Missing Links to Learning Anne LaFave-White, M.A., CCC-SLP TBAISD November 2, 2009
Telephone Activity • What was said: • “The incus, malleus, and stapes are the three bone structures that are located in the middle ear that help conduct sound waves to the brain.”
Telephone Activity • Causes of Communication Breakdowns • Difficulty hearing the message. • Difficulty paying attention in this social setting. • Sounds in the message were not clear. • Could not understand the meaning because of word order. • Did not understand the vocabulary. • Could not understand the relationship among the words. • Could not remember what was said. • Could not process (organize information) to obtain meanings.
Missing Link 1-Is Your Student Hearing? • Hearing Process • Definition: Hearing is when the ear changes sound waves into electrical impulses that the brain can understand. • Types of Hearing Loss • Sensorineural: • Damage to or malformation of the inner ear or the auditory nerve. Some sounds are distorted and heard incorrectly. • Central : • Damage or malformation causing hearing centers of the brain to receive signals incorrectly. Persons may hear but not understand. 1
Conductive: • Damage to, disease of, or malformation of the outer or middle ear. Sound is not conducted efficiently-all sounds are weaker and muffled. • Causes: • Structural deformity • Object blocking the ear canal • Wax build up which creates a block • Otitis media • Inflammation in the middle ear usually associated with a build up of fluids. • Otitis media prevalent in young children. • Collection of fluid causes sound waves not to be transmitted effectively. Speech may be weaker or muffled. 2
Central Auditory Processing DisorderCAPD • Definition: • a disorder in the way auditory information is processed in the brain. Individuals with APD usually have normal peripheral hearing ability. APD is an umbrella term that describes a variety of problems with the brain that can interfere with processing auditory information.
Auditory Figure-Ground Problems-Can not pay attention when there is background noise. • Auditory Discrimination Problems-Difficulty hearing the difference between sounds or words that are similar. • Auditory Attention Problems-Can not maintain focus for listening tasks. • Auditory Memory Problems- Difficulty remembering information such as directions, lists, or study materials. • Auditory Cohesion Problems-Higher level listening tasks are difficulty (riddles, verbal math problems, inferences)
GLCE • Phonemic Awareness/Phonics GLCE • Sound blending, sound deletion, letter-sound connections, initial and final consonant recognition, word families, digraphs (th, sh, ch, wh, ph)
Questions • What is this child’s hearing history? • Is this child’s performance better in smaller groups or in quieter settings? • When we do listening activities is this child able to identify gross environmental sounds? • Does this child have an articulation problem? • What do I know about this child’s learning style…visual, tactile, auditory? • If I add supports which seem to help?
Intervention Support Strategies • Figure-Ground • Can I change the environment? • Discrimination Skills – • Attending Issues -Can I use tactile or visual cues to see if they help? • Sound Acquisition Norms- • What if I do the same activity with developmentally appropriate sounds? • Sound Placement- • Does this tactile/visual cue help? • Does this7 • Doe 4 5 6 7
Auditory Cues • Primarily consist of verbally describing what the articulators need to do in order to produce a specific speech sound. • /th/ - Tell the student to put his tongue between his teeth and to make a long sound by blowing. • /v/ - Tell the student to put his top teeth on his bottom lip and to make a long sound by blowing. • /l/ - Tell the student to place the tip of his tongue against the ridge behind his top front teeth. Encourage him to spread his lips and smile when he says the /l/ sound. • /sh/ - Tell the student to push his lips outward to make a fat, long sound. • /r/ - Tell the student to pull his tongue up and back and say r-r-r-r. Ask him to growl. • /k/ - Tap your cheek by your ear (visual) and remind the student to put the back of his tongue up to the roof of his mouth. /k/ is a back sound. • /f/ - Tell the student to touch his bottom lip lightly with his top teeth and blow. Remind him that /f/ is a long sound. • /s/ - Tell the student to put his tongue up on the “bumpy ridge” behind his top front teeth, smile and make an /s/. Remind him that /s/ is a long sound. Use additional cues such as “Keep the snake behind the gate.”
Missing Link 2-Does Your Student Have Vocabulary Competence • General vocabulary skills (nouns, verbs, adjective, adverbs). • Command of concept vocabulary • Spatial: location, sequencing • Quantitative: size, amount, • Temporal: time
Boehm Test of Basic Concepts • strong association between deficiencies in early concept mastery as measured by the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts and academic achievement in the second and third grades. 1 8 9 10
Vocabulary GLCE • Determine meaning of: • Objects, actions, concepts, content vocabulary, synonyms, homonyms, multiple meaning words • Using: • Picture cues, prediction, other people, context cues, mental pictures, questioning, content mapping and the dictionary
Questions • Does this child have difficulty following verbal directions? • Do they still have difficulty understanding written directions? • Does this child have difficulty finding the right words? • Does this child have difficulty using and understanding age appropriate vocabulary? • Does this child have difficulty understanding math concepts. • Does the student have trouble using a variety of vocabulary words.
Teaching vocabulary “Vocabulary knowledge is knowledge; the knowledge of a word not only implies a definition, but also implies how that word fits into the world.” Steven Stahl
Word Consciousness • General way to help students develop vocabulary. • Foster an awareness and interest in words. • Integrated into daily routine. • GET EXCITED ABOUT WORDS!!!
Intervention Support Strategies • Model looking for cues. • Synonyms, antonyms • Use visual maps and word webs. • Relate the word to words you already know. • Visualize an experience where the word is present. • 10-20 repetitions to really make a word part of your vocabulary. • Word walls-synonyms, antonyms, word webs. • Use memory tricks-mnemonics • Play with words. 11 12
Missing Link 3- Does Your Student Understand Language/Vocabulary Relationships. • Semantics: • The study of how meaning in language is created by the use and interrelationships of words, phrases, and sentences.
GLCE-Narrative Reading/Informational Text/Comprehension • Describe • Predict • Compare and Contrast • Problem and Solution
Questions • Does the student have trouble understanding new ideas? • Does the student have trouble understanding what people say? • Does the student have trouble defining and describing? • Does the student have trouble providing details?
Intervention Support Strategies • (Defining and Describing Skills): • Object-function … • What do you do with a cup? What do you drink with? • What do the characters do? • Part –Whole …Aglet web • Horn is part of a ____. What am I thinking of… Tires, steering wheel, horn, wipers, bumper, motor. • Retell the important parts of the story. • Categories…What group is involved. • Tell me some animals. • What group does a tiger, cow, horse, and dog belong. • What groups do the characters belong to (teaher vs student).
Characteristics • Size, shape, color, what is it made of… • Describe the visual details of the setting or where the story takes place. • Analogies • Tree is to forest as pedal is to _____. • Word Classes…Compare and Contrast/Metaphor/Similies • What goes together? Button…shirt…chair. • What doesn’t belong? Yellow…brown…seven…blue • Metaphor-As black as coal. • Similies- Time is like a thief… • Inferences….Predict
Missing Link 4- Is Able to Use Higher Level Language Skills • Jokes and humor. • Multiple Meaning Words • What can saw mean? A tool that you cut with and something you see with your eyes. • Idioms • Semantic Absurdities • My grandfather is the youngest person in my family.
Missing Link 5- Is Your Student Able to Organize Information? • Visuals pull it all together for some kids.
Samplings 13 • Drawing a picture • Expanding Expressions Tool • Retelling a story cues • Webs for all purposes • Lists-that they need to interact with. • Check sheets for assignment directions. 14
TRAVEL SAFE & THANK-YOU • STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE PERFORMANCE (Last Handout) • Verbal • Written