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Good Evening!. Ganesha Statue, Bali. Namaste !. Hinduism. When did Hinduism originate? What are some of the Hindu sacred texts? Who are the main Hindu deities? What do Hindus believe? How do Hindus practice their religion? What is the future of Hinduism?. When did it originate?.

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good evening

Good Evening!

Ganesha Statue, Bali

hinduism
Hinduism
  • When did Hinduism originate?
  • What are some of the Hindu sacred texts?
  • Who are the main Hindu deities?
  • What do Hindus believe?
  • How do Hindus practice their religion?
  • What is the future of Hinduism?
when did it originate
When did it originate?
  • Aryans: Rural steppe horsemen (1700 BC)
  • Urban Indus river valley people (3300 BC)
  • Other Indigenous Populations
origins aryan migration theory 1700 1500 bc
Origins: Aryan Migration Theory (1700-1500 BC)

Theorized Aryan migration routes (Based on spread of chariot technology)

aryan traditions
Aryan Traditions

Fire ritual sacrifices (Yajna)

Sanskrit Rig-Veda manuscript

origins indus valley civilization started 3300 bc
Origins: Indus Valley Civilization(started 3300 BC)

The Great Bath of Mohenjo-Daro

Main Indus Valley Civilization settlements

slide8

“Pashupati Seal” from MohenjoDaro

Meditating Shiva

Cattle seal

Nandi, Shiva’s bull

Indus Valley

and

Modern Hindu Swastikas

review of history
Review of History:
  • No known foundation date
  • Mix of Aryan and local beliefs
  • Identities of original Aryans and Indus Valley settlers remains unknown
what are the sacred texts
What are the Sacred Texts?

Vedas

Upanishads

Mahabharata

BhagavadGita

Ramayana

Puranas

Devotional Writings

Modern Texts

vedas c 1700 bc
Vedas (C. 1700 BC)

Fire Sacrifice

Suyra

Indra

upanishads starting 1000 500 bc
Upanishads (starting 1000-500 BC)

“As the rivers flowing east and west Merge in the sea and become one with it, Forgetting they were separate rivers, So do all creatures lose their separateness When they merge at last into pure Being. There is nothing that does not come from him. Of everything he is the inmost Self. He is the truth; he is the Self supreme. You are that Shvetaketu, you are that.”

(Chadogya Upanishad IV.10.1-3)

mahabharata starting 800 900 bc
Mahabharata (starting 800-900 BC)

Includes

BhagavadGita

Drona instructs the Pandava brothers

The Pandavas renounce the world

bhagavad gita c 500 b
BhagavadGita (C. 500 B)

Krishna and Arjuna

Krishna’s Universal Form

ramayana 400 500 bc
Ramayana (400-500 BC)

Ravana captures Sita

Ram and Lakshman meet Hanuman and other Vanaras

puranas 200 500 ad
Puranas (200-500 AD)

Varaha rescuing the Earth from the demon Hiranyaksha

Krishna dances on the heads of Kaliya

devotional literature
Devotional Literature

“Friend, my heart is steeped

In Krishna’s Love,

I wore a robe of five colours

And went to play hide and seek

I saw my Dark Lover there

And gave him my body for keeps.

Others send letters to declare their love:

But my Lover is in my heart

What need have I to go anywhere?”

-Song by Mira Bai

review of main texts
Review of Main Texts

Vedas

Upanishads

Mahabharata

(BhagavadGita)

Ramayana

Puranas

Devotional Writings

Modern Texts

who are the main deities
Who are the main Deities?

But first… How do Hindus think about Deities?

  • IshtaDevata- A cherished deity
  • Bhakti- Devotion
  • Henotheism- Belief in one deity, while accepting the legitimacy of other deities
  • Brahmaan- Transcendent and all permeating divine reality
vedic devas
Vedic Devas

Agni

Indra

ancient devas trimurti
Ancient Devas: Trimurti

Brahma

Shiva

Vishnu

avatars of vishnu
Avatars of Vishnu

Krishna speaking with Arjuna

Ram, along with Sita, Lakshman, and Hanuman

shakti devi
Shakti/Devi

Lakshami

Saraswati

Parvati/Kali/Durga

shakti devi1
Shakti/Devi

Manasha

Kali

other popular deities
Other popular deities

Hanuman

Ganesha and Murugan

review of deities
Review of Deities
  • IshtaDevata- A cherished deity
  • Bhakti- Devotion
  • Henotheism- Belief in one deity, while accepting the legitimacy of other deities
  • Brahmaan- Transcendent and all permeating divine reality
what are hindu philosophical beliefs
What are Hindu philosophical beliefs?
  • Brahman
  • Devas as aspects of Brahman
  • Cause and effect (Karma)
  • The cycle of reincarnation (Samsara)
  • Spiritual Liberation (Moksha)
  • Duty, Law, and Moral conduct (Dharma)
dharma
Dharma
  • Duty
  • Law
  • Morality
  • Highly contextual
four stages of life
Four Stages of Life

Student life

Householder

Saanyasa- Renunciation

Vanaprastha- Retirement

orthodoxy
Orthodoxy
  • Aastika, vsNaastika
  • Vedas
  • Karma
heterodoxy
Heterodoxy
  • Reject core features like Vedas, Gods, Karma, or reincarnation
  • Materialist
  • Atomistic
  • Hedonistic
  • Skeptical
  • Anti-clerical
pluralism
Pluralism
  • “Truth is One, sages know it by many names” -Rig Veda
review of philosophy
Review of Philosophy
  • Brahman
  • Karma
  • The cycle of rebirth (Samsara) and liberation (Moksha)
  • Dharma is contextual
  • Cycle of Orthodoxy and Heterodoxy
  • Pluralism
how do hindus practice their religion
How do Hindus practice their religion?
  • Following the BhagavadGita
  • Yoga, Meditation, Vegetarianism
  • Pursuing the Four Goals of Life
  • Temple and Home Prayer
  • Holidays
  • Sacred Symbols
  • Art as worship
gita s message
Gita’s Message
  • Karma Yoga- Path of Action
  • Raja Yoga- Path of Self Control
  • Jnana Yoga- Path of Knowledge
  • Bhakti Yoga- Path of Devotion
four goals of life
Four Goals of life

Artha- Material prosperity

Kama- Pleasure

Moksha- Spiritual Liberation

Dharma- Doing one’s ethical duty

daily practices
Daily practices
  • Home prayer (puja/aarati) in shrines
  • Temple visits
  • Yoga
  • Meditation
  • Vegetarianism
veneration through symbols
Veneration through Symbols
  • Om
  • Rivers
  • Bindi
  • Swastika
  • Cows
art as worship
Art as worship
  • Architecture, Craftsmanship
  • Paintings, Sculpture
  • Music, Song
  • Dance
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=prQOdTmF8u0
review of hindu practices
Review of Hindu Practices
  • Following the BhagavadGita
  • Yoga, Meditation, Vegetarianism
  • Pursuing the Four Goals of Life
  • Temple and Home Prayer
  • Holidays
  • Sacred Symbols
  • Art as worship
contemporary issues
Contemporary Issues
  • Caste
  • Hindutva and Communal Violence
varna or caste
Varna, or Caste
  • Rigid or malleable?
  • Assigned birth or by

action?

  • Subcastes (Jati)
  • Reform movements
hindutva and communal violence
Hindutva and Communal Violence
  • Strong memory of Islamic Conquest
  • Modern Islamic terrorism, and persecution of Hindus
  • Communal issues
book recommendations

Videshisutra.com

no2258@columbia.edu

Book recommendations

By Wendy Doniger

By Linda Johnsen

By ParamhansaYogananda

A.L. Basham

Comics from

AmarChitraKatha

By Sanjay Patel

By Kamala

Subramaniam

By A. Parthasarathy