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Missing Links Chapter 6 9/27/07 For Today How far we’ve come! This Chapter Science and the masses Scientists seek proof The break-through! The Triumph of Evolution? Darwin Descent of Man ( 1871) The common sentiment…

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missing links

Missing Links

Chapter 6

9/27/07

for today
For Today
  • How far we’ve come!
  • This Chapter
    • Science and the masses
    • Scientists seek proof
    • The break-through!
the triumph of evolution
The Triumph of Evolution?
  • Darwin
    • Descent of Man (1871)
  • The common sentiment…

“…the higher mental and spiritual nature of man is not the mere animal advanced through survival of the fittest.” Alfred Russell Wallace

not everyone agrees
Not Everyone Agrees
  • Evolutionary Naturalists
    • Charles Lyell
    • Alfred Russell Wallace
    • Duke of Argyll
  • Other Public notaries
    • Leo Tolstoy
    • Henry Ward Beecher
    • William Gladstone
    • William Jennings Bryan
but some do agree
…. But some do agree
  • Huxley
  • Haeckel
  • Karl Marx
    • Socialist
  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton
    • Feminist
  • Herbert Spencer
    • Social Philosopher
the new religion
The new ‘Religion’
  • Andrew Carnegie
    • industrialist
  • George Holyoake
    • Secularist
seeking proof
Seeking Proof
  • Current evidence
    • Geographic distribution
    • Anatomical similarities
    • Natural groupings
  • New evidence
    • Paleontology!!
cuvier vs lyell
Cuvier vs. Lyell
  • Cuvier’s proof
    • Species remain constant within geologic time
    • Species abruptly replaced-- catastrophist
    • Humans only appear in recent period
  • Lyell’s uniformitarianism
    • Fossils laid down intermittently – discontinuities prove nothing!
    • ‘abrupt’ appearance of new species suggest gradual successio
late 19th century
Late 19th Century
  • Fossils linking reptiles to birds
  • Sequence of fossils leading to modern horses
    • Huxley and O.C. Marsh
    • Branching pattern of evolution
  • Still mounting evidence -- intermediate forms
birds from the age of dinosaurs
Birds from the Age of Dinosaurs
  • Archaeopteryx
    • Bavaria 1861 and 1877, primitive reptile-bird
  • Ichthyornis dispar
  • Hesperornis regalis
    • Kansas 1872, primitive reptile-bird
  • Compsognathus lognipas
    • Bavaria, small bird-like dinosaur
horses
Horses
  • In Europe
    • Albert Gaudry (1850s) -- 3-toed horses from Pikerni, Greece
    • Huxley and Kovalevsky (1870s) -- more 3-toed horses!
  • In the U.S.
    • O.C. Marsh (1860s) -- 4 and 5-toed horses
who cares
Who cares?
  • Public still not convinced
    • Gaps in fossil record
    • Fossils from pre-Cambrian strata?
    • Fossils connecting humans to apes?
on the order of humans
On the ‘order’ of humans
  • Cuvier and Owen put humans in their own taxonomic order (Homo sapiens)
  • Huxley (Man’s Place in Nature, 1863) put all primates in the same order
  • Cousins?
    • Engis skull (Belgium 1833)
      • “An average human skull that might have belonged to a philosopher.” Huxley
    • Neanderthal bones (Germany 1856)
    • Cro-Magnon Man (France)
awakening public awareness
Awakening Public Awareness
  • Lyell’s Antiquity of Man(1863)
    • Rousing public interest
    • Not really Darwinian
    • Incremental development of body
    • Great leaps forward in intelligence
    • Darwin’s betrayal
    • Opening the door…
science marches on
Science marches on…
  • Human cultural evolution
  • Archeology
  • Anthropology
  • Move over historians, moral philosophers, and theologians
dubois
Dubois
  • Eugene Dubois (1858, Netherlands)
    • Conservative Catholic upbringing
    • M.D. 1884
    • Anatomy instructor at University of Amsterdam 1886
    • Inspired by Darwin, Lyell, and Haeckel
    • Joined Dutch Army as medical officer and moved to East Indies 1887
dubois s mission
Dubois’s Mission
  • Haeckel History of Creation (1873)

“… it follows from this theory that the human race, in the first phase, must be traced back to ape-like animals.”

dubois s discovery
Dubois’s Discovery
  • Pithecanthropus erectus (1891) (Homo erectus)
    • Walked upright
    • Brain intermediate between humans and apes
    • “Upright Apeman” or “Java Man”
    • International sensation
    • Place in evolutionary tree debated
brain size vs uprightness
Brain size vs. Uprightness
  • Piltdown Man (1912)
    • England
    • Brain size led way to human evolution
    • A hoax (1953)
  • Peking Man (1929)
    • Same as P. erectus?? Found in China
    • Many more specimens found
    • Actually, more closely related to man than apes
south africa 1924
South Africa, 1924…
  • Raymond Dart
    • Australian anatomist and anthropologist
    • Trained at University College, London
    • Head of Anatomy Dept., Univ. Witwatersand, South Africa
  • Prizes for bones!!
  • Josephine Salomons and the limestone quarry
  • Australopithecus africanus – Taung Child
the cradle of mankind
The Cradle of Mankind
  • Nature February 7, 1925

”…their eyes saw, their ears heard, and their hands handled objects with greater meaning and to fuller purpose than the corresponding organs in recent apes.”

Raymond Dart

the raging debate
The Raging Debate
  • Leading anthropologists rebuke Dart’s claim
  • Robert Broom – Dart’s bulldog?
    • 1936 new specimens of A. africanus

at Sterkfontein, South Africa

    • Affirmation of walking erect
    • Australopithecus robustus
  • Sir Wilfrid Le Gros Clark (1947)
    • Confirmed Taung Child to Academia
    • Disproved Piltdown Man
the discoveries continue
The Discoveries continue
  • Louis and Mary Leaky (1959)
    • Kenyan paleontologists
    • Great Rift Valley
    • Australopithecus boisei
    • Homo habilis (Handy man, 1961) – by Jonathan Leaky
    • H. erectus (1970s) – by Richard Leaky
  • Donald Johnson team (1970s)
    • USA
    • A. afarensis
    • “Lucy”
  • Many more Australopithecus from Great Rift Valley
  • Earlier hominid fossils (1990s)
    • Ardipithecus
    • Orrorin
    • Sahelanthropus
hominid species
Sahelanthropus tchadensisOrrorin tugenensisArdipithecus ramidusAustralopithecus anamensisAustralopithecus afarensisKenyanthropus platyopsAustralopithecus africanusAustralopithecus garhiAustralopithecus aethiopicusAustralopithecus robustusAustralopithecus boisei

Homo habilisHomo georgicusHomo erectusHomo ergasterHomo antecessorHomo heidelbergensisHomo neanderthalensisHomo floresiensis Homo sapiens sapiens

Hominid Species
the discoveries still continue
The Discoveries still continue…
  • Homo floresiensis
    • Flores 2003
    • 1 Meter tall (hobbit?)
    • Hunted dwarf elephants
hominid evolutionary timeline
Hominid Evolutionary Timeline

evolution.berkeley.edu/.../IIE2cHumanevop2.shtml

references
References
  • Websites
    • http://www.talkorigins.org
    • http://www.strangescience.net
    • http://evolution.berkeley.edu/
    • http://www.becominghuman.org/
    • http://www.sciencedaily.com/
  • Some interesting papers
    • Tocheri, Matthew W., et al. The Primitive Wrist of Homo floresiensis and Its Implications for Hominid Evolution Science 2007, 317:5845, 1743–1745.
    • Spoor, F., et al. Implications of new early Homo fossils from Ileret, east of Lake Turkana, Kenya Nature 2007,448, 688-691.