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VET-120 Diagnostic Imaging

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  1. VET-120Diagnostic Imaging

  2. Course Set-up • 5 Lessons (Webinars) • 5 Lesson Exams • Final Proctored Exam • Required Reading • Diagnostic Imaging Study Guide • Radiography in Veterinary Technology (Lavin – 4th edition)

  3. Studying for Exams • Make copy of Lesson PowerPoints • Take excellent notes during Webinars • Read & highlight Assigned Readings in Study Guide & Lavin book • Perform Self Checks in Study Guide • Learn the Glossaryat the beginning of each Chapter in Lavin book • Study Key Points & Review Questionsat end of each Chapter in Lavin book

  4. Lesson 1– X-ray Production and Safety

  5. Reading Prefaces to Lavin Textbook Why????? 

  6. Online Resources Animal Insides Veterinary E-News Magazine

  7. Animal Insideshttp://www.animalinsides.com/

  8. Pulldown Menu

  9. General Imaging Topics

  10. Digital Practice Topics

  11. Latest Imaging News

  12. Books You Need 

  13. Veterinary E-News Magazinehttp://www.vetxray.com/dyncat.cfm?catid=1393

  14. Latest Issue

  15. 2 Major Goals in Course • Learn how to take quality “Diagnostic X-rays” with minimum retakes • Learn Radiation Safety • Staff • Animal

  16. Glossary Terms – Page 4

  17. X-ray Production

  18. What Are X-rays? • Definition • X-rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation similar to visible light, but with a much shorter wavelength

  19. The Spectrum of Electromagnetic Waves

  20. Physical Properties of X-rays • Wavelength • Travel • Straight lines • Speed of light • Fluorescence • Captured on film • Biologic changes in living tissue

  21. Glossary Terms – Page 10

  22. Taking X-rays Exposure Factors Control Panel X-ray Machine

  23. Exposure Factors • Milliamperage (mA) • Peak Kilovoltage (kVp) • Exposure Time (S) • Focal-Film Distance (FFD) • Source-Image Distance (SID)

  24. Control Panel – 3 Exposure Factors • On/Off Switch • Milliamperage (mA) • Exposure time (fractions of a second) • kVp (peak kilovoltage) • Adjust this last • Exposure button/switch • 2 stage button? • 4th Exposure Factor – Focal-Film Distance • (on machine, not control panel)

  25. Anatomy of the X-ray Machine

  26. Parts of an X-ray Machine X-ray Tube Electrical Components Collimator Control Panel

  27. The X-ray Tube (Ray Gun) • Most expensive part of the machine

  28. A “Ray Gun” • An X-raymachine is essentially a camera. Instead of visible light, however, it uses X-rays to expose the film.

  29. The 5 Elements Needed to Make an X-ray Tube (Ray Gun)Figure 2-1, Page 11 Source of electrons – cathode Electron acceleration – transformers Electron path open – vacuum Electron target – anode Outside envelope – glass envelope

  30. The X-ray TubeFigures 2-1, 2-2 on pages 11-12 • 5 elements needed for x-ray production

  31. Flow of electrons from cathode to anodeFigure 2-2, Page 12

  32. Figure 2-7 Page 14 Example of a rotating anode.

  33. Heel effect – The intensity of the primary x-ray beam is not uniform throughout all areas of the beam; the intensity is greater toward the cathode sideof the x-ray beam because of the angle of the anode target area.

  34. Figure 2-8Page 14 Demonstration of the heel effect.

  35. Review of X-ray Tube Anatomy Anatomy of an x-ray tube. A, Cathode. B, Anode. C, Tungsten filament. D, Focusing cup. E, Accelerating electrons. F, Tungsten target. G, Glass envelope. H, Aluminum filter. I, Generated x-rays. J, Beryllium window.

  36. Summary:The Whole X-ray Story

  37. The Patient

  38. Black & White on Films • Black – x-rays NOT absorbed by animal’s body….. End up hitting film • White – x-rays absorbed by animal’s body…. Fewer get to film

  39. Collimator • Made of lead • Restricts (collimates) SIZE of primary x-ray beam • Limits patient & staff exposure to beam • Increases quality of x-ray beam • Less secondary (scatter) radiation • Does NOT intensify primary x-ray beam • Permanent & adjustable types

  40. Figure 2-18, Page 20 Collimator with lead shutters.

  41. Collimator – ↓ Scatter Radiation

  42. How Much to Collimate? • Ideally, every film should have a collimated edge around the entire film • Use of a smaller cassette is another means of collimating

  43. X-ray Positioning – X Marks the Spot! 

  44. Radiation Safety

  45. Glossary Terms – Page 24

  46. Ionizing Radiation • Definition • The use of electrons (an ionic subatomic particle) to produce x-rays • X-rays – an electromagnetic radiation that is a wave • Fundamental – Radiation should be respected, not feared!