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ANSC 4. Chapter 3 : Meat and Bones. Objectives. ID and describe the major structures and functions of the musculoskeletal system Describe bone anatomy terms Differentiate between the axial and appendicular terms

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ansc 4


Chapter 3 : Meat and Bones

  • ID and describe the major structures and functions of the musculoskeletal system
  • Describe bone anatomy terms
  • Differentiate between the axial and appendicular terms
  • Recognize, define, spell, and pronounce terms related to diagnosis, pathology, and treatment
warm up
Warm Up
  • Do you use more muscles frowning or smiling?
structures of the skeletal system
Structures of the Skeletal System
  • Bone: a form of connective tissue, hardest in the body
    • Ossification: formation of bone
    • Combining forms
      • Oste/o, oss/e, oss/i
  • Cartilage: another form of connective tissue, more elastic than bones
    • Combining form: chondr/o
ossification parts of the process
Ossification Parts of the process
  • Bone growth is balanced between the following:
    • OsteoBlasts: immature bone cells that produce bony tissue
      • Build
    • OsteoClasts: phagocytic cells that eat away boney tissue
      • Cut
    • Osteocytes: mature osteoblast
joints articulations
  • Connections between bones
  • TYPES:
    • Diarthroses
      • Pivot or trochoid (Skull to neck)
      • Ball and socket/ spheroid (Hip)
      • Saddle
      • Hinge/ ginglymus (Knee)
      • Condyloid/ arthrodial (Wrist)
      • Gliding
    • Synarthoroses
      • Suture : (skull)
    • Amphiarthroses
      • Symphysis : (pelvic girdle)
joint parts
Joint Parts
  • Bursa
    • Fibrous sac that acts as a cushion to ease movement in the areas of friction
  • Synovial membrane and fluid
    • Secretes synovial fluid, which acts like a lubricant to make joint movement smooth
      • Air bubbles = joint cracking! This can cause damage resulting in arthritis type symptoms
axial skeleton parts
Axial Skeleton : Parts
  • Top to bottom
    • Cranium
      • Frontal, parietal, occipital, (Formen/ Magnum) temporal, sphenoid, ethmoid, incisive, pterygoid
    • Face
      • Zygomatic, maxilla, mandible, palatine, lacrimal, incisive, nasal, vomer, nasal septum, hyoid
    • Back ( Spinal / vertebral column)
      • Vertebrae, body, arch, lamina, spinous process, transverse process, articular process, foramen, vertebral foramen, intervertebral discs
    • Ribs
      • Sternum, manubrium, body, xiphoid process, thoracic cavity/ rib cage
human skeleton
Human Skeleton
  • Think about it:
    • Humans are mammals
    • Many animals are related throughout evolution
  • Do the human practice sheet.
  • Print an animal skeleton and color the coordinating bone structures so they match the human skeleton
appendicular skeleton parts
Appendicular Skeleton : parts
  • From the Front
    • Scapula, clavicle, humerus, radius, ulna, carpal bones, metcarpals, splint bones, phalanges, digits, ungulates (hooves), pastern bones,
  • To the Back
    • Pelvis, ilium, ischium, femur, femoral head and neck, patella, stifle joints, tibia, fibula, tarsus (small animals), hock
testing testing
Testing… Testing…
  • Arthocentesis: removal of liquid from a joint of analysis
  • Arthography: inject contrast material for radiographic testing
  • Arthoscopy: visually examine a joint using a fiber optic scope
  • Radiology: study internal structures (Xrays)
common aliments of bones
Common Aliments of Bones
  • Arthritis: inflammation of joints causing pain
    • Rheumatoid arthritis: autoimmune disorder of the connective tissues and joints
  • Hip Dysplasia: abnormal development of pelvic joint. Head of femur and acetabulum do not align. (large breed dogs)
  • Luxation: dislocation or displacement of a bone from its joint
    • Subluxation: partial dislocation
  • Osteoporosis: abnormal loss of bone density, increase in porosity
medial luxating patella toy dog
Medial Luxating Patella ( Toy Dog)
  • Closer view of knee with medial luxating patella. Instead of riding up and down normal groove patella is off to the side
ligament vs tendon
Ligament vs. Tendon
  • Ligament:
    • Band of fibrous connective tissue that connects one bone to another bone
  • Tendon
    • Band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone
how muscles are labeled
How Muscles are labeled:
  • Positional:
    • Pector: Chest
    • Epaxial: above
    • Intercostal: between the ribs
    • Infra/Supra-spinatus: beneath or below/above
    • Inferior: below or deep
    • Medius: middle
    • Superior: above
    • Ex/In-ternus: outer/inner
    • Orbicularis: surrounding
muscle labeling contin
Muscle Labeling contin…
  • Directional:
    • Rectus: straight
    • Oblique: slanted
    • Transverse: crosswise
    • Sphincter: tight band
  • Numerical Parts
    • Bi: 2
    • Tri: 3
    • Quad: 4
muscle labeling
Muscle Labeling…
  • Size:
    • Minimus: Small
    • Maximus/ vastus: Large
    • Longissimus/gracilis: Narrow
    • Latissimus: Broad
    • Major
    • Minor
muscle labeling last slide
Muscle Labeling: Last Slide!
  • Shape
    • Deltoid: triangle
    • Quadratus: square or 4 sided
    • Rhomboideus: diamond
    • Scalenus: Unequally 3-sided
    • Serratus: saw toothed
    • Teres: cylindrical
work to complete
Work to complete
  • Represent the different types of muscles
    • Sheet of paper
    • Explain what they do
    • Where might your find them?
  • Finish chapter reviews
  • Finish chptr3 worksheets