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FAO - ERP NR Department. University of Roma Tre Department of Economics. Education for Rural People: A neglected key to Food Security? Francesco Burchi and Pasquale De Muro. FAO Seminar, Rome 28 March 2007. Overall objectives.

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slide1

FAO - ERP NR Department

University of Roma Tre

Department of Economics

Education for Rural People:

A neglected key to Food Security?

Francesco Burchi and

Pasquale De Muro

FAO Seminar, Rome 28 March 2007

FAO Seminar, Rome.

overall objectives
Overall objectives
  • To explore and measure the relations between education and food security
    • in the general case
    • with a special attention to rural areas

FAO Seminar, Rome.

theoretical foundations 1
Theoretical foundations (1)
  • The capability approach (Sen, 1985, 1999)
    • The life of a person can be described as a set of functionings, that are the various things that a person manages to do or to be. Functionings may vary from elementary ones, such as being free from avoidable disease, to complex activities, such as taking part in the life of the community.
    • «A person’s capability refers to the alternative combinations of functionings that are feasible for her to achieve. Capability is thus a kind of freedom».

FAO Seminar, Rome.

theoretical foundations 2
Theoretical foundations (2)
  • “Being adequately nourished” and “being educated” are two basicfunctionings (among others).
  • A relevant feature of any basic functioning –and corresponding capability– is that they can be considered both as (primary) goals and as (principal) means of development.
  • The Human Development strategy (UNDP) is based on the capability approach, that is on the expansion of human substantial freedoms.

FAO Seminar, Rome.

the relations between education and food security 1
The relations between education and food security (1)
  • Usually, education and food security are considered only as development goals (e.g. MDG1 and MDG2)
  • Sometimes, food security (or adequate nutrition) is considered a means to achieve better or wider basic education, especially for children (e.g. School feeding programmes, Food for education-WFP)
  • Although «acclaimed as one of the most powerful engine for reducing hunger» (FAO, SOFI 2005), education is rarely considered in practice also as a means to achieve food security

FAO Seminar, Rome.

the relations between education and food security 2
The relations between education and food security /2
  • There are good reasons to assume that the strong relations between education and food security are bidirectional
  • In our paper we investigate in the less explored direction, that is the causal link from education (as a mean) to food security (as a goal)

FAO Seminar, Rome.

slide7

Education

Food security

Primary

T&V training

Higher

Skills

Employment

Income

Productivity

Economic

opportunities

Child health

Entitlements

Basic

capabilities

Literacy

B.knowledge

A.information

Social

opportunities

Participation

Agency

Child

care

Women

quantitative analysis objectives
Quantitative Analysis:Objectives
  • To assess the overall impact of education on food insecurity among rural people.
  • To analyze which level of education (primary, basic, secondary or tertiary) provides the most significant contribution to hunger reduction

FAO Seminar, Rome.

data and sources
Data and Sources
  • Source: Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), rural areas.
  • Observations: 48 countries (30 African, 10 Asian, and 8 Latin American).
  • Year of survey: between 1998 and 2004
  • Model type: cross-section.

FAO Seminar, Rome.

variables 1
Variables (1)

Education:

  • School attendance rate of children in different age-groups
  • Maximum level of education attended by the individual.

NB: there are no available data for rural areas concerning literacy, school completion or quality of education.

FAO Seminar, Rome.

variables 2
Variables (2)
  • Primary Education: measured by the school attendance rate of rural population aged 6-10, and by the percentage of rural people with no education attended (lack of primary education in the last case).
  • Lower Secondary Education: measured by the attendance rate for the rural population aged 11-15 school attendance.
  • Basic Education: measured by the attendance rate for the rural population aged 6-15 school attendance. Basic education is given by primary and lower secondary education.
  • Secondary Education: measured by the attendance rate for the rural population aged 16-20.
  • Secondary + Tertiary Education: measured by the proportion of rural people that have attended at least secondary education.
  • Tertiary Education: measured by the attendance rate for the rural population aged 21-24 and by the percentage of students who have attended tertiary education.

FAO Seminar, Rome.

variables 3
Variables (3)

Household Food Insecurity:

An indicator based on nutritional and survival data.

While many scholars use a supply and production- based indicator of food security, which addresses the phenomenon at national level (“process indicator”, Maxwell and Frankenberger 1992), here we use an “outcome indicator” (Maxwell and Frankenberger 1992) that focuses on “access” to food at household and individual level. This indicator better explains the functioning “being adequately nourished”.

FAO Seminar, Rome.

food security wfs 1996
FOOD SECURITY:WFS 1996

“Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preference for an active and healthy life.”

FAO Seminar, Rome.

hfi indicator as an outcome indicator
HFI Indicator asan “outcome” indicator
  • Component 1:“food adequacy”, through anthropometric measures of rural children (Mean: stunting, underweight, and wasting)
  • Component 2:“adequate survival status”, which is measured by mortality rates among rural children
  • Component 3: “female malnutrition” expressed by the percentage of rural women whose body mass index is lower than an internationally fixed threshold

FAO Seminar, Rome.

hfi indicator
HFI Indicator

Component 1 (Fa) = under-5 mortality + infantmortality

2

Component 2 (Fb) = stunting + wasting + underweight

3

Component 3 (Fc) = female malnutrition (low BMI)

rurHFI1 = (Fa + Fb + Fc)/3

rurHFI2 = (1/3 Fa² + 1/3 Fb² + 1/3 Fc²)1/2

FAO Seminar, Rome.

exploratory analysis correlation
Tab. 1 correlation coefficients: schoolattendance - HFIExploratory Analysis:Correlation

Tab. 2 correlation coefficients: educational level - HFI

*** Not significant at 5% significance level

FAO Seminar, Rome.

impact of education for rural people on food insecurity
Impact of Education for Rural People on Food Insecurity

Now we move from an analysis of bilateral relationship between education and food insecurity to a study of causality: what is the quantitative impact of education on food insecurity among rural people?

FAO Seminar, Rome.

rural model 1
Rural Model (1)

FAO Seminar, Rome.

rural model 2
Rural Model (2)

FAO Seminar, Rome.

results
Results

Determinants of food insecurity:

  • Primary Education:ceteris paribusan increase by 100% causes a decrease of HFI by approximately 20% or 24%.
  • Asset-based Poverty: lack of basic assets affects positively HFI, but its impact is lower than access to primary education (0.12 and 0.16)
  • No Toilet facilities: this proxy of lack of basic HH hygienic conditions gives a satisfactory (positive) contribution.

FAO Seminar, Rome.

next steps of the research
Next Steps of the research
  • To explain a part of education impact: mother’s schooling on child (0-5) food security in rural areas of Mozambique
  • Research questions:

- Do educational attainments count?

- Which educational level?

- Is the contribution mediated by income?

- Is the impact higher in rural or urban areas?

FAO Seminar, Rome.

conclusions 1
Conclusions (1)
  • The quantitative analysis shows that education has a key role in promoting food security in the rural areas of developing countries, confirming what was initially stated in the theoretical framework.
  • Primaryeducation for rural people provides larger benefits in terms of hunger reduction, rather than secondary or tertiary education

FAO Seminar, Rome.

conclusions 2
Conclusions (2)
  • These conclusions can be extended to overall national food security (and not only for rural areas).

Source: IFAD and UNFPA

FAO Seminar, Rome.

conclusions 3
Conclusions (3)

What is the role of Primary Education for MDGs?

  • Intrinsic value: MDG 2 and MDG 3.
  • A means to achieve MDG 1: halve the proportion of people who suffer from hunger.
  • A means to achieve MDG 4 (reduce child mortality), MDG 5 (improve maternal health), and MDG 6 (combat diseases).

FAO Seminar, Rome.