Nixon Flip Chart. Review of Nixon 1969-1974 De’tente Energy/Inflation Problems Watergate and the Pardon. Review of Nixon’s Life. Born- California 1913 Colleges- Duke University Law School Navy Lt. Commander in Pacific- WWII Married Patricia- 1940 Two Daughters- Patricia and Julie
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Nixon Flip Chart Review of Nixon 1969-1974 De’tente Energy/Inflation Problems Watergate and the Pardon
Review of Nixon’s Life • Born- California 1913 • Colleges- Duke University Law School • Navy Lt. Commander in Pacific- WWII • Married Patricia- 1940 • Two Daughters- Patricia and Julie • Lawyer and Public Official
Review of Nixon’s Life • Congressman from California 1947-1951 • House committee on Education and Labor- Taft Hartly Act • House Un-American Activities Committee- Alger Hiss and red hunting. • Senator from California- 1951-1953 • Vice President- Under Eisenhower • 1953-1961 • Controversy over campaign fund spending- Checkers
Review of Nixon’s Life Presidential Election 1960 • Nixon (Republican) v. J.F.Kennedy (Dem.) • Very Close election- Kennedy wins • Narrowest popular edge ever- Kennedy 49.7% to Nixon 49.5% • Kennedy 303 electoral to Nixon 219 • Nixon lost because • Television Debate with Kennedy- 4 one hour programs- Nixon did well in the debate but looked bad on the television. Media was crucial. • Kennedy was well prepared, looked youthful on television, and won the support of Black voters. • Eisenhower was late in supporting Nixon and made an unfortunate comment about Nixon’s experience in foreign and domestic decisions. • Nixon tried to campaign in all 50 states. Missed out on the big industrial states. A knee infection wore him out. • Nixon retires from Politics.
President Richard M. Nixon- 1969-1974 • 37th President - 1969-1974 - Republican • Election of 1968 • Candidates: • Republican- Nixon • Democrat- Hubert Humphrey • American Independent- Wallace • Issues • Vietnam • Courts- criminal rights, prayer in school, school integration, • Problems in Campaign • Death of Martin Luther King • Death of Robert F. Kennedy • Democratic Nat. Convention- Chicago • Yippies and “Pigasus’ • Outcome- Nixon wins close one.
Nixon Administration - 1969-1974“New Federalism” • Key Domestic Actions • Revenue Sharing between Federal and State Governments • New Anti-Crime laws • Broad Environmental Program- EPA-Clean Air and Water.Anti pollution • To fight inflation-Country off the gold standard and wage and price frozen. • School desegregation and busing • AIM- American Indian movement • 1969- Alcatraz Island occupation • 1972- Trail of Broken Treaties. • Takeover of Bureau of Indian affairs • 1973- Wounded Knee siege- 71 days • Rehabilitation Act of 1973-handicapped rights. • Supreme court nominations • Supersonic Transport- terminated. • ERA- 27th amendment proposed. • Space- Moon landing- July 20, 1969 • Costs- $25-$35 billion and 3 dead . • Benefits- industry, products and jobs. • Apollo 11- The “Eagle” had landed. • Gene Cernan, Buzz Aldrin, and Neil Armstrong
Nixon Administration - 1969-1974 • Vietnamization • Steady reduction of US troops while supplying training and material to S.Vietnamese army. • Winding down of the Vietnam War • Increased bombing of North Vietnam. • Increased secret talks with enemy- “Carrot and stick” policy. • Cambodian Incursion- 1969-1970 • Nixon appeals to the “Silent Majority”1969 • Nov. 1969- Moratorium March on Washington- Anti-War protest. • My Lai Massacre- Mar. 1968. • Kent State- may 4, 1970 • ARVN invade Laos- 1971 • Pentagon Papers published- June 1971 • Haiphong Harbor mined and massive bombing- 1972 • Treaty signed Jan. 1973, POW’s released, ceasefire in effect, Troops withdrawn, funds cut off. • Nixon calls it “Peace with Honor” but is one sided. • War powers Act passed over Nixon veto. 1973
De’tente Communist China- 1971-72 • “Ping Pong Diplomacy”- US. Ping Pong Team visits China- 1971 • Nixon Visit to China • 8 days- meeting, sightseeing, and cultural events. • Mao Tse-tung and Chou En-lai • Banquet- Great Hall of People • 1974- Shanghai Communique- • Normalize relations. • US recognizes China and Taiwan is a part of China. • US pulls troops out of Taiwan • Two Giant Pandas to Washington.
De’tente U.S.S.R. Visit- 1972 Summit • Nixon visits Russia- balance relation with Soviets and China and to discuss S.A.L.T. • S.A.L.T.- Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty- May 1972 • Froze ICBM’s for 5 years • Concept of equal strategic arsenals • Soviets agree to put pressure on N. Vietnam. • US to begin trade with Russia- Wheat • 1974- Kissinger negotiates disengagement agreements between Israel, Egypt and Syria. Shuttle Diplomacy Nixon Doctrine- to encourage other nations to assume a greater share of their own defenses. Threat Control Through Arms Control
De’tente Shuttle Diplomacy in the Middle East • Cease Fire after Yom Kippur war. • UN troops in to separate enemies. • 1974- Sec. of State Henry Kissinger shuttles between countries and negotiates disengagement agreements between Israel, Egypt and Syria. • Buffer zone patrolled by UN.
Energy Problems • Yom Kippur War led to an Arab Oil boycott • O.P.E.C- Oil Producing and Exporting Countries. Embargo oil to US and raised price for allies by 70%- $.30 to $1.20 • Problems in America • Higher prices at Gas Pump • Long lines at Gas Pump- Odd and Even • No Sunday or weekend gas • Higher Heating Prices • Higher Prices in the economy. • Domestic Alternatives • Lower speed limit to 50 and 55 • Alternative energy sources- solar, photo electric, coal, natural gas, nuclear, geothermal, hydroelectric and wind. • Raise gasoline tax to get consumers to buy less. • Extend Daylight savings time. • Begin a Trans-Alaskan Pipeline and offshore drilling.
Inflation- the Nations #1 Problem • 1973- 8.5% 1974- 12% • Causes • Too much government spending • OPEC embargo and prices. • Price of Vietnam war going up. • American businesses in recession. • Nixon tried to balance the budget and produce a surplus- doesn’t work • Remedies • Nixon uses mandatory peacetime wage and price freezes. • Cuts the dollar loose from gold • 10% surcharge on foreign imports. • Unemployment dropped from 5.9% to 5.6% • Buy oil from Canada and Indonesia
Watergate • Pentagon Papers , Leaks and the Plumbers- June 13, 1971 • Political Spying and Dirty Tricks • Plumbers break into Daniel Ellsberg psychiatrist office. • Break in at the Democratic National Headquarters. 5 men arrested- June 17, 1972 • Cover-up • Discovery of Nixon tapes- 6/13/73 • Saturday Night Massacre- 10/20/73 • “I am not a crook.”11/17/73 • Investigation • Special Prosecutors • Supreme Court orders Tapes- 7/24/74 • Impeachment- 7/27/74- 3 articles • Resignation- Aug. 8, 1974
Fact 1. June 1972- 5 men caught breaking into Dem. National Headquarters in the Watergate 2. President Nixon tried to cover up the fact that he know about it. 3. Woodward and Bernstein had a secret source giving them information- “Deep Throat”. 4. Senate began an investigation. 5. Senate learned Nixon taped all conversations. 6. Nixon forced to give up the tapes. 7. Nixon handed over 7 out of 60 tapes. One tape had an 18 min. erasure. Opinion 1. Break-in unnecessary because Nixon won re-election easily 2. If Woodward and Bernstein had not kept on this story no one would have found out. 3. What the President says in his office should be confidential for the sake of the security of the nation. 4. The erased tapes prove Nixon was guilty of a cover-up 5. Nixon should have been impeached earlier. Watergate
Fact 8. Aug. 4, 1974- Nixon released the rest of the tapes and they showed that he knew about the break-in and coverup. 9. Nixon Resigns on Aug. 9, 1974 10. Vice President Ford becomes president. He soon pardons Nixon, so he can not be tried for any crimes he may have committed. 11. Spiro. T. Agnew was V.P. under Nixon and was accused of cheating on his taxes while governor or RI. Nixon did not support Agnew and asked him to resign. 12. Nixon owed $500,000 in back taxes. 13. Nixon appointed Gerald Ford as V.P. while Watergate is underway. Opinion 6. Nixon resigned only because he wanted to spare the country from a long trial 7. Nixon resigned because he knew he would be found guilty. 8. Ford should not have pardoned Nixon. 9. Watergate was the worst thing a president has ever done. 10. Republicans went after Clinton as revenge for Watergate. Watergate
President Ford Pardons Nixon • On September 8, 1974, President Gerald R. Ford, announced his decision to grant Nixon a full pardon for any crimes he may have committed while in office. Save the country. • Ford's decision to pardon Nixon ended the possible spectacle of private citizen Nixon going on trial and also likely ended Ford's chances for re-election to the presidency in 1976. • The decision caused a firestorm of anger in the press and indignation among those who wanted to see Nixon go on trial and possibly to jail. • But among others, the decision evoked sympathy for Nixon, the only President ever to resign. Many saw Nixon as a victim of political infighting in Washington and considered much of Nixon's behavior to be no worse than several of his predecessors in the Oval Office.