cvd stroke septemius a pansacola rn md n.
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CVD: STROKE Septemius A. Pansacola RN,MD. ANATOMY OF THE BRAIN. ANATOMIC DIVISION. Two cerebral hemispheres Brain stem Midbrain Pons Medulla cerebellum. Lobes of the cerebral hemisphere. Frontal lobe Planning and sequencing of movement Voluntary eye movement Emotional affect

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cvd stroke septemius a pansacola rn md


Septemius A. Pansacola RN,MD




anatomic division
  • Two cerebral hemispheres
  • Brain stem
    • Midbrain
    • Pons
    • Medulla
  • cerebellum
lobes of the cerebral hemisphere
Lobes of the cerebral hemisphere
  • Frontal lobe
    • Planning and sequencing of movement
    • Voluntary eye movement
    • Emotional affect
    • Broca’s area
  • Parietal lobe
    • Subserve motor control and cortical sensation
    • Dominant: governs motor program
    • Nondominant: governs spatial orientation
lobes of the cerebral hemisphere1
Lobes of the cerebral hemisphere
  • Temporal lobe
    • Subserve olfaction
    • Memory
    • Certain components of auditory and visual perception
    • Wernicke’s area
  • Occipital lobe
    • Visual perception and involuntary eye movement
vessels supplying blood to the brain
Vessels supplying blood to the brain
  • Anterior Circulation
    • Anterior Cerebral Artery
    • Middle Cerebral Artery
  • Posterior Circulation
    • Posterior Cerebral Artery
anterior circulation
anterior cerebral artery

extends upward and forward from the internal carotid artery

supplies the frontal lobes, the parts of the brain that control logical thought, personality, and voluntary movement,

Stroke in the anterior cerebral artery results in opposite leg weakness. 

Anterior Circulation
anterior circulation1
Middle Cerebral Artery

largest branch of the internal carotid.

supplies a portion:

frontal lobe

lateral surface of the temporal and parietal lobes

includes the primary motor and sensory areas of the face, throat, hand and arm and in the dominant hemisphere, the areas for speech.

artery most often occluded in stroke

Anterior Circulation
posterior circulation
Posterior cerebral artery

Originates in the

basilar artery

ipsilateral internal carotid artery

supply the temporal and occipital lobes


usually secondary to embolism

vertebral basilar system or heart.

The most common finding is occipital lobe infarction leading to an opposite visual field defect

Posterior Circulation
world health organization
World Health Organization
  • neurological deficit of cerebrovascular cause that persists beyond 24 hours or is interrupted by death within 24 hours'
  • blood supply to a part of your brain is interrupted or severely reduced:
    • oxygen and nutrients.
  • caused by
    • thrombosis, embolism, or hemorrhage
  • Stroke is a medical emergency.
    • Early treatment can also minimize damage to your brain and potential disability.
  • It is the third leading cause of death and the leading cause of adult disability in the United States and industrialized European nations.
risk factors
Risk factors
  • advanced age
  • Hypertension
  • previous stroke or TIA (transient ischaemic attack)
  • diabetes mellitus
  • high cholesterol
  • cigarette smoking
  • atrial fibrillation
  • Migraine with aura
  • thrombophilia
stroke warning signs
Stroke Warning Signs
  • Sudden weakness, paralysis, or numbness of the face, arm and the leg on one or both sides of the body
  • Loss of speech, or difficulty speaking or understanding speech
  • Dimness or loss of vision, particularly in only one eye
  • Unexplained dizziness (especially when associated with other neurologic symptoms), unsteadiness, or sudden falls
  • Sudden severe headache and/or loss of consciousness
    • The warning signs of stroke depend upon the vascular territory involved.
types of stroke
Types of Stroke
  • Strokes may be classified into two general types:
    • ischemic
    • hemorrhagic
ischemic stroke
Ischemic Stroke
  • 80% of strokes are ischemic
    • 50%: cerebral thrombosis
      • 30% of strokes: Large-vessel thrombosis
        • (e.g., carotid, middle cerebral, or basilar arteries)
      • 20% involve small, deeply penetrating arteries
        • (e.g., lenticulostriate, basilar penetrating, medullary): lacunar stroke.
    • 30%: cerebral embolism
      • most frequently: heart or from the cervical portion of the carotid artery
      • more common in  younger patients
      • develop rapidly
      • maximum deficit usually present within seconds to minutes.
hemorrhagic stroke
20% of all strokes

intracerebral hemorrhage

also called a parenchymal hemorrhage

The major risk factor: hypertension

Minute dilations at small artery bifurcation

Occurs: basal ganglia and thalamus

Most signs and symptoms

compression of brain structures and blood vessels.

Hemorrhagic stroke
berry aneurysm
subarachnoid hemorrhage

usually follows the rupture of an aneurysm or an arteriovenous malformation

Berry Aneurysm
systemic hypoperfusion
Systemic hypoperfusion
  • reduction of blood flow to all parts of the body.
    • all parts of the brain may be affected
  • most commonly due
    • cardiac pump failure/ low cardiac output
      • Cardiac arrest
      • Arrhythmias
      • pulmonary embolism
      • pericardial effusion or bleeding
signs and symptoms
Signs and symptoms
  • brainstem: 12 cranial nerves
    • altered smell, taste, hearing, or vision (total or partial)
    • drooping of eyelid (ptosis) and weakness of ocular muscles
    • decreased reflexes: gag, swallow, pupil reactivity to light
    • decreased sensation and muscle weakness of the face
    • balance problems and nystagmus
    • altered breathing and heart rate
    • weakness in sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) with inability to turn head to one side
    • weakness in tongue (inability to protrude and/or move from side to side)
signs and symptoms1
Signs and symptoms
  • cerebral cortex
    • aphasia
      • Brocas area
      • Wernicke's area
    • apraxia (altered voluntary movements)
    • visual field defect
    • memory deficits
    • Hemineglect
    • disorganized thinking, confusion, hypersexual gestures
  • cerebellum
    • trouble walking
    • altered movement coordination
    • vertigo and or disequilibrium
  • neurological examination
  • blood tests
  • CT scans
  • MRI scans
  • Doppler ultrasound
  • arteriography
ct vs mri
CT vs. MRI

For diagnosing ischemic stroke in the emergency setting

  • CT scans (without contrast enhancements)
    • sensitivity= 16%
    • specificity= 96%
  • MRI scan
    • sensitivity= 83%
    • specificity= 98%

For diagnosing hemorrhagic stroke in the emergency setting

  • CT scans (without contrast enhancements)
    • sensitivity= 89%
    • specificity= 100%
  • MRI scan
    • sensitivity= 81%
    • specificity= 100%
doppler ultrasound
Doppler ultrasound

Internal Carotid stenosis

  • Ischemic Stroke
    • antiplatelet medication
      • aspirin
      • Clopidogrel
      • Dipyridamole
      • anticoagulant medication warfarin
    • Thrombolysis
      • Tissue plasminogen activator
      • first 3 hours
    • Mechanical Thrombectomy
    • Hemorrhagic stroke must be ruled out with medical imaging
  • Hemorrhagic stroke
    • Neurosurgical evaluation
      • detect and treat the cause of the bleeding.
    • Patients are monitored and their blood pressure, blood sugar, and oxygenation are kept at optimum levels.
care and rehabilitation
Care and rehabilitation
  • help the survivor:
    • adapt to difficulties
    • prevent secondary complications
    • educate family members to play a supporting role.
  • rehabilitation team
    • nursing staff, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, speech and language therapy, and usually a physician trained in rehabilitation medicine