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Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging CHAPTER 20 Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging Overview X-rays High-energy electromagnetic waves Travel in straight lines Shorter wave length than visible light Able to penetrate solid materials of varying densities

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Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging

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radiology and diagnostic imaging overview
Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging Overview
  • X-rays
    • High-energy electromagnetic waves
    • Travel in straight lines
    • Shorter wave length than visible light
    • Able to penetrate solid materials of varying densities
    • Capable of exposing a photographic plate (X-ray film)
      • Much the same way as a camera exposes film
radiology and diagnostic imaging overview3
Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging Overview
  • X-rays
    • Used to visualize internal organs and structures of body
    • Provide valuable means for verifying presence of illness or disease
  • Radiology
    • Study of the diagnostic and therapeutic uses of X-rays
procedures and techniques


Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging

angiocardiography cardiac catheterization
Angiocardiography(Cardiac Catheterization)
  • Pronounced
    • (an-jee-oh-kar-dee-OG-rah-fee)
    • (CAR-dee-ak kath-eh-ter-ih-ZAY-shun)
  • Defined
    • Specialized diagnostic procedure in which a catheter is introduced into a large vein or artery
    • Usually of an arm or a leg, and is then threaded through circulatory system to the heart
  • Pronounced
    • (an-jee-OG-rah-fee)
  • Defined
    • Series of X-ray films allowing visualization of internal structures after the introduction of a radiopaque substance
cerebral angiography
Cerebral Angiography
  • Pronounced
    • (seh-REE-bral an-jee-OG-rah-fee)
    • (SER-eh-bral an-jee-OG-rah-fee)
  • Defined
    • Injection of a radiopaque contrast medium into an arterial blood vessel (carotid, femoral, or brachial) to make visualization of the cerebral vascular system via X-ray possible
renal angiography
Renal Angiography
  • Pronounced
    • (REE-nal an-jee-OG-rah-fee)
  • Defined
    • X-ray visualization of internal anatomy of the renal blood vessels (blood vessels of the kidney) after injection of a contrast medium
  • Pronounced
    • (ar-tee-ree-OG-rah-fee)
  • Defined
    • X-ray visualization of arteries following the introduction of a radiopaque contrast medium into the bloodstream through a specific vessel by way of a catheter
  • Pronounced
    • (ar-THROG-rah-fee)
  • Defined
    • Process of taking X-rays of the inside of a joint, after a contrast medium has been injected into the joint
      • Contrast medium makes the inside of the joint visible
barium enema be
Barium Enema (BE)
  • Pronounced
    • (BAH-ree-um EN-eh-mah)
  • Defined
    • Infusion of a radiopaque contrast medium, barium sulfate, into the rectum
    • Contrast medium is retained in lower intestinal tract while X-ray films are obtained of the lower GI tract
barium swallow upper gi series
Barium Swallow(Upper GI Series)
  • Pronounced
    • (BAH-ree-um SWALL-oh)
  • Defined
    • Oral administration of a radiopaque contrast medium, barium sulfate, which flows into the esophagus as the person swallows
      • X-rays are taken as barium sulfate flows into the upper GI tract
  • Pronounced
    • (brong-KOG-rah-fee)
  • Defined
    • Bronchial examination via X-ray following the coating of the bronchi with a radiopaque substance
cholangiography intravenous
  • Pronounced
    • (koh-lan-jee-OG-rah-fee)
    • (in-trah-VEE-nus)
  • Defined
    • Visualizing and outlining of the major bile ducts following an intravenous injection of a contrast medium
cholangiography percutaneous transhepatic
Cholangiography(Percutaneous Transhepatic)
  • Pronounced
    • (koh-lan-jee-OG-rah-fee)
    • (per-kyoo-TAY-nee-us trans-heh-PAT-ik)
  • Defined
    • Examination of bile duct structure using a needle to pass directly into an intrahepatic bile duct to inject a contrast medium
      • Also known as PTC or PTHC
cholangiopancreatography endoscopic retrograde
Cholangiopancreatography(Endoscopic Retrograde)
  • Pronounced
    • (koh-lan-jee-oh-pan-kree-ah-TOG-rah-fee)
    • (en-doh-SKOP-ic RET-roh-grayd)
  • Defined
    • Procedure that examines the size of and the filling of the pancreatic and biliary ducts through direct radiographic visualization with a fiberoptic endoscope
cholecystography oral
  • Pronounced
    • (koh-lee-sis-TOG-rah-fee)
  • Defined
    • Visualization of the gallbladder through X-ray following the oral ingestion of pills containing a radiopaque iodinated dye
  • Pronounced
    • (sin-eh-ray-dee-OG-rah-fee)
  • Defined
    • Diagnostic technique combining the techniques of fluoroscopy, radiography, and cinematography by filming the images that develop on a fluorescent screen with a movie camera
computed axial tomography ct cat
Computed Axial Tomography (CT, CAT)
  • Pronounced
    • (kom-PEW-ted AK-see-al toh-MOG-rah-fee)
  • Defined
    • Painless, noninvasive diagnostic X-ray procedure using ionizing radiation that produces a cross-sectional image of the body
voiding cystourethrography
Voiding Cystourethrography
  • Pronounced
    • (VOYD-ing sis-toh-yoo-ree-THROG-rah-fee)
  • Defined
    • X-ray visualization of the bladder and urethra during the voiding process, after the bladder has been filled with a contrast material
digital subtraction angiography dsa
Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA)
  • Pronounced
    • (DIJ-ih-tal sub-TRAK-shun an-jee-OG-rah-fee)
  • Defined
    • X-ray images of blood vessels only, appearing without any background, due to the use of a computerized digital video subtraction process
  • Pronounced
    • (ek-oh-kar-dee-OG-rah-fee)
  • Defined
    • Diagnostic procedure for studying the structure and motion of the heart via ultrasound
      • Useful in evaluating structural and functional changes in a variety of heart disorders
  • Pronounced
    • (floor-or-OSS-koh-pee)
  • Defined
    • Radiological technique used to examine the function of an organ or a body part using a fluoroscope
  • Pronounced
    • (his-ter-oh-sal-ping-OG-rah-fee)
  • Defined
    • X-ray assessment of uterus and fallopian tubes by injecting a contrast material into these structures
  • Pronounced
    • (lim-fan-jee-OG-rah-fee)
  • Defined
    • X-ray assessment of lymphatic system following injection of a contrast medium into lymph vessels in the hand or foot
magnetic resonance imaging mri
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
  • Pronounced
    • (mag-NET-ik REZ-oh-nans IM-ij-ing)
  • Defined
    • Noninvasive scanning procedure that provides visualization of fluid, soft tissue, and bony structures without the use of radiation
  • Pronounced
    • (mam-OG-rah-fee)
  • Defined
    • Process of taking X-rays of the soft tissue of the breast to detect various benign and/or malignant growths before they can be felt
  • Pronounced
    • (my-eh-LOG-rah-fee)
  • Defined
    • Introduction of contrast medium into the lumbar subarachnoid space through a lumbar puncture to visualize the spinal cord and vertebral canal through X-ray examination
positron emission tomography scan pet
Positron Emission Tomography Scan (PET)
  • Pronounced
    • (POZ-ih-tron ee-MISH-un toh-MOG-rah-fee)
  • Defined
    • Noninvasive diagnostic imaging method that demonstrates the biological function of the body before anatomical changes take place
      • Scan produces computerized radiographic images of the body structures when radioactive substances are administered to the patient
        • Substances are inhaled or injected
pyelography intravenous ivp
Pyelography(Intravenous) (IVP)
  • Pronounced
    • (pye-eh-LOG-rah-fee)
    • (in-trah-VEE-nus)
  • Defined
    • Radiographic procedure that provides visualization of the entire urinary tract: kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra
      • Also known as intravenous pyelogram or excretory urogram
radiation therapy
Radiation Therapy
  • Pronounced
    • (ray-dee-AY-shun THAIR-ah-pee)
  • Defined
    • Delivery of ionizing radiation to accomplish one or more of the following:
      • Destruction of tumor cells
      • Reduction of tumor size
      • Decrease in pain
      • Relief of obstruction
      • To slow or stop the spread of cancer cells
radiation therapy33
Radiation Therapy
  • Radiation therapy
    • Destroys rapidly multiplying cells regardless of whether they are cancerous
    • Goal is to reach maximum tumor control with no, or minimal, normal tissue damage
    • May be delivered by teletherapy (external)
    • May be delivered by brachytherapy (internal)
radioactive iodine uptake
Radioactive Iodine Uptake
  • Pronounced
    • (ray-dee-oh-AK-tiv EYE-oh-dine UP-tayk)
  • Defined
    • Examination that determines the position, size, shape, and physiological function of the thyroid gland through the use of radionuclear scanning
      • Image of the thyroid is recorded and visualized after a radioactive substance is given
scanning bone brain liver lungs
Scanning (Bone, Brain, Liver, Lungs)
  • Pronounced
    • (SCAN-ing)
  • Defined
    • Scanning is the process of recording emission of radioactive waves, using a gamma camera (scanner)
      • After an intravenous injection of a radionuclide material into the particular part of the body being studied
scanning bone brain liver lungs36
Scanning (Bone, Brain, Liver, Lungs)
  • Defined
    • Image of the area being studied is displayed by recording concentration or collection of a radioactive substance specifically drawn to that area
  • Bone
    • Involves intravenous injection of a radionuclide material absorbed by bone tissue
      • Used to detect spread of cancer to the bones, osteomyelitis, and other destructive changes in the bones
  • Brain
    • Nuclear scanning of cranial contents two hours after an intravenous injection of radioisotopes
      • Useful in diagnosing abnormal findings such as an acute cerebral infarction, cerebral neoplasm, cerebral hemorrhage, brain abscess, aneurysms, cerebral thrombosis, hematomas, hydrocephalus, cancer metastasis to the brain, and bleeds
  • Liver
    • Noninvasive scanning technique that enables the visualization of the shape, size, and consistency of the liver after the IV injection of a radioactive compound
      • Useful in detecting cysts, abscesses, tumors, granulomas, or diffuse infiltrative processes affecting the liver
  • Lung
    • Visual imaging of the distribution of ventilation or blood flow in the lungs by scanning the lungs after the patient has been injected with or has inhaled radioactive material
  • Spleen
    • Noninvasive scanning technique that enables the visualization of the shape, size, and consistency of the spleen after injection of radioactive red blood cells
      • Useful in detecting damage, tumors, and other problems
single photon emission computed tomography spect
Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)
  • Pronounced
    • (single FOH-ton ee-MISH-un

kom-PEW-ted toh-MOG-rah-fee)

  • Defined
    • Nuclear imaging procedure that shows how blood flows to tissues and organs
      • Tracking of radioactive material allows physician to see perfusion of blood to tissues and organs
small bowel follow through
Small Bowel Follow-Through
  • Pronounced
    • (Small Bowel Follow-Through)
  • Defined
    • Oral administration of a radiopaque contrast medium, barium sulfate, which flows through the GI system
      • X-ray films are obtained at timed intervals to observe progression of barium through small intestines
  • Pronounced
    • (toh-MOG-rah-fee)
  • Defined
    • X-ray technique used to construct a detailed cross-section, at a predetermined depth, of a tissue structure
      • Useful in identifying space-occupying lesions in the liver, brain, pancreas, and gallbladder
ultrasonography ultrasound
  • Pronounced
    • (ull-trah-son-OG-rah-fee)
  • Defined
    • Procedure in which sound waves are transmitted into body structures as a small transducer is passed over the patient’s skin
      • Sound waves are reflected back into the transducer and are interpreted by a computer that converts waves to a composite picture form
  • Abdominal ultrasound
    • Use of reflected sound waves to provide reliable visualization of the liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, pancreas, kidneys, bladder, and ureters
  • Pelvic ultrasound
    • Noninvasive procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to examine the abdomen and pelvis
    • Can be used to locate a pelvic mass, an ectopic pregnancy, or an intrauterine device, and to inspect and assess the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes
  • Renal ultrasound
    • Noninvasive ultrasound of the kidneys that is useful in distinguishing between fluid-filled cysts and solid masses, detecting renal calculi, identifying obstructions, and evaluating transplanted kidneys
  • Thyroid Echogram (ultrasound)
    • Ultrasound examination important in distinguishing solid thyroid nodules from cystic nodules
  • Pronounced
    • (vee-NOG-rah-fee)
  • Defined
    • Technique used to prepare an X-ray image of veins
    • Veins are injected with a radiopaque contrast medium
    • Phlebography
x rays
  • Pronounced
    • (ECKS-rays)
  • Defined
    • Use of high-energy electromagnetic waves, passing through the body onto a photographic film, to produce a picture of the internal structures of the body for diagnosis and therapy
x rays51
  • Chest X-ray
    • Visualization of interior of chest
    • Provides diagnostic information about:
      • Tumors, inflammation, accumulation of fluid, accumulation of air, bone fractures, diaphragmatic hernia, size of heart, calcification, placement of centrally located intravenous access devices
x rays52
  • Chest X-ray views
    • Posteroanterior (PA)
      • X-rays pass through the posterior (back) to the anterior (front)
    • Lateral
      • X-rays pass through the person’s side
    • Oblique
      • X-rays are taken from different angles
    • Decubitus
      • X-rays are taken with person in recumbent lateral position – aids in localizing fluid