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TOXICOLOGY - THEN AND NOW. Linda S. Birnbaum, PhD, DABT, ATS Past President SOT/NCSOT Director, Experimental Toxicology Division, U.S. EPA. Toxicology is Old!. First written records – c.1500 BC (Ebers) Hippocrates, Aristotle, Nicander, Galen, Ramazini, etc.

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toxicology then and now

TOXICOLOGY -THEN AND NOW

Linda S. Birnbaum, PhD, DABT, ATS

Past President SOT/NCSOT

Director, Experimental Toxicology Division, U.S. EPA

toxicology is old
Toxicology is Old!
  • First written records – c.1500 BC (Ebers)
  • Hippocrates, Aristotle, Nicander, Galen, Ramazini, etc.
  • Paracelsus: “The dose makes the poison”
recognition of toxicology as a distinct discipline
Recognition of Toxicology as a Distinct Discipline
  • Originally, subsumed as part of medical and/or pharmaceutical curricula
  • Toxicology - distinct and important fundamental and applied science with university departments and degrees
  • SOT founded 45 years ago!
    • Prime mover for recognition of Toxicology
long range plan goals
Long Range Plan – Goals

SOT will advance the science of toxicology to enhance human, animal, and environmental health.

  • Increase excellence in science
  • Increase the quality, standards, and scientific content of SOT meetings, programs, and communications
long range plan goals1
Long Range Plan – Goals
  • Promote the use of science in regulatory and legislative decision making
  • Encourage increased investment of resources in toxicology
long range plan goals2
Long Range Plan – Goals

SOT will be essential to the scientific and professional development of its members

  • Increase access to relevant scientific and professional resources
  • Increase diversity and inclusiveness of the organization
long range plan goals3
Long Range Plan – Goals

Ensure the long-term stability of the Society

  • Exercise sound financial stewardship
  • Maintain commitment to annual strategic planning
  • Increase student awareness of toxicology, participation in SOT, and pursuit of careers in toxicology
  • Continually improve organizational effectiveness
long range plan goals4
Long Range Plan – Goals

SOT will be a definitive scientific resource for human, animal, and environmental health

  • Increase the impact of the discipline of toxicology within the scientific community and among the public
  • Increase the impact of SOT publications and communications
  • Increase the public relations competency of SOT
then and now
Then and Now

Founders at the 1st Annual Meeting in Williamsburg, VA. In 1961. Membership consisted of 124 members.

Annual meeting attendees now number almost 6,000. Current membership is 5,795.

sites of annual meetings
Atlantic City –’62

Cincinnati – ’63, 97

Williamsburg – ’64-66, 69, 72, 75

Atlanta – ’67, 70, 71, 76, 84, 89

Washington, DC – ’68, 72, 74, 80, 87

New York City – ’73

Toronto – ’77

New Orleans – ’78-79, 86, 93, 99, 05

San Diego – ’81, 85, 06

Boston – ‘82

Las Vegas – ’83

Dallas – ’88, 91, 94

Miami Beach – ’90,

Seattle – ’92, 98

Baltimore – ’95, 04

Anaheim – ’96

Philadelphia – 2000

San Francisco – ’01

Nashville – ’02

Salt Lake City – ’03

Charlotte – ‘07

Sites of Annual Meetings
sot finances
SOT Finances
  • Current Expenses ~$5M
  • Current Revenue and Income ~$6M
  • Opportunities for New Programs, Reinvestments, Diversification
  • Conservative Strategy
    • We’ve been in the red before (more than once!)
sot publications
SOT Publications
  • Communiqué
  • Journals
    • Past
      • Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
      • Fundamental and Applied Toxicology
    • Present
      • Toxicological Sciences
toxicological sciences
Toxicological Sciences
  • Top Quality Papers that are Widely Distributed and Read
    • Over 5680 subscribers and institutions with journal access worldwide
    • Over 685,000 full-text downloads in 2005
  • Highly Cited
    • 4517 citations in 2004 alone
  • High Impact Factor (3.391 in 2004)
    • One of the top toxicology research journals in the world
growth in sot
Growth in SOT
  • Members
    • 1962 – 124 from US
    • 2006 – > 5795 from across the world
  • Annual Meeting
    • 1962 – Williamsburg, VA – < 200 participants
    • 2006 – Charlotte, NC – > 6000
  • Focus
    • 1962 – Descriptive
    • 2006 – Mechanistic; Risk/Safety Assessment; Molecular
who are our members
Who Are Our Members?
  • Academia ~35%
  • Industry ~35%
  • Government ~20%
  • Consultants~10%
  • Other ~5%
growth in sot cont
Growth in SOT (cont)
  • Most important meeting in toxicology worldwide
  • Extensive headquarters staff
  • Officers; Executive Council; Committees
  • Regional Chapters
  • Specialty Sections
  • Special Interest Groups
committees
Committees

Appointed Committees:

  • Animals in Research
  • Board of Publications (BOP)
  • Career Resource & Development
  • Committee on Diversity Initiatives
  • Committee on K-12 Education
  • Continuing Education (CE)
  • Finance
  • Historian
  • IUTOX Councilors

Strategic Committees

Science

Communication

Membership

Elected Committees:

  • Awards
  • Education
  • Membership
  • Nominating
committees cont
Committees (cont)

Appointed Committees (cont):

  • Post-Doctoral Assembly
  • Program
  • Regulatory Affairs & Legislative Assistance
  • Science Strategy Committee
  • Student Advisory Committee
  • World Wide Web Advisory Committee
  • Council Subcommittee for Non-SOT & Contemporary Concepts in Toxicology (CCT) Meeting
  • Council Subcommittee for Regional Chapter Funding
task forces
Task Forces
  • Endowment Implementation
  • Mixtures
  • NIH Funding
  • Special Interest Groups
  • 45th Anniversary
specialty sections
Specialty Sections
  • Biological Modeling
  • Carcinogenesis
  • Comparative & Veterinary
  • Dermal Toxicology
  • Drug Discovery Toxicology
  • Ethical, Legal & Social Issues
  • Food Safety
  • Immunotoxicology
  • In Vitro
  • Inhalation
  • Mechanisms
  • Metals
  • Molecular Biology
  • Neurotoxicology
  • Occupa & Public Health
  • Reg & Safety Evaluation
  • Repro/Devpmtl Toxicology
  • Risk Assessment
  • Toxicologic & Exploratory Pathology
  • Women in Toxicology (WIT)
special interest groups
Special Interest Groups
  • Association of Scientists of Indian Origin
  • American Association of Chinese in Toxicology
  • African Society of Toxicological Sciences
  • Hispanic Organization for Toxicologists
  • Korean Toxicologist Association in America
regional chapters map
Regional Chapters Map

NE

PNW

NL

MI

LO

MA

NCa

MW

AE

CS

OV

MtnW

NCAC

SCa

NC

SC

SE

GC

student opportunities
Student Opportunities
  • SOT provides student and career development resources
  • Programs to recruit undergraduates to toxicology
  • Travel support and fellowships for graduate students and post-docs
  • Leadership opportunities in student groups (SAC, SSSRC, PDA)
  • SOT On-Line Job Bank
  • Career workshops at annual meetings
nc sot
NC SOT
  • One of the Largest Regional Chapters
    • > 300 members
  • “Feed” to National Leadership
    • 8 National SOT Presidents who were NCSOT Presidents
      • Leon Golberg; Tom Miya; Bob Dixon; Jim Gibson; Roger McClellan; Jim Bus; Bill Greenlee; Linda Birnbaum
    • Many Executive Councilors
    • Many National Committee Members
nc sot cont
NC SOT (cont.)
  • Broad Membership
    • National vs Local
    • Full vs Student
    • Lifetime
  • Award Programs
    • Student Travel – Best Poster
    • Postdoc Award – “PARC”
nc sot meetings
NC SOT Meetings
  • Past - 3/year
    • Fall – Seminar
    • Winter – Poster Session and Symposia
      • (Often) all day Saturday
    • Spring - Symposia
  • Present - 2/year
    • Fall – Seminars or Symposia
    • Winter – Poster Session and Symposia
get involved
Get Involved!
  • Activity in NC SOT National Recognition
  • Volunteer
    • NC SOT
    • Specialty Sections/SIGs
    • Committees
thanks
Thanks
  • Clarissa Wilson and HQ Staff
  • Debbie Wales
  • Ernie Hodgson
  • And all of my students, postdocs, technicians, colleagues, and family over the years who have helped me to be involved!