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HUMAN INFORMATION PROCESSING. OTHER SYSTEMS AND ORGANIZATION. ONE ANGLE OR TWO CHOPSTICKS ?. LET START WITH MORE PICTURES ILLUSTRATING VISUAL PROCESSING CONCLUSION: THE SYSTEM PRODUCES INTERPRETATION WHICH IS MOST LIKELY THAT IS CREATES STABLE REPRESENTATION.

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human information processing

HUMAN INFORMATIONPROCESSING

OTHER SYSTEMS AND ORGANIZATION

slide2

ONE ANGLE OR

TWO

CHOPSTICKS ?

  • LET START WITH MORE PICTURES

ILLUSTRATING

VISUAL PROCESSING

CONCLUSION:

THE SYSTEM PRODUCES

INTERPRETATION

WHICH IS MOST LIKELY

THAT IS CREATES STABLE

REPRESENTATION

slide3

WE SEE HERE ILLUSORY CONTOURS OF OBJECTS

VISUAL SYSTEM IS REALLY GOOD IN EXTRACTING THEM

slide4
JUNCTIONS ARE CRITICAL FOR OBJECT

PERECPTION COMPARE LEFT AND RIGHT SIDES

slide5

LIGHT DIRECTION

  • VISUAL SYSTEM ASSUMES THAT LIGHT

IS COMING FROM TOP

SAME PICTURE UPSIDE DOWN

slide6
IN ALL FIGURES GREY ELEMENTS HAVE

THEY SAME INTENSITY

BUT PERCEIVED INTENSITY DEPENDS ON THE

SURROUNDING AREA. VISUAL SYSTEM IS THUS

NOT AN OBJECTIVE LIGHT INTENSITY MEASURING

DEVICE

slide7
WHERE IS THE LIGHT SOURCE?
  • WE CAN ESTABLISH ITS POSITION FROM

SHADOWS OF OBJECTS

slide9

HERE WE HAVE EXAMPLE THAT THE SYSTEM IS

ALSO VERY ADAPTIVE

BRAIN ADAPTATION TO

REVERSED LEFT-RIGHT

PICTURES

Four volunteers lived for an entire month in the strange reverse world we see while shaving or applying lipstick. Wearing special 'prism spectacles' designed to reverse their vision meant that to go left they had to turn right, and if they looked one way to catch a tennis ball, it would hit them on the back. It took three weeks of adaptation for correct answers.

slide10
VISUAL SYSTEM IS ONE IMPORANT

PART OF HUMAN INFORMATION PROCESSING BUT THERE ARE OTHERS:

  • ACOUSTICAL SYSTEM
  • HAPTIC +MOTORIC (TOUCH) WITH

VESTIBULAR (ORIENTATION IN SPACE)

  • SMELL
  • TASTE
slide11
ACOUSTICAL SYSTEM HEARING + SOUND/SPEECH PRODUCTION: THIS IS MATCHED RECEIVER-TRANSMITTER SYSTEM

VESTIBULAR

SYSTEM

slide12
COCHLEA – SOUND TRANSDUCER

MODEL OF COHLEAR

TRANSDUCER

SOUND PRESSURE IS CHANGED INTO

FLUID PRESSURE

UT

OUTPUT IS MAXIMUM FOR CERTAIN FREQUENCY

AT SOME POSITION ALONG THE TRANSDUCER

slide13
HAIRS – CHANGE THE MECHANICAL

SIGNAL INTO ELECTRICAL

slide14
ACOUSTICAL SIGNALS – CAN BE ANALYZED IN

TIME AND FREQUENCY OR BOTH. AND BOTH

SYSTEMS SEEM TO BE PRESENT IN THE BRAIN

WE ARE ABLE TO DETECT PRECISELY FREQUENCY OF TONES

E.G. SINUSOIDS

AND POSITION OF SOUNDS IN TIME

E.G. CLICKS

IN THE ACOUSTICAL CORTEX THERE ARE TIME DETECTORS (PLACE) AND FREQUENCY DETECTORS. BOTH TYPE OF SYSTEMS OPERATE AT SOME FREQUENCY RANGES (TOP)

FILTERS ARE BROADLY TUNED

(BOTTOM)

slide15

WE CAN SEE SEVERAL STAGES FOM COCHLEA TO

CORTEX

SUPERIOR OLIVARY NUCLEUS IS THE PLACE

WHERE SPATIAL SOUND

PROCESSING STARTS

MAPPING INTO FREQUENCY

AND SPACE LOCATIONS IS

PRESENT, LIKE IN VISION

IT WAS FOR LOCAL SIGNAL

FEATURES

  • THE STRUCTURE OF HEARING SYSTEM
slide16

WE HAVE DIFFERENT SENSITIVITIES FOR DIFFEERENT FREQUENCIES, HIGHEST IS IN THE MIDDLE RANGE

MUSIC FROM INSTRUMENTS CAN BE VERY EFFICIENTLY

RECOGNIZED. THIS MUST BE BASED ON DETAILED

FREQUENCY AND TIME ANALYSIS

slide17

LOCALIZATION OF SOUND SOURCES

IN SPACE IS BASED ON MEASURING

DIFFERENCES IN TIME OF SOUND ARRIVAL

BETWEEN THE EARS. THIS MUST BE VERY

PRECISE MEASUREMENT, ON THE ORDER

OF TENS OF MICROSECONDS

SOUND LOCALIZATION IS QUITE PRECISE

BUT HEAD MOVEMENTS AND VISUAL

CUES HELP A LOT, ERRORS IN LOCATION

CAN BE SEEN IN PICTURES

slide19

CERTAIN TONES HAVE HARMONY, THEY SOUND NICE TO US,

OTHR TONES NOT. WE ARE PROBABLY BORN WITH A SYSTEM

WHICH PROCESSES TONES AND THUS WE ARE PREDISPOSED

FOR CERTAIN SOUNDS WHICH ARE ”NATURAL” FOR US

slide20
SPEECH PROCESSING SYSTEM

A COMPLEX ELASTIC MECHANICAL SYSTEM CONTROLLED

ELECTRICALLY FOR REGULATION OF AIRFLOW

slide21
BASIC UNITS OF SPEECH –PHONEMS

USING THESE UNITS SPEECH CAN BE GENERATED

HEARING AND SPEECH ARE PRECISLY MATCHED TO EACH OTHER

SPEECH CAN BE RECOGNIZED EVEN AT HIGH LEVEL OF NOISE

AND INTERFERENCE .

EXAMPLE IS SO CALLED COCTAIL PARTY EFFECT: MANY PEOPLE ARE

TALKING AT THE SAME TIME BUT WE ARE ABLE TO CONCENTRATE

ON ONE SPEAKER.

slide22
VESTIBULAR SYSTEM

NOTE THAT THE WORLD WE SEE IS STABLE, WHILE

PICTURES ON RETINAS OF EYES ARE NOT. MOVEMENTS

ARE COMPENSATED BY SIGNALS FROM VESTIBULAR

SYSTEM (ORIENTATION IN SPACE)

EXAMPLE: WHEN PERSON IS ROTATING ON A PLATFORM IN

DARK ROOM, HORIZONTAL LINE WILL BE DEFLECTED

slide23
TOUCH SYSTEM

IT HAS RECEPTORS IN THE BODY.

IN THE BRAIN THERE IS MAPPING OF

THE BODY IN THE CORTEX

slide24
MAPPING OF BODY PARTS IN THE

SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX

slide26
SKIN RECEPTORS OF TOUCH

(CAPSULES AT THE NERVE ENDINGS)

slide27
TOUCH SENSITIVITY THRESHOLD

OVER THE BODY:

FEMALES MALES

FEMALES ARE MORE SENSITIVE TO TOUCH

slide28
PAIN SYSTEM

WHAT IS PAIN?

IT IS SIGNALLING FROM THE

BODY TO THE BRAIN ABOUT

IMPROPER OPERATION

THE BRAIN CHANGES ITS ACTION

TO DEAL WITH THE PROBLEM

THERE IS ALSO A SYSTEM FOR

IHIBITING THE PAIN SIGNALS

slide29

IT IS ACTIVATION OF TOUCH

AND PAIN SYSTEM IN ORDER

TO STIMULATE OTHER

BRAIN STRUCTURES

PERHAPS IMMUNE SYSTEM IS

STIMULATED???

  • ACUPUNCTURE
integration of senses in biological systems

INTEGRATION OF SENSESIN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

WE COULD CALL IT

”BIOLOGICAL MULTIMEDIA”

but this is ONLY A JOKE!

slide31
PEOPLE HAVE FANTASTIC CAPABILITIES IN RECEIVING AND PRODUCING INFORMATION BY DIFFERENT SENSES AND SYSTEMS

FOR EXAMPLE THEY CAN SPEAK,

LISTEN AND DANCE AT THE SAME TIME

HOW SUCH THINGS ARE CONTROLLED

AND ORGANIZED IN THE BRAIN?

LET’S SEE FIRST SOME OF THE BRAIN CAPABILITIES

(SOME OF THEM QUITE FUNNY TOO)

slide32

CROSSMODAL MATCHING

HERE THE PERSON MUST RECOGNIZE OBJECT VISUALLY,

RECOGNIZE OBJECT BY TOUCH, COMPARE THEM AND MATCH

HOW THIS IS DONE? PROBABLY INFORMATION FROM DIFFERENT

SENSES IS STORED IN SOME GENERAL WAY, INEPENDENT FROM

PARTICULAR SENSE

slide33
SOME PEOPLE HAVE PECULIAR EXPERIENCE:

THEY FEEL E.G. SPECIFIC SHAPE WHEN FEEL

SPECIFIC TASTE

THIS IS CALLED SYNESTHESIA, ONE CAN SPECULATE THAT

SENSORY SIGNALS GET MIXED UP SOMWHERE

slide34
VENTRILOQUISM - BY COORDINATING

MOVEMENTS OF A PUPPET WITH SPEECH,

VENTIRLOQUIST INDUCES STRONG ILLUSION

THAT THE PUPPET IS SPEAKING

slide35
HOW THE COORDINATION IS DONE?

DEEP IN THE BRAIN THERE IS A STRUCTURE CALLED

SUPERIOR COLLICULUS

slide36
IN THIS STRUCTURE THERE ARE NEURONS REACTING TO DIFFERENT SENSORY INFORMATION: THEY ARE MULTIMODAL
slide37
STIMULATION OF DIFFERENT SENSORY AREAS OF CORTEX WILL PRODUCE

RESPONSE FROM Superior Colliculus NEURONS:

slide38
THERE ARE MANY KINDS OF MULTIMODAL NEURONS: SOME RESPOND TO 2 DIFFERENT SENSES AND SOME TO 3

NEURON RECEIVING SIGNALS FROM

THREE SENSES

slide40
HERE WE SEE LAYER OF VISUAL

NEURONS FOR DIFFERENT ANIMALS

THEY FORM A MAP OF VISUAL SPACE

slide41
HERE WE SEE LAYER OF AUDITORY

NEURONS THEY FORM A MAP OF AUDITORY SPACE

slide42
THE DIFFERENT MAPS

ARE OVERLAID ON EACH

OTHER SO THEY MATCH!

slide43
THESE NEURONS RESPOND TO OVERLAPPING AREAS FROM DIFFERENT SENSORY MAPS. THEY HAVE BROAD RESPONSE
slide46
REACTION OF VISUAL-ACOUSTICAL NEURON. REPONSE IS GREATLY ENHANCED FOR SIMULTANEOUS VISUAL-ACOUSTICAL STIMULATION

PLEASE NOTE THAT SIGNALS ARE SYNCHRONIZED I N TIME!

slide47
RESPONSE OF VISUAL-TOUCH NEURON. RESPONSE IS ENHANCED

PLEASE NOTE THAT SIGNALS ARE SYNCHRONIZED I N TIME!

slide48
TOUCH-VISUAL NEURON.

RESPONSE ENHANCED

PLEASE NOTE THAT SIGNALS ARE SYNCHRONIZED I N TIME!

slide50
DEPRESSION OF RESPONSE WHEN

SIGNALS ARE NOT OPTIMALLY

SYNCHRONIZED

slide51

RESPONSE

DEPRESSED

RESPONSE INCREASED

  • RECEPTIVE FIELD OF NEURON

STRONGEST MULTISENSORY

RESPONSE

slide52
HOW RESPONSE DEPENDS ON THE POINT OF

STIMULATION

WE CAN SEE

STRONG DEPRESSION

AND

ENHANCEMENT

slide56

ACOUSTICAL SIGNAL IS EARLIER

THAN TOUCH BY 400, 200, ... MS

TOUCH SIGNAL IS EARLIER

  • WHAT HAPPENS IF STIMULATIONS ARE NOT SYNCHRONIZED?

WE SEE CORRELATION OF RESPONSES

WHICH IS QUITE BROAD WITH RESPECT TO

TIME

slide57
ACOUSTICAL SIGNAL IS EARLIER THAN VISUAL,
  • VERY STRONG PEAK RESPONSE BETWEEN 50 AND 0 MS
slide58
STIMULATION MUST BE SYNCHRONIZED

IN TIME AND IN SPATIAL POSITION

TO PROVIDE MAXIMUM RESPONSE

slide59
WHY ALL THIS IS DONE? BECAUSE

MUTISENSORY SIGNALS PROVIDE

MORE PRECISE INFORMATION

HERE WE SEE EFFECT OF COMBINATION OF SENSES

slide60

THE DELAY OF 50 MS FOR OPTIMAL AUDIOVISUAL

RESPONSE MIGHT BE COMING BECAUSE

OF THE DEALAY IN SOUND PROPAGATION

IN 50 MS SOUND MAKES

ABOUT 20 M WHICH

IS TYPICAL RANGE OF

OPERATION IN BIOLOGY

slide63

If you still don’t see

anything and you

look at this from

Powerpoint, you can

now click on the

loudspeaker for answer:

  • AND THIS....?

If you know the answer

it becomes easy and

automatic to interpret

this and previous

pictures too

slide64
SUMMARY OF HUMAN

INFORMATION PROCESSING

  • IT IS VERY COMPLEX SYSTEM, HARD TO UNDERSTAND IN DETAILS
  • BASIC PROCESSING UNITS, NEURONS ARE

OFTEN BEHAVING IN STRANGE WAYS

  • WE OBSERVER STRUCTURES PERFORMING

SPECIFIC FUNCTIONS (E.G. VISUAL, HEARING)

  • THESE FUNCTIONS ARE BASED ON MANY

CLEVER ALGORITHMS

slide65
HIGHER LEVEL FUNCTIONS ARE VERY

COMPLICATED BUT STILL PERFORMED

BY SPECIALIZED STRUCTURES

  • ALL STRUCTURES AND SYSTEMS ARE

PERFECTLY INTEGRATED

  • MAPPINGS OF BODY AND WORLD GIVE

RISE TO SELF AND CONSCIOUSNESS

  • IT SEEMS THE BRAIN IS SO COMPLEX

BECAUSE IT IS NOT POSSIBLE TO SOLVE

THE PROBLEMS IN SIMPLER WAY.

slide66

SUPPLEMENTARY NONMANDATORY MATERIAL

FOR THIS LECTURE

WE COVERED UNTIL NOW HUAMAN

INFORMATION PROCESSING RELATED TO

SENSORY SYSTEMS, VISION MAINLY

BUT HUMAN INFORMATION PROCESSING

SYSTEM HAS OTHER ASPECTS WHICH

ARE QUITE AMAZING.

WE WILL OVERVIEW THEM SINCE THEY

WILL BE RESEARCHED IN INFORMATION

TECHNOLOGY IN THE XXI CENTURY

slide67
SOME ADVANCED FEATURES OF HUMAN INFORMATION PROCESSING:
  • MEMORY (BIG, CONTENT-BASED,

CONTENT RETRIEVAL, ASSOCIATIONS)

  • LEARNING (ADAPTATION HUGE

CAPABILITIES, FORGETTING)

- INTELLIGENCE (CLEVER BEHAVIOR?)

- THINKING (???)

- CONSCIOUSNESS (UNIQUE FEATURE,

FEELING, EMOTIONS, SELF ???)

slide68
SOME OF THESE FEATURES ARE BEYOND OUR UNDERSTANDING
  • FOR EXAMPLE WHAT IS THINKING?
  • HOW MEMORY WORKS?
  • HARDEST OF ALL ARE QUESTIONS ABOUT: PERSONALITY, SELF AND CONSCIOUSNESS - UNTIL RECENTLY THERE WAS VERY LITTLE

WHICH COULD BE SAID ABOUT THEM

slide69
THERE ARE QUESTIONS LIKE:
  • ARE ALL THESE PROPERTIES SOME KIND OF INFORMATION PROCESSES?
  • ARE THEY ALGORITHMIC PROCESSES? (CAN ALGOTITHMS BE PRODUCED FOR THEM?)
  • ARE THEY BASED ON SOME UNKNOWN PRINICPLES ? MAYBE THEY ARE IMMATERIAL, SPIRITUAL OR QUANTUM PHYSICS?
  • ARE THEY BEYOND OUR ABILITY TO

UNDERSTAND THEM? IS THERE MAGIC THERE?

  • THESE QUESTIONS ARE VALID SINCE WE HAVE NO STRICT ANSWERS TO THEM.
slide70
FOR EXAMPLE: HOW HUMAN MEMORY WORKS?

WHAT HAS BEEN LEARNED IS THAT THERE ARE

TWO TYPES OF MEMORY: SHORT-TERM AND

LONG-TERM AND MAYBE SPECIFIC MEMORIES

FOR SPECIFIC TASKS

INVOLVED IN THESE PROCESSES ARE TEMPORAL

LOBE AND HIPPOCAMPUS. REMOVING TEMPORAL

LOBE LEADS TO INABILITY OF FORMING NEW

LONG-TERM MEMORIES BUT OLD MEMORIS ARE

KEPT. BUT SOME TYPES OF MEMORE, E.G. MOTOR

SKILLS. CAN BE STILL LEARNED.

slide71

HERE WE SEE TEMPORAL LOBE AND HIPPOCAMPUS

TEMPORAL LOBE IS INVOLVED IN CONSCIOUS MEMORIES

FORMATION

slide72
UNCONSCIOUS MEMORIES (LIKE SIMPLE REACTIONS) FORM IN THE AREAS WHERE THEY ARE PERFORMED.
  • HIPPOCAMPUS IS AREA WHERE MEMORIES STAY FOR WEEKS AND THEN ARE TRANSFERRED TO CORTEX
  • IT IS THOUGHT THAT MEMORIES FORM

BY MODIFYING SYNAPTICAL CONNECTIONS BETWEEN NEURONS

  • SYNAPSES ARE ’PLASTIC’ THEY CAN GROW AND MODIFY STRENGTH
slide73
SHORT-TERM MEMORY IS WORKING MEMORY,

WHERE INFORMATION IS MANIPULATED.

THIS IS DONE IN PREFRONTAL CORTEX

DELAYED RESPONSE TASK: EYES ARE FIXED IN THE CENTER, TARGET APPEARS FOR A BRIEF MOMENT AND VANIHES. WHEN CENTER SPOT DISAPPEARS EYES TURN TO POSITION

WHERE THE TARGET WAS. THERE ARE NEURONS WHICH KEEP INFORMATION WHERE THE TARGET WAS.

slide74
IT IS ALSO KNOWN THAT SPECIALIZED AREAS OF MEMORY OR MEMORY FORMATION/RECALL

EXIST, E.G. FOR FACES, FOR PLACES, FOR OBJECTS.

THERE ARE PEOPLE WHO HAVE THE FACE MEMORY DAMAGED, CAN NOT MEMORIZE AND RECOGNIZE FACES

THERE ARE PEOPLE WHO HAVE FENOMENAL MEMORY FOR FACES AND OTHER THINGS

slide76
ANOTHER EXAMPLE: LANGUAGE PROCESSING

NOTE AREAS INVOLVED IN DIFFERENT ASPECTS

OF PROCESSING (VERBS,NOUNS,SENTENCES)

slide79
LET’S NOW TAKE A ’SIMPLE’ ACT OF MOVING IN ENVIRONMENT. VISUAL SYSTEM MUST ESTABLISH LOCATION OF OBJECTS, NEXT A ROUTE MUST BE PLANNED TO AVOID THEM AND EXECUTED.
slide80
THIS MUST BE ADAPTIVE PROCESS AS IT GOES ON ERRORS ARE CORRECTED AND OPTIMAL TRAJECTORY IS SELECTED
slide82
THE MOST ADVANCED AND AMAZING

PROPERTIES OF THE BRAIN CONCERN

  • PERSONALITY (WHO WE ARE?)
  • FEELINGS, EMOTIONS, MOODS,

(INNER, PSYCHIC LIFE)

  • THINKING, IMAGINATIONS, DREAMS
  • CONSCIOUSNESS (WE ARE AWARE

ABOUT OURSELVES)

slide83
CONSCIOUSNESS IS THE MOST

AMAZING PROPERTY –

HOW WE CAN FEEL, BE AWARE OF

OURSELVES AND THE WORLD?

UNTIL RECENTLY THIS PROPERTY

WAS THOUGHT AS ”MAGIC” OR

MAYBE ’SPIRITUAL’ AND LITTLE

COULD BE SAID ABOUT ITS NATURE

slide84
BUT PROGRESS IS BEING MADE IN THIS AREA TOO
  • FIRST, WE HAVE TO NOTICE THAT AS HUMANBEINGS WE ARE UNIQUE PERSONS WITH UNIQUE HISTORY AND BEHAVIOR, WE ARE ANCHORED IN REALITY OF THE WORLD AROUND US. FROM INFANCY WE RECEIVE INFORMATION FROM OUTSIDE WORLD AND WE BECOME PERSONS – UNITS WITH SPECIFIC

BACKGROUND AND HISTORY.

  • WHERE AND HOW THE BRAIN IS MAKING THIS ALL?
slide86
THE BOOK IS AN OUTGROWTH OF NEUROLOGICAL STUDIES – BEHAVIOR OF

PEOPLE WITH DAMAGES IN THE BRAIN

THE CASE OF PHINEAS GAGE, XIX CENTURY RAILROAD WORKER GOT

A DAMAGE OF FRONTAL PART OF THE BRAIN (NAIL STRUCK FROM THE

BOTTOM). HE SURVIVED BUT HIS PERSONALITY CHANGED. HE WAS VERY

WELL MANNERED AND TEMPERED BEFORE, HE BECAME CAPRICIOUS,

USING OBSCENE WORDS, MAKING UNFULFILLED PLANS, DID NOT CARE

ABOUT OTHER PEOPLE, UNDISCIPLINED, NOT ABLE TO WORK

slide87
SIMILAR CONDITIONS HAPPEN E.G. IN CASES

OF BRAIN TUMORS IN FRONTAL BRAIN

  • ONE CAN CONCLUDE THAT IN THE FRONTAL

AREAS OF THE BRAIN THERE ARE REGIONS

TAKING PART IN INTELLIGENT BEHAVIOR,

PLANNING LIFE, MAKING DECISIONS,

INTERACTION WITH OTHER PEOPLE.

  • SO WE COULD SAY THAT (PROBABLY?) EVERY

ASPECT OF OUR LIFE IS PROCESSED SOMEWHERE IN THE BRAIN. PROCESSING MIGHT BE DONE BY SPECIAL ”HARDWARE” STRUCTURES WE ARE BORN WITH. THEY ARE

PROGRAMMED AND ADAPTED DURING LIFE.

SOMETIMES THEY FAIL (BIZARRE BEHAVIOR?)

slide88

HERE ARE REGIONS OF THE BRAIN

INVOLVED IN PROCESSING EMOTIONS

  • TAKE THIS ILLUSTRATION

CONVINCED MURDER HAS LESS

BRAIN ACITVITY IN THE FRONTAL

AREA THAN TYPICAL.

PLEASE NOTE THAT THIS DOES NOT

PROVE THAT ALL CRIMINALS HAVE

BRAIN PROBLEMS, MAYBE SOME???

slide89
SOME OTHER ILLUSTRATIONS OF BRAIN HIDDEN OPERATION:

IMPOSTOR PROBLEM – PATIENT DENIES

THAT A PERSON WHICH HE SEES IS HIS

MOTHER – THE PERSON JUST PRETENDS TO BE

HIS MOTHER. WHEN SPEAKING ON THE

PHONE WITH HER THERE IS NO SUCH EFFECT

NEGLECT – PATIENT DENIES THAT E.G. HIS

HAND IS PARALYZED, IT IS OK.

PATIENT SEEING HIS LEG IN THE BED TRIES

TO THROW IT AWAY SINCE THIS IS NOT HIS

LEG

slide90
TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION POWERFUL MAGNET INDUCES ELECTRIC

CURRENT PULSES INTO CERTAIN BRAIN

AREAS

  • STIMULATION OF CERTAIN BRAIN AREAS (TEMPORAL LOBE) PRODUCES RELIGIOUS (!)

EXPERIENCES, E.G. ’GOD SPEAKS’, ’DIVINE LIGHTS

ILLUMINATES ALL THINGS’, ’ULTIMATE TRUTH

FEELING’. THIS IS ALSO KNOWN TO OCCUR IN

EPILEPSY

  • STIMULATION OF OTHER PARTS MAY INDUCE

LIFE-LIKE MEMORIES, BEHAVIORS

slide91

NORMAL

  • IT IS ALSO KNOWN THAT IN PSYCHIATRIC

DISEASES CERTAIN

BRAIN REGIONS ARE

SHRINKED OR HAVE

ABNORMAL ACTIVITY

LEVELS

HERE HIPPOCAMPUS IS SHRINKED IN SCHIZOPHRENIA CASE

slide92
FROM THESE EVIDENCES WE CAN ACCEPT A WORKING HYPOTHESIS THAT EVERYTHING WE OBSERVE IS A RESULT OF PROCESSING BY CERTAIN BRAIN STRUCTURES.
  • THE QUESTION IS HOW THESE STRUCTURES

OPERATE? THIS HAS TO BE VERY COMPLEX.

CERTAIN BEHAVIORS ARE PROGRAMMED

(ANIMALS) BUT THERE IS SIGNIFICANT

LEARNING AND ADAPTATION ABILITY.

  • IT IS KNOWN THAT NEURAL NETWORKS ARE

VERY ’PLASTIC’ BUT ON THE OTHER HAND

SOME STRUCTURES CAN BE HARDWIRED.

slide93
HOW ABOUT CONSCIOUSNESS THEN?

ACCORDING TO DAMASIO THEORY

CONSCIOUSNESS HAS ITS ROOTS IN

EMOTIONS.

WHAT IS EMOTION?

IT IS AN INTEGRATED REACTION

TO AN EVENT (SEE NEXT PAGE)

slide94
CONSIDER THIS:

YOU WALK AND

SUDDENLY THERE

IS SOMETHING

UNEXPECTED,

AND DANGEROUS.

WHAT WILL

HAPPEN?

slide95
THIS HAPPENS...

IMAGE IS PROCESSED AND OBJECTS

ACTIVATES AMYGDALA – AREA WHICH

GENERATES EMOTIONAL RESPONSE OF

FEAR!!!

HEART RATE AND

BLOOD PRESSURE

UP,

SWEATING,

MUSCLES CONTRACT,

CERTAIN ACTION

PROGRAMS START

slide96
SOME PEOPLE HAVE IMPAIRED EMOTION STRUCTURES: THEY HAVE NO OR LITTLE FEAR, FOR EXAMPLE VERY OUTGOING TO UNKNOWN PEOPLE, DOING DANGEROUS THINGS

OTHER PEOPLE FEAR VERY MUCH – PHOBIAS.

STRUCTURES INVOLVED IN EMOTION PROCESSING

ARE OLD, LOW LEVEL, CONNECTED TO BASIC

LIFE REGULATION FUNCTIONS

slide97
THE FEAR EMOTION IS VERY BASIC, PRIMITIVE, AUTOMATIC REACTION
  • BUT WE HAVE ALSO FEELINGS OF EMOTIONS. THAT IS WE FEEL THE EMOTION

LIKE THERE WOULD BE AN INTERNAL ’COOL’ OBSERVER EVALUATING IT

THUS, FEELINGS ARE MENTAL IMAGES OF

EMOTIONAL STATE.

slide98
BUT THERE IS STILL HIGHER LEVEL ASPECT OF THIS SYSTEM:

WE KNOW THAT WE HAVE FEELINGS

THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FEELINGS AND KNOWING TO HAVE FEELINGS MUST BE BECAUSE OF CONSCIOUSNESS, THAT IS KNOWING ITS OWN STATE.

HERE THERE IS DIFFICULTY OF CONSCIOUSNESS

CONSIDERED AS ”INFORMATION PROCESS”

slide99
LET’S ILLUSTRATE KNOWING OWN STATE

HAPPINESS:

MOST PEOPLE HAVE MODERATE DEGREE OF HAPPINESS

WHICH MIGHT BE ADAPTATION ADVANTAGE: TOO

HAPPY OR NOT HAPPY = LITTLE MOTIVATION???

slide100
CONSCIOUSNESS MUST BE PRESENT IF FEELINGS ARE TO INFLUENCE BEYOND

IMMEDIATE ACTIONS

  • ON THE RIGHT ONE

CAN SEE LEVELS OF

LIFE REGULATION

CONSCIOUS LEVEL

IS WHERE FEELINGS

ARE KNOWN

slide101
BUT WHAT IT MEANS TO ’KNOW FEELINGS’

WHO KNOWS? OR HOW THE BRAIN KNOWS?

THIS IS MULTILEVEL PROCESS:

IMAGINE GOING FROM SLEEP TO WAKEFULNESS

– SOME BASIC PROCESSES START THEN:

ATTENTION TOWARDS EXTERNAL

OBJECTS,BEHAVIORS, THIS IS

CORE CONSCIOUSNESS

  • AND NEXT, A MAGIC HAPPENS: WE START
  • FEELINGSELF
slide102
WHAT OR WHO IS THE SELF?

OR WHO WE ARE? WHO AM I?

WHAT WE HAVELEARNED UNTIL NOW IS THAT

THE BRAIN HAS DETAILED MAPPINGS OF THE

BODY, AND STATE OF ITS PARTS. IT HAS ALSO

MAPPINGS OF EXTERNAL OBJECTS AND THE

WORLD.

IT HAS MAPPINGS OF CURRENT EMOTIONAL

STATE AND FEELINGS.

slide103
BUT THE BRAIN MUST HAVE ALSO MAPPINGS OF ALL THINGS WHICH MAKE US UNIQUE PERSONS:

– HISTORY AND PLACES,

- NAME AND APPEARANCE,

- PEOPLE WE KNOW,

- FUNCTIONS WE DO,

- ROLES WE PLAY

LET US START FROM THE BOTTOM: OUR BODY

IS CONNECTED TO SELF THROUGH MAPPING OF

BODY PARTS AND THEIR OPERATION

slide104
PROTO-SELF IS A COHERENTCOLLECTION OF NEURAL PATTERNS WHICH MAP, MOMENT BY MOMENT THE STATE OF PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANISM IN ITS MANY DIMENSIONS. THE

COLLECTION HAPPENS THROUGH ACTIVATION OF

MANY DIFFERENT AREAS

BRAIN STEM REGULATE BODY SIGNALS

AND MAP THEM

HYPOTHALAMUS AND BASAL

FOREBRAIN REGULATE E.G.

GLUCOSE, HORMONE AND PH LEVEL

INSULAR CORTEX AND MEDIAL

PARIETAL CORTEX HAVE INTEGRATED

STATE OF ALL BASIC FUNCTIONS AND

CURRENT BODY POSITIONS

slide105
WHAT IS CORE CONSCIOUSNESS?

CORE CONSCIOUSNESS OCCURS WHEN THE

BRAINS’ INTERNAL REPRESENTATION

DEVICES GENERATE NONVERBAL ACCOUNT

(MAPPING) OF HOW THE ORGANISMS’ OWN STATE

IS AFFECTED BY THE ORGANISM’S PROCESSING

OF OBJECTS AND WHEN THIS PROCESS ENHANCES

THE IMAGE OF CAUSATIVE OBJECT THUS

PLACING IT SALIENTLY IN A SPATIAL AND

TEMPORAL CONTEXT.

slide106
SO, CORE CONSCIOUSNESS IS A MAPPING OF ORGANISM STATE CHANGES AS IT REPRESENTS OBJECTS

IN THIS PROCESS, THE BASIC FEELING OF SELF

APPEARS THIS IS CORE SELF

CORE SELF – FEELING AT THE REREPRESENTATION OF THE PROTO-SELF IN THE PROCESS OF BEING MODIFIED WITHIN AN ACCOUNT WHICH ESTABLISHES THE CAUSE OF

MODIFICATION

slide107

AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL

SELF

  • WE HAVE MEMORY OF ALL OUR
  • AUTOBIOGRAPHY,
  • IT IS CONNECTED TO PROTO-SELF AND
  • CORE-SELF.
slide108
CORE CONSCIOUSNESS: RE-REPRESENTATION OF

PROTO-SELF AND OBJECT AND CHANGING OF

PROTO-SLEF INTO PROTO-SELF MODIFIED BY

OBJECT

HERE WE SEE MAP OF OBJECT, MAP OF PROT-SELF

AND MAP OF PROTO-SELF MODIFIED

WHEN SECOND ORDER MAP IS CREATED, THE MAP OF OBJECT BECOMES ENHANCED

slide109
WHERE THE SECOND ORDER MAP IS CREATED?

PROBABLY IN THOSE REGIONS WHICH RECEIVE INPUTS FROM MANY PARTS OF THE BRAIN

slide112
EXTENDED CONSCIOUSNESS

IT RUNS ON AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL

(AUTOB) MEMORY . THUS IT WILL BE

  • RE-REPRESENTATION OF
  • AUTOB-SELF AND OBJECT AND CHANGING OF
  • AUTOB-SLEF INTO AUTOB-SELF MODIFIED BY
  • OBJECT

BUT THIS MEANS THAT EXTENDED CONSCIOUSNESS

WILL RUN OVER WHOLE LIFE MEMORIES, EVERYTHING,

BECAUSE ACCESS TO MEMORY IS UNLIMITED,

THE SECOND ORDER MAPPING WILL BE VERY COMPLEX

slide113
BUT ON TOP OF EXTENDED

CONSCIOUSNESS

THERE IS ANOTHER

LEVEL OF

CONSCIENCE

IT IS

CONSCIOUNESS+

LANGUAGE+

CREATIVITY+

CIVILIZATION

WE SEE THE BRAID OF

THESE LEVELS

HERE

slide115
CONSCIENCE IS A REAL MAGIC

ABOUT WHICH WE CAN NOT

SAY MUCH (E.G. HUMAN CREATIVITY)

  • THE TECHNICAL PROBLEM IS:

IF ALL WHAT IS BRIAN DOING IS INFORMATION

PROCESSING DESCRIBED BY VERY COMPLEX ALGORITHMS, THEN WE MAY THINK THAT

SOMETIME IN THE FUTURE WE WILL FIND THOSE ALGORITHMS AND WILL IMPLEMENT

THEM IN MACHINES.

slide116
SO WHY WE WERE TALKING ABOUT ALL THIS?

BECAUSE THESE TOPICS WILL BE LATER

IN THE XXI CENTURY INFORMATION

TECHNOLOGY TOPICS. WE ARE AT THE

MOMENT AT A PRIMITIVE LEVEL OF

BASIC MEDIA PROCESSING. BUT WE MAY GUESS

THATTHERE IS A LOT TO DO FOR NEXT 100

YEARS. WE ARE JUST BEGINNING TO

ENTER THIS AREA.