why the changed occurred or the effect of the change

6th Sentence – Transition

formula for the body paragraph s
Formula for the body paragraphs

1st Body Paragraph – first change in category/region

2nd Body Paragraph – second change in category/region

3rd Body Paragraph – what continued

4th Body Paragraph – Global Context - include relevant

world historical context in your analysis of CCOT

  • Impact of change on other regions
  • Impact of other regions on change
  • Compare change to other regions
change and continuity power words
Change and Continuity Power Words: