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Predictors of Sexual Relationship Power, Communication and Sexual Decision Making among Latino Couples Yui Matsuda, PhD, RN, MPH School of Nursing University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Jacqueline M. McGrath, PhD, RN, FNAP, FAAN School of Nursing, University of Connecticut Nancy Jallo, PhD, RNC, FNP-BC, WHNP-BC, CNS School of Nursing, Virginia Commonwealth University Everett Worthington, Jr. PhD Department of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University Rosalie Corona, PhD Department of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University
Acknowledgement This study was supported by -2011 Council for Advancement of Nursing Science (CANS)/Southern Nursing Research Society (SNRS) Dissertation Award, &-Sigma Theta Tau International Gamma Omega Chapter; Nursing Research Grant • Drs. Marie Harvey, Linda Castillo and Joseph Catania for their permission to use their questionnaires
Latinos in the United States &Unintended Pregnancies • One in six Americans are Latinos(U.S. Census, 2011) • Account for over 50% of U.S. growth rate (Pew Hispanic Center, 2011) • Increasing unintended pregnancy rate (Finer and Henshaw, 2006) • Short birth interval-negative effect on family’s lives at birth and beyond(Fuente-Afflick & Hessol, 2000; Bhutta et al., 2002; Conde-Agudelo, Rosas-Bermudez, & Kafury-Goeta, 2007; El-Kamary, Higman, Fuddy, McFarlane, Sia, & Duggan, 2004)
Critical elements for unintended pregnancy prevention -Family planning (WHO, 2008) -Discussion and decision making among couples (Becker, 1995; Harvey, Henderson, & Casillas. 2006; Harvey & Henderson, 2006; Beckman et al., 2006) -Both member of couple’s involvement (Kraft et al., 2007; Harvey et al., 2004) • Prenatal period is perfect time to reach the immigrant Latino population (Geltman & Meyers, 1999) • Hard to reach population at other times (Pearson, Ahluwalia, Ford, & Mokdad, 2008)
Specific Aims Determine predictors of -Sexual relationship power -Communication -Sexual decision making
Framework Individual Characters Influence of Cultural Values Relationship Adjustment Communication Perception, Attitude, Norms towards Contraception Relationship Commitment Number of Children Sexual Relationship Power Sexual Decision Making Religiosity/ Spirituality
Study Design • Cross-sectional descriptive study • Pregnant Immigrant Latinas and their male Latino partners • Sample size: 40 couples
Study Participants-Inclusion Criteria • Both partners: 18 or older • Female partner in second or third trimester • Both partners being born in any Latin American countries and immigrated to the U.S. • Latinos who understand and speak Spanish • Couples who are in some form of relationship (married or living together) • Couples who intend to sexually active after delivery • Partner without sterilization procedure • Both members of the couple want to participate in the study.
Recruitment • 2 Prenatal CareClinics in Richmond, Virginia • Total number of womenapproached : 130 • Numberrecruited and enrolled: 40 couples
Data Analysis • Descriptive Statistics (women and men separately) • Hierarchical Multiple Regression Analyses (women and men separately)
Sexual RelationshipPower (Women) F(8,26) = 6.776, p < 0.001. PerceivedRelationshipCommitment β=0.59 p=0.004 RelationshipSatisfaction β=0.422 p=0.007 ∆ R2 0.393 PerceivedDecisionMaking β=-0.398 p=0.041 RelationshipCommitment DecisionMaking Model 3 (R2=0.822) Model 2 : (R2=0.532) Communication & Sexual Comunication ∆ R2 0.171 Model 1: (R2 =0.334) Machismo β=-0.562 P=0.001
Sexual RelationshipPower (Men) F(8,27) = 1.718, p = 0.14 -Relationship Commitment -Perceived Relationship Commitment -Relationship Satisfaction -Decision Making -Perceived Decision Making Model 3 (R2=0.337) ∆ R2 0.206 ∆ R2 0.094 Sexual Comunication β=0.549 p=0.013 Model 2 : (R2=0.243) Communication Model 1: Machismo (R2 =0.037)
Sexual RelationshipPower (Men-uniquemodel) F(9,26)=3.293, p =0.008 Model 5 (R2=0.553) Relationship Satisfaction Decision Making Perceived Decision Making ∆ R2 0.004 Model 4: (R2=0.451) ∆ R2 0.082 Sexual Communication ∆ R2 0.008 Model 3 : (R2=0.443) Contraception Barrier β=-0.672 p=0.01 ∆ R2 0.262 Model 2 : (R2=0.181) Machismo β=0.574 p=0.028 Model 1: (R2=0.177) Age, Years of Education, & Time in US
Model 5: Sexual RelationshipPower (R2 =0.502) RelationshipSatisfaction β=0.484 p=0.021 Model 4 (R2=0.481) ∆ R2 0.02 ∆ R2 0.334 RelationshipCommitment& DecisionMaking Model 3 : (R2=0.147) Machismo β=0.69 p=0.001 Marianismo β=-0.855 p=0.003 Model 2 : (R2=0.051) Length of Relationship ∆ R2 0.097 Time in US β=-0.465 P=0.008 ∆ R2 0.09 Communication (Women) F(8,28) =3.524, p =0.006 Model 1 (R2=0.042)
Model 5: Sexual RelationshipPower (R2 =0.545) RelationshipCommitment β=0.432 p=0.012 ∆ R2 0.000 Model 4 (R2=0.545) RelationshipSatisfaction& DecisionMaking ∆ R2 0.274 Machismo &Marianismo Model 3 : (R2=0.271) Model 2 : (R2=0.231) Length of Relationship ∆ R2 0.04 Time in US β=-0.473 P=0.003 ∆ R2 0.072 Communication (Men) F(8,27) =4.044, p =0.003 Model 1 (R2=0.159)
Model 3 (R2=0.541) Model 4: Sexual RelationshipPower (R2 =0.547) PerceivedRelationshipCommitment, RelationshipSatisfaction& DecisionMaking ∆ R2 0.006 RelationshipCommitment β=0.379 p=0.029 Model 1 (R2=0.152) ∆ R2 0.388 Time in US β=-0.384 P=0.015 Model 2 : (R2=0.153) Number of Children ∆ R2 0.000 Years of Education Communication (Men-UniqueModel) F(8,28) =4.229, p =0.002
Model 5: Sexual RelationshipPower (R2 =0.464) RelationshipCommitment β=0.484 p=0.021 Model 4 (R2=0.444) ∆ R2 0.019 ∆ R2 0.323 RelationshipSatisfaction Length of Relationship β=-0.438 P=0.006 Model 3 : (R2=0.122) Contraception Barrier Model 2 : (R2=0.099) ∆ R2 0.023 Model 1: (R2=0.006) Age & Years of Education ∆ R2 0.093 # of children in Life Sexual Communication (Women) F(8,29) =3.136, p =0.011
RelationshipCommitment β=0.54 p=0.001 Model 5: Sexual RelationshipPower (R2 =0.528) Model 4 (R2=0.485) ∆ R2 0.043 ∆ R2 0.276 RelationshipSatisfaction Model 3 : (R2=0.209) Contraception Barrier Model 2 : (R2=0.045) Length of Relationship # of children in Life ∆ R2 0.164 Model 1: (R2=0.022) Age & Years of Education ∆ R2 0.023 Sexual Communication (Men) F(8,29) =4.058, p =0.002
RelationshipCommitment β=0.595 p=0.002 Model 4: Sexual RelationshipPower (R2 =0.555) ∆ R2 0.027 Model 3 (R2=0.529) RelationshipSatisfaction & DecisionMaking ∆ R2 0.309 Contraception Barrier β=-0.345 p=0.037 Model 2 : (R2=0.219) ∆ R2 0.188 Model 1: (R2=0.031) Age,Years of Education, & Time in US Sexual Communication (Men-uniquemodel) F(8,28) =4.37, p =0.002
Model 3 (R2=0.73) RelationshipSatisfaction β=0.508 p=0.000 RelationshipCommitment β=0.719 p=0.000 Model 4: Sexual RelationshipPower (R2 =0.751) ∆ R2 0.021 Communication ∆ R2 0.577 Model 1: (R2=0.01) Model 2 : (R2=0.153) Marianismo β=-0.944 p=0.000 Religious Commitment β=0.315 p=0.011 ∆ R2 0.143 Time is US β=-0.432 p=0.001 Age Sexual DecisionMaking (Women) F(8,27) =10.167, p =0.000
Sexual DecisionMaking (Men) F(8,28)=2.000, p=0.084 Model 4: Sexual RelationshipPower (R2 =0.364) Model 3 (R2=0.361) Communication, RelationshipCommitment, & RelationshipSatisfaction ∆ R2 0.003 ∆ R2 0.075 Model 2 : (R2=0.286) Marianismo ∆ R2 0.153 Model 1: (R2=0.133) Age, Religious Commitment, Time is US
Model 4: Sexual RelationshipPower (R2 =0.547) Model 4 : (R2=0.45) Communication & RelationshipSatisfaction ∆ R2 0.006 ∆ R2 0.075 Marianismo β=0.394 p=0.018 ∆ R2 0.169 # of Children in Life β=0.438 P=0.034 Model 1 (R2=0.135) Age, Years of Education & Religious Commitment Model 3 (R2=0.541) ∆ R2 0.071 Sexual DecisionMaking (Men-UniqueModel) F(8,28)=2.932, p=0.016 Model 2 (R2=0.206)
Discussion • Power (sharedpower vs. dominatingpower) • Difference in results -Women: Relationshipfactors -Men: Contraceptionbarriers, demographics • RelationshipCommitment • Cultural factors • Acculturation
NursingImplication POSTPARTUM CONTRACEPTION DURING PRENATAL CARE VISITS • Contraceptioneducationforcouples (particularly MEN) • Encouragemen’sinvolvement at prenatal carevisits • Clinicianbecomingaware of partner status/dynamics • Askingaboutthepregnancyintention • Askingabout plan, reason, experience & partner’sthoughts • Incorporatecouples’ piece in theCenteringPregnancyprogram • Maynotseethewomenuntilnext time they are pregnant
Limitation • Design: cross-sectionalstudy (vs. Intervention, longitudinal study) • Sampling: Convenientsampling • Samplesize: limitfactorsincluded in theregressionanalyses • Characteristicsamong Latinos fromdifferentcountries • Selfreportabout sexual decisionmaking
FutureResearch • Comparison of Couples’ score pairs • Dyadicanalysis • Psychometric properties for the Sexual Relationship Power Scale on men • Examine further about Pregnant Single Women (almost 20% of the recruitment population) • Look at associations of the variables studied and unintended pregnancy, depressive symptoms and past violence/abuse/trauma experience • Designcouples’ interventiontoaddress sexual relationshippower, increasecouples’ communication and sexual decisionmakingforthebetterqualitylifefor Latino family
Questions? Yui Matsuda Postdoctoral fellow, T32 Grant Health Care Quality & Patient Outcomes School of Nursing The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 4110 Carrington Hall, Campus Box 7460 Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7460 TEL: (804)840-9707, FAX: (919) 966-0984 email@example.com
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