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SYSC 3100 - System Analysis and Design. Basic Concepts Software lifecycles and Requirement Engineering. Questions. How do you build things? How do you think software is built today? Are they the same?. Objectives. Describe the software life-cycle

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SYSC 3100 - System Analysis and Design

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sysc 3100 system analysis and design
SYSC 3100 - System Analysis and Design

Basic Concepts

Software lifecycles and Requirement Engineering

  • How do you build things?
  • How do you think software is built today?
  • Are they the same?
  • Describe the software life-cycle
  • Explain the development styles for a small selection of development models.
    • Waterfall
    • V
    • Incremental.
life cycle
Life cycle
  • A structured set of activities required to develop a software system
    • Specification;
    • Design;
    • Validation;
    • Evolution.
  • A software life cycle is an abstract representation of a development process. It presents a description of a process from some particular perspective.
software life cycles
Software Life Cycles

A software life cycle has a number of:

  • Distinct activities:

“requirements”, “analysis”, “design”,

“implementation”, “testing”, “operation”

  • Products:
    • requirements, analysis, design and testing documents,
    • user manual, …
  • Rules for completing a phase and transitioning to the next phase
software life cycles1
Software Life Cycles

Well-known models for a software life cycle:

  • The Waterfall model
  • The V model
  • Incremental software development
  • The Rational model (Rational Unified Process)
the waterfall model
The waterfall model


System’s services, constraints and goals

System andSoftware Design

System architecture, software system functions

Implementationand Unit Testing

Set of programsor program units

Integration andSystem Testing

Units and programs areintegrated and tested

Operation andMaintenance

waterfall model problems
Waterfall Model Problems
  • Inflexible partitioning of the project into distinct stages makes it difficult to respond to changing customer requirements.
  • Therefore, this model is only appropriate when the requirements are well-understood and changes will be fairly limited during the design process.
  • Few business systems have stable requirements.
  • The waterfall model is mostly used for large systems engineering projects where a system is developed at several sites.
the v model
The V model


Acceptance Testing

System Analysis

System Testing

Unit and IntegrationTesting

System Design


incremental delivery
Incremental delivery
  • Rather than deliver the system as a single delivery, the development and delivery is broken down into increments with each increment delivering part of the required functionality.
  • User requirements are prioritised and the highest priority requirements are included in early increments.
  • Once the development of an increment is started, the requirements are frozen though requirements for later increments can continue to evolve.
incremental development advantages
Incremental development advantages
  • Customer value can be delivered with each increment so system functionality is available earlier.
  • Early increments act as a prototype to help elicit requirements for later increments.
  • Lower risk of overall project failure.
  • The highest priority system services tend to receive the most testing.
rational unified software development process
(Rational) Unified Software Development Process
  • A modern process model derived from the work on the UML and associated process.
    • Inception
      • is concerned with determining the scope and purpose of the project
      • establishes the business case for the system
    • Elaboration
      • focuses requirements capture and determining the structure/architecture of the system
      • develops an understanding of the problem domain
    • Construction: System design, programming and testing
    • Transition: product installation and rollout

Project Phases











Size of square relative to time spent on workflow











Iterations within each phase