Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment 1450-1750 AP World History Unit 3
Scientific Revolution • The re-conception of the universe. • The Ptolemaic universe. • A motionless earth surrounded by nine spheres. • Could not account for the movements of the planets. • Compatible with the Christian concept of Creation. • The Copernican universe. • The sun was the center of the universe, 1543. • Implied that the earth was just another planet. • Science becomes the new authority and challenges the faith for control. • Johannes Kepler (1564-1642) • Demonstrated planetary orbits.
Scientific Revolution • Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) • Located sunspots, moons on Jupiter, and mountains on the moon. • Theory of velocity, falling bodies anticipated modern law of inertia. • Tried by the Inquisition because his ideas challenged the Papal infallibility.
Scientific Revolution • Isaac Newton (1642-1727) • Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy in 1686. • Mathematical explanations of laws govern movements of bodies. • His work symbolized the scientific revolution. • Direct observation • Mathematical reasoning
Enlightenment • Thinkers sought natural laws that governed human society. • Center was France. • Theory of progress was a major ideology. • Applied reason and science to society, government, and laws. • Voltaire (1694-1778) • Considered the father of the Enlightenment. • Religious liberty and individual freedom.
Enlightenment • Adam Smith • Laws of supply and demand determine price. • Montesquieu • Checks and balance in government. • Deism • Accepted the existence of a god. • Denied the supernatural teachings of Christianity. • “God the Clockmaker”. • Ordered the universe according to rational and natural laws.
Enlightenment • Impact of the Enlightenment • Weakened the influence of organized religion. • Encouraged secular values based on reason rather than revelation. • Subjected society to rational analysis. • Promoted progress and prosperity. • Applied science to every day life and made science practical.