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Afghanistan War. 2001-Present. Osama bin Laden & Al Qaeda. Afghanistan fought Soviets during ‘80s After war, chaos led to rise of Taliban

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afghanistan war

Afghanistan War

2001-Present

osama bin laden al qaeda
Osama bin Laden & Al Qaeda
  • Afghanistan fought Soviets during ‘80s
  • After war, chaos led to rise of Taliban
  • Taliban- — n(in Afghanistan) a fundamentalist Islamic army: in 1996 it defeated the ruling mujaheddin factions and seized control of the country; overthrown in 2001 by US-led forces, although resistance continues, esp in the south
  • Osama bin Laden fought Soviets during 80s and returned in 90s, goal of ridding all Muslim countries of Western Influence
slide3
9/11
  • Bin Laden planned attacks on US embassies in Africa in 1998, on our radar & we attacked him
  • History.com, “The attackers were Islamic terrorists from Saudi Arabia and several other Arab nations. Reportedly financed by Saudi fugitive Osama bin Laden's al-Qaeda terrorist organization, they were allegedly acting in retaliation for America's support of Israel, its involvement in the Persian Gulf War and its continued military presence in the Middle East.”
  • Bush and many Americans see the attack as an act of war: "We will make no distinction between the terrorists who committed these acts and those who harbor them."
operation enduring freedom
Operation Enduring Freedom
  • American led (British backed) invasion of Afghanistan began October 7, 2001
  • Taliban quickly thrown out of power
  • Bin Laden fled to mountainous border region, then later Pakistan
  • Democratic government established, but riddled with corruption and unable to secure population
  • NATO use approve by UN - “NATO’s primary objective in Afghanistan is to enable the Afghan authorities to provide effective security across the country in order to ensure Afghanistan can never again be a safe haven for terrorists. To achieve this goal, the 50 nations that make up the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) conduct security operations and train and develop the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF).”
pakistan
Pakistan
  • Technically a US ally
  • Long history of influence in Afghanistan via intelligence agency, ISI, support Taliban
  • Taliban control of areas in Pakistan, some governmental resistance, Swath Valley
  • US avoids attacks in Pakistan until very recently under Obama administration
  • Pakistan angered by US attacks, relationship shaky
lessons learned from iraq
Lessons learned from Iraq
  • Lack of man power, “surge” technique, 30,000 more troops sent in 2009
  • Counter-insurgency strategy, Petraeus’ manual and eventual control
  • Challenges in training security forces
  • Election challenges, fraud, corruption, validity
  • Troop behavior
  • Interrogation methods & detainment
future
Future?
  • Taliban regaining control, included in peace talks
  • Elections, recount
  • Drone attacks
  • Less and less international support
  • Withdraw 2014
  • Al Qaeda in Yemen, new central headquaters