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Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging CHAPTER 20 Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging Overview X-rays High-energy electromagnetic waves Travel in straight lines Shorter wave length than visible light Able to penetrate solid materials of varying densities

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Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging


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radiology and diagnostic imaging overview
Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging Overview
  • X-rays
    • High-energy electromagnetic waves
    • Travel in straight lines
    • Shorter wave length than visible light
    • Able to penetrate solid materials of varying densities
    • Capable of exposing a photographic plate (X-ray film)
      • Much the same way as a camera exposes film
radiology and diagnostic imaging overview3
Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging Overview
  • X-rays
    • Used to visualize internal organs and structures of body
    • Provide valuable means for verifying presence of illness or disease
  • Radiology
    • Study of the diagnostic and therapeutic uses of X-rays
procedures and techniques

PROCEDURES AND TECHNIQUES

Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging

angiocardiography cardiac catheterization
Angiocardiography(Cardiac Catheterization)
  • Pronounced
    • (an-jee-oh-kar-dee-OG-rah-fee)
    • (CAR-dee-ak kath-eh-ter-ih-ZAY-shun)
  • Defined
    • Specialized diagnostic procedure in which a catheter is introduced into a large vein or artery
    • Usually of an arm or a leg, and is then threaded through circulatory system to the heart
angiography
Angiography
  • Pronounced
    • (an-jee-OG-rah-fee)
  • Defined
    • Series of X-ray films allowing visualization of internal structures after the introduction of a radiopaque substance
cerebral angiography
Cerebral Angiography
  • Pronounced
    • (seh-REE-bral an-jee-OG-rah-fee)
    • (SER-eh-bral an-jee-OG-rah-fee)
  • Defined
    • Injection of a radiopaque contrast medium into an arterial blood vessel (carotid, femoral, or brachial) to make visualization of the cerebral vascular system via X-ray possible
renal angiography
Renal Angiography
  • Pronounced
    • (REE-nal an-jee-OG-rah-fee)
  • Defined
    • X-ray visualization of internal anatomy of the renal blood vessels (blood vessels of the kidney) after injection of a contrast medium
arteriography
Arteriography
  • Pronounced
    • (ar-tee-ree-OG-rah-fee)
  • Defined
    • X-ray visualization of arteries following the introduction of a radiopaque contrast medium into the bloodstream through a specific vessel by way of a catheter
arthrography
Arthrography
  • Pronounced
    • (ar-THROG-rah-fee)
  • Defined
    • Process of taking X-rays of the inside of a joint, after a contrast medium has been injected into the joint
      • Contrast medium makes the inside of the joint visible
barium enema be
Barium Enema (BE)
  • Pronounced
    • (BAH-ree-um EN-eh-mah)
  • Defined
    • Infusion of a radiopaque contrast medium, barium sulfate, into the rectum
    • Contrast medium is retained in lower intestinal tract while X-ray films are obtained of the lower GI tract
barium swallow upper gi series
Barium Swallow(Upper GI Series)
  • Pronounced
    • (BAH-ree-um SWALL-oh)
  • Defined
    • Oral administration of a radiopaque contrast medium, barium sulfate, which flows into the esophagus as the person swallows
      • X-rays are taken as barium sulfate flows into the upper GI tract
bronchography
Bronchography
  • Pronounced
    • (brong-KOG-rah-fee)
  • Defined
    • Bronchial examination via X-ray following the coating of the bronchi with a radiopaque substance
cholangiography intravenous
Cholangiography(Intravenous)
  • Pronounced
    • (koh-lan-jee-OG-rah-fee)
    • (in-trah-VEE-nus)
  • Defined
    • Visualizing and outlining of the major bile ducts following an intravenous injection of a contrast medium
cholangiography percutaneous transhepatic
Cholangiography(Percutaneous Transhepatic)
  • Pronounced
    • (koh-lan-jee-OG-rah-fee)
    • (per-kyoo-TAY-nee-us trans-heh-PAT-ik)
  • Defined
    • Examination of bile duct structure using a needle to pass directly into an intrahepatic bile duct to inject a contrast medium
      • Also known as PTC or PTHC
cholangiopancreatography endoscopic retrograde
Cholangiopancreatography(Endoscopic Retrograde)
  • Pronounced
    • (koh-lan-jee-oh-pan-kree-ah-TOG-rah-fee)
    • (en-doh-SKOP-ic RET-roh-grayd)
  • Defined
    • Procedure that examines the size of and the filling of the pancreatic and biliary ducts through direct radiographic visualization with a fiberoptic endoscope
cholecystography oral
Cholecystography(Oral)
  • Pronounced
    • (koh-lee-sis-TOG-rah-fee)
  • Defined
    • Visualization of the gallbladder through X-ray following the oral ingestion of pills containing a radiopaque iodinated dye
cineradiography
Cineradiography
  • Pronounced
    • (sin-eh-ray-dee-OG-rah-fee)
  • Defined
    • Diagnostic technique combining the techniques of fluoroscopy, radiography, and cinematography by filming the images that develop on a fluorescent screen with a movie camera
computed axial tomography ct cat
Computed Axial Tomography (CT, CAT)
  • Pronounced
    • (kom-PEW-ted AK-see-al toh-MOG-rah-fee)
  • Defined
    • Painless, noninvasive diagnostic X-ray procedure using ionizing radiation that produces a cross-sectional image of the body
voiding cystourethrography
Voiding Cystourethrography
  • Pronounced
    • (VOYD-ing sis-toh-yoo-ree-THROG-rah-fee)
  • Defined
    • X-ray visualization of the bladder and urethra during the voiding process, after the bladder has been filled with a contrast material
digital subtraction angiography dsa
Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA)
  • Pronounced
    • (DIJ-ih-tal sub-TRAK-shun an-jee-OG-rah-fee)
  • Defined
    • X-ray images of blood vessels only, appearing without any background, due to the use of a computerized digital video subtraction process
echocardiography
Echocardiography
  • Pronounced
    • (ek-oh-kar-dee-OG-rah-fee)
  • Defined
    • Diagnostic procedure for studying the structure and motion of the heart via ultrasound
      • Useful in evaluating structural and functional changes in a variety of heart disorders
fluoroscopy
Fluoroscopy
  • Pronounced
    • (floor-or-OSS-koh-pee)
  • Defined
    • Radiological technique used to examine the function of an organ or a body part using a fluoroscope
hysterosalpingography
Hysterosalpingography
  • Pronounced
    • (his-ter-oh-sal-ping-OG-rah-fee)
  • Defined
    • X-ray assessment of uterus and fallopian tubes by injecting a contrast material into these structures
lymphangiography
Lymphangiography
  • Pronounced
    • (lim-fan-jee-OG-rah-fee)
  • Defined
    • X-ray assessment of lymphatic system following injection of a contrast medium into lymph vessels in the hand or foot
magnetic resonance imaging mri
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
  • Pronounced
    • (mag-NET-ik REZ-oh-nans IM-ij-ing)
  • Defined
    • Noninvasive scanning procedure that provides visualization of fluid, soft tissue, and bony structures without the use of radiation
mammography
Mammography
  • Pronounced
    • (mam-OG-rah-fee)
  • Defined
    • Process of taking X-rays of the soft tissue of the breast to detect various benign and/or malignant growths before they can be felt
myelography
Myelography
  • Pronounced
    • (my-eh-LOG-rah-fee)
  • Defined
    • Introduction of contrast medium into the lumbar subarachnoid space through a lumbar puncture to visualize the spinal cord and vertebral canal through X-ray examination
positron emission tomography scan pet
Positron Emission Tomography Scan (PET)
  • Pronounced
    • (POZ-ih-tron ee-MISH-un toh-MOG-rah-fee)
  • Defined
    • Noninvasive diagnostic imaging method that demonstrates the biological function of the body before anatomical changes take place
      • Scan produces computerized radiographic images of the body structures when radioactive substances are administered to the patient
        • Substances are inhaled or injected
pyelography intravenous ivp
Pyelography(Intravenous) (IVP)
  • Pronounced
    • (pye-eh-LOG-rah-fee)
    • (in-trah-VEE-nus)
  • Defined
    • Radiographic procedure that provides visualization of the entire urinary tract: kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra
      • Also known as intravenous pyelogram or excretory urogram
radiation therapy
Radiation Therapy
  • Pronounced
    • (ray-dee-AY-shun THAIR-ah-pee)
  • Defined
    • Delivery of ionizing radiation to accomplish one or more of the following:
      • Destruction of tumor cells
      • Reduction of tumor size
      • Decrease in pain
      • Relief of obstruction
      • To slow or stop the spread of cancer cells
radiation therapy33
Radiation Therapy
  • Radiation therapy
    • Destroys rapidly multiplying cells regardless of whether they are cancerous
    • Goal is to reach maximum tumor control with no, or minimal, normal tissue damage
    • May be delivered by teletherapy (external)
    • May be delivered by brachytherapy (internal)
radioactive iodine uptake
Radioactive Iodine Uptake
  • Pronounced
    • (ray-dee-oh-AK-tiv EYE-oh-dine UP-tayk)
  • Defined
    • Examination that determines the position, size, shape, and physiological function of the thyroid gland through the use of radionuclear scanning
      • Image of the thyroid is recorded and visualized after a radioactive substance is given
scanning bone brain liver lungs
Scanning (Bone, Brain, Liver, Lungs)
  • Pronounced
    • (SCAN-ing)
  • Defined
    • Scanning is the process of recording emission of radioactive waves, using a gamma camera (scanner)
      • After an intravenous injection of a radionuclide material into the particular part of the body being studied
scanning bone brain liver lungs36
Scanning (Bone, Brain, Liver, Lungs)
  • Defined
    • Image of the area being studied is displayed by recording concentration or collection of a radioactive substance specifically drawn to that area
scanning
Scanning
  • Bone
    • Involves intravenous injection of a radionuclide material absorbed by bone tissue
      • Used to detect spread of cancer to the bones, osteomyelitis, and other destructive changes in the bones
scanning38
Scanning
  • Brain
    • Nuclear scanning of cranial contents two hours after an intravenous injection of radioisotopes
      • Useful in diagnosing abnormal findings such as an acute cerebral infarction, cerebral neoplasm, cerebral hemorrhage, brain abscess, aneurysms, cerebral thrombosis, hematomas, hydrocephalus, cancer metastasis to the brain, and bleeds
scanning39
Scanning
  • Liver
    • Noninvasive scanning technique that enables the visualization of the shape, size, and consistency of the liver after the IV injection of a radioactive compound
      • Useful in detecting cysts, abscesses, tumors, granulomas, or diffuse infiltrative processes affecting the liver
scanning40
Scanning
  • Lung
    • Visual imaging of the distribution of ventilation or blood flow in the lungs by scanning the lungs after the patient has been injected with or has inhaled radioactive material
scanning41
Scanning
  • Spleen
    • Noninvasive scanning technique that enables the visualization of the shape, size, and consistency of the spleen after injection of radioactive red blood cells
      • Useful in detecting damage, tumors, and other problems
single photon emission computed tomography spect
Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)
  • Pronounced
    • (single FOH-ton ee-MISH-un

kom-PEW-ted toh-MOG-rah-fee)

  • Defined
    • Nuclear imaging procedure that shows how blood flows to tissues and organs
      • Tracking of radioactive material allows physician to see perfusion of blood to tissues and organs
small bowel follow through
Small Bowel Follow-Through
  • Pronounced
    • (Small Bowel Follow-Through)
  • Defined
    • Oral administration of a radiopaque contrast medium, barium sulfate, which flows through the GI system
      • X-ray films are obtained at timed intervals to observe progression of barium through small intestines
tomography
Tomography
  • Pronounced
    • (toh-MOG-rah-fee)
  • Defined
    • X-ray technique used to construct a detailed cross-section, at a predetermined depth, of a tissue structure
      • Useful in identifying space-occupying lesions in the liver, brain, pancreas, and gallbladder
ultrasonography ultrasound
Ultrasonography(Ultrasound)
  • Pronounced
    • (ull-trah-son-OG-rah-fee)
  • Defined
    • Procedure in which sound waves are transmitted into body structures as a small transducer is passed over the patient’s skin
      • Sound waves are reflected back into the transducer and are interpreted by a computer that converts waves to a composite picture form
ultrasonography
Ultrasonography
  • Abdominal ultrasound
    • Use of reflected sound waves to provide reliable visualization of the liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, pancreas, kidneys, bladder, and ureters
ultrasonography47
Ultrasonography
  • Pelvic ultrasound
    • Noninvasive procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to examine the abdomen and pelvis
    • Can be used to locate a pelvic mass, an ectopic pregnancy, or an intrauterine device, and to inspect and assess the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes
ultrasonography48
Ultrasonography
  • Renal ultrasound
    • Noninvasive ultrasound of the kidneys that is useful in distinguishing between fluid-filled cysts and solid masses, detecting renal calculi, identifying obstructions, and evaluating transplanted kidneys
  • Thyroid Echogram (ultrasound)
    • Ultrasound examination important in distinguishing solid thyroid nodules from cystic nodules
venography
Venography
  • Pronounced
    • (vee-NOG-rah-fee)
  • Defined
    • Technique used to prepare an X-ray image of veins
    • Veins are injected with a radiopaque contrast medium
    • Phlebography
x rays
X-rays
  • Pronounced
    • (ECKS-rays)
  • Defined
    • Use of high-energy electromagnetic waves, passing through the body onto a photographic film, to produce a picture of the internal structures of the body for diagnosis and therapy
x rays51
X-rays
  • Chest X-ray
    • Visualization of interior of chest
    • Provides diagnostic information about:
      • Tumors, inflammation, accumulation of fluid, accumulation of air, bone fractures, diaphragmatic hernia, size of heart, calcification, placement of centrally located intravenous access devices
x rays52
X-rays
  • Chest X-ray views
    • Posteroanterior (PA)
      • X-rays pass through the posterior (back) to the anterior (front)
    • Lateral
      • X-rays pass through the person’s side
    • Oblique
      • X-rays are taken from different angles
    • Decubitus
      • X-rays are taken with person in recumbent lateral position – aids in localizing fluid