slide1 l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Which property of a star can be determined most directly from its color ? mass  diameter  precise age surface temperat PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Which property of a star can be determined most directly from its color ? mass  diameter  precise age surface temperat

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 72

Which property of a star can be determined most directly from its color ? mass  diameter  precise age surface temperat - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 888 Views
  • Uploaded on

Which property of a star can be determined most directly from its color ? mass  diameter  precise age surface temperature . Which property of a star can be determined most directly from its color ? mass  diameter  precise age surface temperature .

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Which property of a star can be determined most directly from its color ? mass  diameter  precise age surface temperat' - farren


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

Which property of a star can be determined most directly from its color?

  • mass 
  • diameter 
  • precise age
  • surface temperature 
slide2

Which property of a star can be determined most directly from its color?

  • mass 
  • diameter 
  • precise age
  • surface temperature 
slide3

A driver traveling from the coniferous region to the tundra region would most likely observe

  • a decrease in air quality.
  • a decrease in biodiversity.
  • an increase in deciduous tree species.
  • an increase in nighttime temperatures.
slide4

A driver traveling from the coniferous region to the tundra region would most likely observe

  • a decrease in air quality.
  • a decrease in biodiversity.
  • an increase in deciduous tree species.
  • an increase in nighttime temperatures.
slide5

The appearance of which organism contributed the most to making it possible for humans and other organisms to breathe Earth’s current atmosphere?

  • bony fish 
  • mammals 
  • Cyanobacteria
  •  purple sulfur bacteria
slide6

The appearance of which organism contributed the most to making it possible for humans and other organisms to breathe Earth’s current atmosphere?

  • bony fish 
  • mammals 
  • Cyanobacteria
  •  purple sulfur bacteria
slide7

Identify two savings that result from recycling aluminum cans and explain one ecological benefit of each.Respond in the space provided in your Answer Document. (4 points)

slide8

Energy required to acquire and produce raw materials (such as aluminum ore) would be saved. Ecosystems that would be damaged by the acquisition (in this case, mining) of raw materials would be left undisturbed. Fossil fuels required to produce raw materials would also be conserved. 

slide9

In Aristotle’s treatise On Meteorology, he stated that: “The same parts of the Earth are not always moist or dry, but they change accordingly as rivers come into existence and dry up. And so the relation of land to sea changes too and a place does not always remain land or sea throughout all time, but where there was dry land there comes to be sea, and where there is now sea, there one day comes to be dry land. …” Aristotle was referring to the

  • depletion of natural resources.
  • cyclic nature of Earth processes.
  • relationship between latitude and climate.
  • effects of humans on biogeochemical cycles
slide10

In Aristotle’s treatise On Meteorology, he stated that: “The same parts of the Earth are not always moist or dry, but they change accordingly as rivers come into existence and dry up. And so the relation of land to sea changes too and a place does not always remain land or sea throughout all time, but where there was dry land there comes to be sea, and where there is now sea, there one day comes to be dry land. …” Aristotle was referring to the

  • depletion of natural resources.
  • cyclic nature of Earth processes.
  • relationship between latitude and climate.
  • effects of humans on biogeochemical cycles
slide11

What evidence has been used to support the theory of plate tectonics?

  • The Grand Canyon runs in the same direction as the mid-Atlantic ridge.
  • There are deserts in the western parts of North and South America.
  • The same fossil species are found in South America and Africa.
  • Glacial till covers parts of the northern United States and Asia. 
slide12

What evidence has been used to support the theory of plate tectonics?

  • The Grand Canyon runs in the same direction as the mid-Atlantic ridge.
  • There are deserts in the western parts of North and South America.
  • The same fossil species are found in South America and Africa.
  • Glacial till covers parts of the northern United States and Asia. 
slide13

Many species of plants in the family Proteaceae produce seeds with fleshy structures called “elaiosomes.” Elaiosomes are protein-rich “food patches” that are attractive to ants. In the Cape region of South Africa, native ants carry the Proteaceae seeds back to their nests where they eat the elaiosomes and discard the seeds in underground chambers. A species of Proteaceae seeds, Mimetescucullatus (M. cucullatus), will successfully germinate after being placed underground by the native ants. An ant native to Argentina was accidentally introduced to the Cape’s shrub lands and displaced many of the native ants. The non-native ant also feeds on elaiosomes. However, they discard the seeds on the surface. This allows the seeds to be eaten by rodents or destroyed by brush fires. The effects on the dispersal of the Proteaceae M. cucullatus in a typical situation are shown in the diagram below. 

  • The relationship between the Argentine ants and the native ants is described as
  • competitive.
  • parasitic.
  • commensal.
  • saprophytic. 
slide14

Many species of plants in the family Proteaceae produce seeds with fleshy structures called “elaiosomes.” Elaiosomes are protein-rich “food patches” that are attractive to ants. In the Cape region of South Africa, native ants carry the Proteaceae seeds back to their nests where they eat the elaiosomes and discard the seeds in underground chambers. A species of Proteaceae seeds, Mimetescucullatus (M. cucullatus), will successfully germinate after being placed underground by the native ants. An ant native to Argentina was accidentally introduced to the Cape’s shrub lands and displaced many of the native ants. The non-native ant also feeds on elaiosomes. However, they discard the seeds on the surface. This allows the seeds to be eaten by rodents or destroyed by brush fires. The effects on the dispersal of the Proteaceae M. cucullatus in a typical situation are shown in the diagram below. 

  • The relationship between the Argentine ants and the native ants is described as
  • competitive.
  • parasitic.
  • commensal.
  • saprophytic. 
slide15

The relationship between the Proteaceae plants and the native ants is described as

  • parasitic.
  • commensal.
  • predatory.
  • mutualistic.
slide16

The relationship between the Proteaceae plants and the native ants is described as

  • parasitic.
  • commensal.
  • predatory.
  • mutualistic.
slide17

According to the data, introduction of the Argentine ant has affected M. cucullatusby

  • increasing seedling survival.
  • increasing germination rates.
  • decreasing seed survival.
  • decreasing seed consumption. 
slide18

According to the data, introduction of the Argentine ant has affected M. cucullatusby

  • increasing seedling survival.
  • increasing germination rates.
  • decreasing seed survival.
  • decreasing seed consumption. 
slide19

In 2004, wildlife rescuers found a great horned owl nearly dead from starvation. The owl’s eyes had formed cataracts, which cloud the natural lens and inhibit the eye’s ability to focus and form clear images. Cataracts can be inherited or acquired as a result of aging, disease and/or use of certain medications. Without clear vision, the owl, named Minerva, had been unable to hunt. Minerva was taken to the Veterinary School at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, after a local veterinarian confirmed the presence of cataracts. A pair of lenses specifically made for owls was implanted in Minerva’s eyes. After the surgery and a recovery period, Minerva was moved to a large, enclosed area where small rodents were released and her ability to hunt was to be evaluated. Scientists confirmed that, if she showed a clear ability to hunt, she would be released back into her natural habitat.

Owls are nocturnal hunters and depend on their acute vision for survival. If Minerva’s cataracts are determined to be inherited and she is released back into her natural habitat, she could pass the allele for cataracts on to her offspring. What process would most likely act against any offspring with an allele for cataracts?

  • immigration 
  • Genetic drift 
  • natural selection
  • adaptive radiation 
slide20

In 2004, wildlife rescuers found a great horned owl nearly dead from starvation. The owl’s eyes had formed cataracts, which cloud the natural lens and inhibit the eye’s ability to focus and form clear images. Cataracts can be inherited or acquired as a result of aging, disease and/or use of certain medications. Without clear vision, the owl, named Minerva, had been unable to hunt. Minerva was taken to the Veterinary School at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, after a local veterinarian confirmed the presence of cataracts. A pair of lenses specifically made for owls was implanted in Minerva’s eyes. After the surgery and a recovery period, Minerva was moved to a large, enclosed area where small rodents were released and her ability to hunt was to be evaluated. Scientists confirmed that, if she showed a clear ability to hunt, she would be released back into her natural habitat.

Owls are nocturnal hunters and depend on their acute vision for survival. If Minerva’s cataracts are determined to be inherited and she is released back into her natural habitat, she could pass the allele for cataracts on to her offspring. What process would most likely act against any offspring with an allele for cataracts?

  • immigration 
  • Genetic drift 
  • natural selection
  • adaptive radiation 
slide21

The mutation for cataracts (c) occurs on a gene represented by the letter E. Owls that are homozygous for the mutation (EcEc) exhibit cataracts. Owls that are homozygous for normal eyes are EE and owls that are carriers of the mutation but do not exhibit cataracts are EEc. What percentage of the offspring in a cross between parents with the genotypes EE and EcEc will exhibit cataracts

  • 0%  C. 25%
  • 50%  D. 75%
slide22

The mutation for cataracts (c) occurs on a gene represented by the letter E. Owls that are homozygous for the mutation (EcEc) exhibit cataracts. Owls that are homozygous for normal eyes are EE and owls that are carriers of the mutation but do not exhibit cataracts are EEc. What percentage of the offspring in a cross between parents with the genotypes EE and EcEc will exhibit cataracts

  • 0%  C. 25%
  • 50%  D. 75%
slide23

Based on this diagram, an ecologist would most likely conclude that a decrease in the fox population would result in

  • an increase in the owl population.
  • a decrease in the rabbit population.
  • a decrease in the chipmunk population.
  • an increase in the grasshopper population. 
slide24

Based on this diagram, an ecologist would most likely conclude that a decrease in the fox population would result in

  • an increase in the owl population.
  • a decrease in the rabbit population.
  • a decrease in the chipmunk population.
  • an increase in the grasshopper population. 
slide25

A scientist uses a microscope to examine two slides of living bacteria. Each slide contains a different type of bacteria. While the cells on the first slide are moving rapidly, the cells on the second slide are stationary. Based on these observations, the cells on the second slide most likely have no

  • nucleus.
  • flagella.
  • chloroplasts.
  • mitochondria.
slide26

A scientist uses a microscope to examine two slides of living bacteria. Each slide contains a different type of bacteria. While the cells on the first slide are moving rapidly, the cells on the second slide are stationary. Based on these observations, the cells on the second slide most likely have no

  • nucleus.
  • flagella.
  • chloroplasts.
  • mitochondria.
the picture below shows the four major forces acting on an airplane in flight
The picture below shows the four major forces acting on an airplane in flight.
  • What causes the force indicated by the X?
  • Gravity
  • air friction
  • magnetic force
  • force exerted by the engine
the picture below shows the four major forces acting on an airplane in flight28
The picture below shows the four major forces acting on an airplane in flight.
  • What causes the force indicated by the X?
  • Gravity
  • air friction
  • magnetic force
  • force exerted by the engine
slide29

A group of students designs an experiment to test how an herbicide affects pepper plants and weeds. Eight plots are tested, each of which holds 25 pepper plants and a variety of weeds. Plots 1 and 2 are not treated; plots 3 – 8 are treated with varying amounts of weed-killing herbicide. The weeds are counted in each plot during week 1. The herbicide is applied during week 2, and the weeds are counted again in week 3. The data are shown in the table below. Prior to herbicide application, a student notes that there are two related species of weeds (A and B) that occur in similar numbers in plot 5. Species A reproduces sexually and species B reproduces asexually. After exposing both weed populations to several applications of the herbicide, the student observes that the population of species B has become significantly smaller than the population of species A. Why did species A most likely have a survival advantage over species B?

  • There was greater genetic variability in species A than there was in species B.
  • The percentage of herbicide-resistant weeds decreased in species A but not in species B.
  • Asexual reproduction allows the weeds to produce more offspring in a shorter period of time.
  • Sexually reproducing weeds are better able to utilize nutrients from the herbicides than asexually reproducing weeds. 
slide30

A group of students designs an experiment to test how an herbicide affects pepper plants and weeds. Eight plots are tested, each of which holds 25 pepper plants and a variety of weeds. Plots 1 and 2 are not treated; plots 3 – 8 are treated with varying amounts of weed-killing herbicide. The weeds are counted in each plot during week 1. The herbicide is applied during week 2, and the weeds are counted again in week 3. The data are shown in the table below. Prior to herbicide application, a student notes that there are two related species of weeds (A and B) that occur in similar numbers in plot 5. Species A reproduces sexually and species B reproduces asexually. After exposing both weed populations to several applications of the herbicide, the student observes that the population of species B has become significantly smaller than the population of species A. Why did species A most likely have a survival advantage over species B?

  • There was greater genetic variability in species A than there was in species B.
  • The percentage of herbicide-resistant weeds decreased in species A but not in species B.
  • Asexual reproduction allows the weeds to produce more offspring in a shorter period of time.
  • Sexually reproducing weeds are better able to utilize nutrients from the herbicides than asexually reproducing weeds. 
slide31

Which biotic factor could have had an influence on the results of the students’ experiment?

  • the amount of precipitation each plot received
  • the presence of plant-eating insects in
  • the plots the lack of herbicide application in two of
  • the plots the length of time allowed between counting the weeds 
slide32

Which biotic factor could have had an influence on the results of the students’ experiment?

  • the amount of precipitation each plot received
  • the presence of plant-eating insects in
  • the plots the lack of herbicide application in two of
  • the plots the length of time allowed between counting the weeds 
slide33

Based on the results of this experiment, a farmer has decided to use a 150% application of the herbicide to kill weeds in his fields. Describe one advantage and one disadvantage of using the 150% dose of herbicide. Respond in the space provided in your Answer Document. (2 points)

slide34

A student’s answer must demonstrate that he or she recognizes the advantage that weeds will be killed significantly with herbicide applications of 150%. A disadvantage is that, by using 150% herbicide, only herbicide-resistant weeds will grow in the fields, making weed eradication more difficult in the future.  

slide35

Students studied the effect of ice on the temperature of a sample of water. First, they put 500 mL of cold water (at 10°C) into each of four beakers. Next, they measured and recorded the initial temperature of the water in each beaker. Then, they added various amounts of ice as shown in the table below. They continued to measure the temperature over a period of 30 minutes. Their results are shown in the graph below. The temperature of the room during the experiment was 22°C.

During the first five minutes of the experiment

, total energy of system decreased by half.

kinetic energy is transferred from ice to water.

thermal energy is transferred from water to ice.

thermal energy is transferred from water to surrounding air. 

slide36

Students studied the effect of ice on the temperature of a sample of water. First, they put 500 mL of cold water (at 10°C) into each of four beakers. Next, they measured and recorded the initial temperature of the water in each beaker. Then, they added various amounts of ice as shown in the table below. They continued to measure the temperature over a period of 30 minutes. Their results are shown in the graph below. The temperature of the room during the experiment was 22°C.

During the first five minutes of the experiment

, total energy of system decreased by half.

kinetic energy is transferred from ice to water.

thermal energy is transferred from water to ice.

thermal energy is transferred from water to surrounding air. 

slide37

The following graph shows the change in temperature of a sample of H2O, which begins as ice, as thermal energy is added. Which region of the graph represents water (H2O) in the liquid form only?

  • 1  B. 2

C.  3 D.  4 

slide38

The following graph shows the change in temperature of a sample of H2O, which begins as ice, as thermal energy is added. Which region of the graph represents water (H2O) in the liquid form only?

  • 1  B. 2

C.  3 D.  4 

slide39

At 25°C, water has a density of 1.0 g/mL and vegetable oil has a density of 0.90 g/mL. How would a substance with a density of 0.95 g/mL behave when placed in both oil and water?

  • sink in both oil and water
  • Sink in oil and float on water
  • float on oil and sink in water
  • float on both oil and water 
slide40

At 25°C, water has a density of 1.0 g/mL and vegetable oil has a density of 0.90 g/mL. How would a substance with a density of 0.95 g/mL behave when placed in both oil and water?

  • sink in both oil and water
  • Sink in oil and float on water
  • float on oil and sink in water
  • float on both oil and water 
slide41

A neutral atom of silicon has

  • 12 electrons.  C. 13 electrons.
  • 14 electrons.  D. 15 electrons. 
slide42

A neutral atom of silicon has

  • 12 electrons.  C. 13 electrons.
  • 14 electrons.  D. 15 electrons. 
slide43

A student plans to collect data needed to calculate the kinetic energy of a thrown baseball. She plans to measure the distance from pitcher to catcher, the time it takes for the baseball to arrive in the catcher’s glove, the mass of the baseball, and the circumference of the baseball. Which of these measurements is not needed to calculate the kinetic energy

  • measuring the mass of the ball
  • measuring the flight time of the ball
  • measuring the circumference of the ball
  • measuring the distance from pitcher to catcher 
slide44

A student plans to collect data needed to calculate the kinetic energy of a thrown baseball. She plans to measure the distance from pitcher to catcher, the time it takes for the baseball to arrive in the catcher’s glove, the mass of the baseball, and the circumference of the baseball. Which of these measurements is not needed to calculate the kinetic energy

  • measuring the mass of the ball
  • measuring the flight time of the ball
  • measuring the circumference of the ball
  • measuring the distance from pitcher to catcher 
slide45

Could the speed of sound be used to estimate dry air temperature, based on the data above?

  • No, because the speed of sound in dry air is the same regardless of temperature.
  • No, because as temperature increases, the speed of sound in dry air increases.
  • Yes, because as temperature increases, the speed of sound in dry air increases. 
  • Yes, because as temperature decreases, the speed of sound in dry air increases. 
slide46

Could the speed of sound be used to estimate dry air temperature, based on the data above?

  • No, because the speed of sound in dry air is the same regardless of temperature.
  • No, because as temperature increases, the speed of sound in dry air increases.
  • Yes, because as temperature increases, the speed of sound in dry air increases. 
  • Yes, because as temperature decreases, the speed of sound in dry air increases. 
slide47

A teacher dropped one light ball and one heavy ball simultaneously from the roof of a school building. Both balls struck the ground at the same time. The students correctly concluded from this experiment that falling objects

  • lose mass as they fall.
  • are influenced by the height of the building.
  • do not accelerate under the influence of gravitational force.
  • accelerate at the same rate, regardless of mass, due to the force of gravity. 
slide48

A teacher dropped one light ball and one heavy ball simultaneously from the roof of a school building. Both balls struck the ground at the same time. The students correctly concluded from this experiment that falling objects

  • lose mass as they fall.
  • are influenced by the height of the building.
  • do not accelerate under the influence of gravitational force.
  • accelerate at the same rate, regardless of mass, due to the force of gravity. 
slide49

In his investigations of air, Henry Cavendish discovered a small bubble of leftover gas that would not combine with nitrogen. His observations went unnoticed until William Ramsay performed experiments in which he obtained similar results. Ramsay recalled and repeated Cavendish’s experiments exactly to verify the results. Then, using Gustav Kirchhoff’s spectroscopy technique, Ramsay was able to identify the leftover gas as the element he called argon. Upon further investigation, he found the elements neon, krypton and xenon. Based on this information, it can be said that

  • the combined work of Cavendish, Kirchhoff and Ramsay led to the discovery of the noble gases.
  • Kirchhoff’s work was insignificant in the investigations leading to the discovery of argon.
  • Ramsay violated ethical practice in science by repeating Cavendish’s experiments.
  • Cavendish is directly responsible for the discovery of argon, but not neon, krypton or xenon.
slide50

In his investigations of air, Henry Cavendish discovered a small bubble of leftover gas that would not combine with nitrogen. His observations went unnoticed until William Ramsay performed experiments in which he obtained similar results. Ramsay recalled and repeated Cavendish’s experiments exactly to verify the results. Then, using Gustav Kirchhoff’s spectroscopy technique, Ramsay was able to identify the leftover gas as the element he called argon. Upon further investigation, he found the elements neon, krypton and xenon. Based on this information, it can be said that

  • the combined work of Cavendish, Kirchhoff and Ramsay led to the discovery of the noble gases.
  • Kirchhoff’s work was insignificant in the investigations leading to the discovery of argon.
  • Ramsay violated ethical practice in science by repeating Cavendish’s experiments.
  • Cavendish is directly responsible for the discovery of argon, but not neon, krypton or xenon.
slide53

A snowboarder begins his run from rest (point 1) on top of a hill. He moves straight down the slope until he reaches the bottom of the hill (point 4) and the ground levels off. The snowboarder continues to move horizontally across the level ground and eventually comes to a stop (point 5).

Using the same board, the snowboarder decides to make another run down the hill to see if he can increase his speed. Describe one thing the snowboarder could do to increase his speed on the slope. Explain why this would cause his speed to increase. Respond in the space provided in your Answer Document. (2 points)

slide54

In order for the snowboarder to travel down the slope faster he would have to do something to reduce friction between the board and the snow, or reduce air resistance (friction between the snowboarder and the air). The snowboarder could also produce a larger force at the beginning of the run to make him travel faster.

slide55

Which graph best represents the speed of the snowboarder as he moves from point 2 to point 3?

A B.

C. D.

slide56

Which graph best represents the speed of the snowboarder as he moves from point 2 to point 3?

A B.

C. D.

slide57

Telemedicine is defined as the practice of medicine from a distance. It allows doctors to communicate with patients and other health care workers from a remote area. Early ways of transmitting medical information included the postal service and telegraph. Identify two advances in technology that have improved the speed and accuracy of modern telemedicine.

  • Explain how each improves the ability of doctors to treat or diagnose patients.
slide58

A student’s answer must show an awareness and understanding of technological advancements that doctors may use to treat patients. Email, telephone, video conferencing, robotic remote surgery, satellite, and remote monitoring technologies may be listed, and explained, as technologies that doctors use to help patients.  

slide59

Engineers are designing an auditorium that will be used for performances by orchestras. What must they do to maximize the loudness of the sound heard by the audience?

  • hang curtains behind the orchestra
  • put carpet all around the walls of the auditorium
  • hang reflecting panels from the ceiling behind the orchestra
  • install narrow glass windows and skylights around the top of the walls 
slide60

Engineers are designing an auditorium that will be used for performances by orchestras. What must they do to maximize the loudness of the sound heard by the audience?

  • hang curtains behind the orchestra
  • put carpet all around the walls of the auditorium
  • hang reflecting panels from the ceiling behind the orchestra
  • install narrow glass windows and skylights around the top of the walls 
slide61

Students need to be able to explain the ways in which technological designs respond to the needs of society. For example, many highways are built near homes. Ask students whether they have ever noticed the tall concrete walls that often surround highways. Have students answer these questions:

  • Why are tall concrete walls built around highways? (The walls act a sound barrier to reduce noise pollution in the nearby community.
  • )How do the concrete walls reduce noise pollution? (Sound from the cars on the road reflects back toward the highway before reaching the homes.)
  • Why does some sound still reach the nearby homes? (Sound spreads out in all directions, so the concrete walls cannot block sound waves that travel up and over the wall. These sound waves will reach the nearby homes.)
slide62

Students studied the effect of ice on the temperature of a sample of water. First, they put 500 mL of cold water (at 10°C) into each of four beakers. Next, they measured and recorded the initial temperature of the water in each beaker. Then, they added various amounts of ice as shown in the table below. They continued to measure the temperature over a period of 30 minutes. Their results are shown in the graph below. The temperature of the room during the experiment was 22°C.

slide63

Which was the dependent (responding) variable in this experiment?

  • the temperature of the water
  • the amount of ice added to each beaker
  • the initial amount of water in each beaker
  • the amount of time during which observations took place 
slide64

Which was the dependent (responding) variable in this experiment?

  • the temperature of the water
  • the amount of ice added to each beaker
  • the initial amount of water in each beaker
  • the amount of time during which observations took place 
slide65

After reviewing these results, Archie suggested, “The more ice you add to a drink, the colder the drink will become.” Using data collected in the experiment, write an explanation to Archie for why his conclusion is incorrect and what effect additional ice will have on the temperature of his drink. Respond in the space provided in your Answer Document. (2 points)

slide66

A student’s correct answer would show an understanding that no matter how much ice is added to the drink, the lowest temperature recorded is 0° Celsius.  The student should refer to the charts given to support (back up) this observation. Also, students should note that the experimental data (information) for minutes 5 to 30 show that the more ice there is, the longer it takes for the ice-water system to increase in temperature. However, the ice does not make the water become colder.

slide67

Which was the independent (manipulated) variable in this experiment?

  • the amount of water in each beaker
  • the amount of ice added to each beaker
  • the initial temperature of the water in each beaker
  • the amount of time during which observations took place 
slide68

Which was the independent (manipulated) variable in this experiment?

  • the amount of water in each beaker
  • the amount of ice added to each beaker
  • the initial temperature of the water in each beaker
  • the amount of time during which observations took place 
slide69

In 2004, wildlife rescuers found a great horned owl nearly dead from starvation. The owl’s eyes had formed cataracts, which cloud the natural lens and inhibit the eye’s ability to focus and form clear images. Cataracts can be inherited or acquired as a result of aging, disease and/or use of certain medications. Without clear vision, the owl, named Minerva, had been unable to hunt. Minerva was taken to the Veterinary School at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, after a local veterinarian confirmed the presence of cataracts. A pair of lenses specifically made for owls was implanted in Minerva’s eyes. After the surgery and a recovery period, Minerva was moved to a large, enclosed area where small rodents were released and her ability to hunt was to be evaluated. Scientists confirmed that, if she showed a clear ability to hunt, she would be released back into her natural habitat.

  • Provide two reasons why the researchers’ actions in rescuing and operating on Minerva either were or were not ethical. Respond in the space provided in your Answer Document. (2 points)
slide70

A student’s answer must clearly evaluate (make a judgment of) the wildlife researchers’ actions. Students might note that treating the owl with lenses specifically designed for owls improved the animal’s ability to function and hunt. However, students might also note that the owls were kept in enclosed areas and experienced pain during the medical procedure. Students may also state that, if the owl could communicate, it would not agree to the treatment or speak out against it. 

slide71

In 2004, wildlife rescuers found a great horned owl nearly dead from starvation. The owl’s eyes had formed cataracts, which cloud the natural lens and inhibit the eye’s ability to focus and form clear images. Cataracts can be inherited or acquired as a result of aging, disease and/or use of certain medications. Without clear vision, the owl, named Minerva, had been unable to hunt. Minerva was taken to the Veterinary School at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, after a local veterinarian confirmed the presence of cataracts. A pair of lenses specifically made for owls was implanted in Minerva’s eyes. After the surgery and a recovery period, Minerva was moved to a large, enclosed area where small rodents were released and her ability to hunt was to be evaluated. Scientists confirmed that, if she showed a clear ability to hunt, she would be released back into her natural habitat. 

  • All cataracts were originally thought to be acquired; however, recent research indicates that some cataracts are genetic in nature. What type of study would be most likely to lend support to the claim that cataracts can be inherited?
  • analysis of cataract thickness in several species
  • studying age-related onset of cataracts within a species
  • linkage studies on DNA from families with a history of cataracts
  • comparing characteristics of cataracts caused by specific diseases
slide72

In 2004, wildlife rescuers found a great horned owl nearly dead from starvation. The owl’s eyes had formed cataracts, which cloud the natural lens and inhibit the eye’s ability to focus and form clear images. Cataracts can be inherited or acquired as a result of aging, disease and/or use of certain medications. Without clear vision, the owl, named Minerva, had been unable to hunt. Minerva was taken to the Veterinary School at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, after a local veterinarian confirmed the presence of cataracts. A pair of lenses specifically made for owls was implanted in Minerva’s eyes. After the surgery and a recovery period, Minerva was moved to a large, enclosed area where small rodents were released and her ability to hunt was to be evaluated. Scientists confirmed that, if she showed a clear ability to hunt, she would be released back into her natural habitat. 

  • All cataracts were originally thought to be acquired; however, recent research indicates that some cataracts are genetic in nature. What type of study would be most likely to lend support to the claim that cataracts can be inherited?
  • analysis of cataract thickness in several species
  • studying age-related onset of cataracts within a species
  • linkage studies on DNA from families with a history of cataracts
  • comparing characteristics of cataracts caused by specific diseases