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8. Human Sensory & Information Processing System. Human Vision. Functional physiology of human vision. 10^6. 10^3. Radio. 10^0. Micro. 10^-3. Infrared. 10^-6. Ultraviolet. 10^-9. Gamma. 10^-12. & X. 10^-15. Cosmic. Photometry. Light is electromagnetic energy from 400-700 nm.

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human vision
Human Vision

Functional physiology of human vision

photometry

10^6

10^3

Radio

10^0

Micro

10^-3

Infrared

10^-6

Ultraviolet

10^-9

Gamma

10^-12

& X

10^-15

Cosmic

Photometry

Light is electromagnetic energy from 400-700 nm

700

(nm)

(m)

Red

Yellow

600

Green

500

Cyan

Blue

400

photometric terms
Photometric Terms

• Radiance

light energy at specific wavelengths

• Luminance

total perceived energy emitted from surface

• Illuminance

perceived energy falling on surface

• Chrominance

color of light

human hearing sense
Human Hearing Sense
  • Frequency dependent
  • Always “on”
  • Subject to temporary loss of sensitivity
  • Subject to permanent, irrecoverable injury from noise over exposure
noise exposure effects
Noise Exposure Effects
  • Hearing loss: temporary and permanent
  • Performance decrements, esp. for cognitive tasks
  • Increased perceived stress levels
  • Hypertension, increased blood pressure
hip model wickens 1984
HIP Model (Wickens, 1984)

Attentional

Resources

Short Term

Sensory Store

Perception

Decision

Making

Response

Execution

Working

Memory

Long-Term

Memory

Memory

Feedback

perception
Perception
  • Detection—is a single/stimulus present
  • Identification—noting the characteristics of the signal stimuli
  • Recognition—determine type of signal
signal detection theory
Signal Detection Theory
  • Describes Perception when
    • 2 states of a signal
    • noise is present
    • Signal Present Signal Absent
    • Yes
    • Hit False
    • Operators Alarm
    • Response
    • NO Miss Correct Rejection
memory
Memory
  • 3 primary activities
    • encoding – transformation
      • Performing by working memory usually it is
        • Spatial encoding (pictures)
        • Verbal encoding (memory as sounds)
    • storage – holding—2 primary areas (working and long term)
    • retrieval -- locating and bringing to conscious awareness (increases in difficulty with age)
decision making
Decision Making
  • Evaluating Alternatives and selecting a course of action
  • What influences DM? Differences, experiences, and biases
  • Research findings help to describe the human decision making process
    • emphasis on early information
    • personal preferences will influence
    • limited capacity for analyzing options
attention
Attention
  • Attention is the allocation of cognitive resources to perception
  • Selective—may monitor several channels to perform a single task to determine if an event has occurred (e.g. pilot, driver, etc.)
    • More channels to monitor decreases our performance
    • If signals primarily in a few channels, we will direct our efforts to those channels
    • Guidelines for Design of Tasks
      • Use few channels
      • Identify important channels for effective resource allocation
      • Reduce stress
      • Preview where signals will occur in the future
      • Train on effective scanning patterns
      • Place channels close together
      • Make auditory channels distinctly different from background noise
      • If responses are required, ensure there is ample time to respond
mental workload
Mental Workload
  • No single measure can completely measure WL
  • Valid measures are used for:
    • Allocating functions and tasks between operators
    • Comparing equipment alterations with respect to WL
    • Monitor operators to change task difficulty or function allocation
    • Operator selection and assignment
  • Primary Task Measures
    • Major activities required of the operator
  • Secondary Task Measures
    • Spare resources are used to perform these tasks
mental workload15
Mental Workload
  • Physiological Measures
    • Evoked brain potentials
    • Pupillary response
    • Respiration rate
    • Body temperature
  • Subjective Measures
    • Questionnaires, surveys (most common NASA TLX, SWAT, Cooper Harper Scale)