Hadith Collection, Sunni Version. A.S. Hashim, MD. About this slide show:. This slide show deals with: A general view of Hadith Categories of Hadith History of Hadith fabrications and forgeries I’lm Al-Rijaal Collection of Hadith during the 1 st , 2 nd , and 3 rd century
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
Hadith Collection, Sunni Version A.S. Hashim, MD
About this slide show: This slide show deals with: • A general view of Hadith • Categories of Hadith • History of Hadith fabrications and forgeries • I’lm Al-Rijaal • Collection of Hadith during the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd century • Chain of Narration • Collectors of Hadith and their books
What is Hadith? • Hadith is a specific statement of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) • Traditions are deeds or conduct of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) • The Hadith and Sunnah are second in importance to the Quran • The Holy Quran is God's Words and come first in significance and importance
Hadith Reporting Al-Hadith Sunni Shi’a Canonical Books
The Sunnah • The Sunnah consists of: • The statements of Muhammad (pbuh) and • His Tradition (conduct) • The Sayings are binding • The Sunnah can be interpreted in several ways
The Shari'ah • The Shari'ah (Islamic Way) consists of: • The Quranic Divine Guidance, and • The Sunnah of Muhammad (pbuh) • Shari'ah is the Constitution of Islam • Shari'ah needs to be interpreted • The interpreter of Shari'ah is called Faqeeh
Constitution of Islam Shari’ah Quran Sunnah The interpreter of Shari'ah is called Faqeeh
Fiqh (Islamic Law) • Fiqh is interpretation of Shari'ah by a scholar erudite in Islamic knowledge • Head of Islamic Schools of Thought is Faqeeh of the highest caliber • Fiqh is the Law in Islamic Circles • Fiqh is the spiritual law of unique importance to Muslims
The language of the Hadith • The literary style of Hadith is very high, yet it is far different from the Quran • Often the Hadith consists of a few words yet has deep meaning of immeasurable value • Hadith may look like maxims and/or proverbs • Hadith often touches on certain aspects of life
Subjects of Hadith • Hadiths deal with elements of Faith and Belief • Hadiths deal with Rituals • Hadiths deal with Human Character • Hadiths deal with Ah’kaam and dealing with others • Hadiths deal with the Afterlife
Categories of Hadith • The scholars of the Hadith literature divided the Traditions of the Prophet (pbuh) into categories according to the degree of authenticity and reliability, each category had to meet certain criteria. • The categories are as follows: • Sahih: صحـيـح The genuine Traditions, the authentic ones. • Moothaq: موثـقAlmost like the Sahih but the chain of narrators is not as strong as those of the Sahih. • Hasan:حـسـنThe fair Traditions although inferior in matter of authenticity. • Dha'eef: ضـعيـفThe weak Traditions which are not so reliable.
Categories of Hadith Sahih: صحـيـح Moothaq: موثـق Hasan: حـسـن Dha'eef: ضعيـف
Classes of Deeds and Actions • In the Shari'ah (Islamic Constitution) deeds and actions are divided into five classes: • Fardh or Wajib: فرض او واجـب An obligatory duty the omission of which is Islamicly punishable. • Mus'tahab: مسـتـحب An action which is rewarded, but whose omission is not punishable. • Mu'baah: مـباحAn action which is permitted but legally is indifferent. • Mak'rooh: مكـروه An action which is disapproved by the Shari'ah but is not under any penalty. • Haram: حرام An action which is forbidden, and Islamicly punishable.
Narrators of Renown • Abu Hurairah: • A poor man, of the Saffah, in company of the Prophet for a short time (only 17-19 months) • Though an illiterate, he became governor over Bahrain, then over Medina (after Omar had died) • Ibn Abbas: • Was 13 years old when the Prophet died • Was student of Imam Ali • Ibn Omar • Was 20 years old when the Prophet died • Numerous other Sahaaba , not as prolific as the above 3
The Fabricated Hadiths: الاحاديت المختلقه History of Fabrication: • During Benu Umayya's Rule: Bringing forth a Counterfeit Hadith was widespread throughout this period. • During Benu Abbas' Rule, producing and circulating counterfeit Hadiths was widespread too, in particular with the advent of the schools of thought in Islam. • By the year 200 H.: Total of 600,000 Hadiths were in existence, out of which 408,324 Hadith were fabricated (counterfeit) Hadiths by 620 forgers, whose names and identity are known. • Most Notorious Forgers: Ibn Jundub, Abu Bukhtari, Ibn Basheer, Abdullah Al-Ansaari, Al-Sindi. One of them, Ibn Au'jaa, professed before he was hanged (for his heresy) that he alone had forged 4,000 Hadiths.
Reasons for Fabricating Hadiths • Reasons to Fabricate (To do Hadith forgery): • Financial incentive by the Khalifas, starting with Mu'awiya. Mu’awiya as an example awarded Ibn Jundub and others large sums of money for coming forth with Hadiths in his favor. • As a means of self-promotion in the government. • In a drive to enhance a particular school of thought. • Fanaticism for a school of thought at the expense of others. • Al-Qassassoon (The story-tellers):القصــاصــون Their operation and major role in the public.
Compare: Size of Authentic versus Fabricated Hadith Over 600,000 Fabricated Hadiths as of 200H Less than 3,000 Authentic Hadith
During the 1st Century H. • The early Khalifas discouraged putting the Hadith in writing, • They encouraged committing the Hadith to memory. Ali differed from them and wrote 580 Hadiths. • It was soon discovered that the quotes of the Hadith were inaccurate • For one thing many of the Sahaaba had died, and for another, • that committing Hadiths to memory was not that reliable • Al-Zuhri, Al-Hazm were both commissioned by Khalifa Omar Ibn Abdul Aziz to collect the Hadith but the work was probably not done, due to early death of the Khalifa in 101 H. No record of their work exists.
During the 2nd Century H. • Collection of Hadith was mainly by: • Ibn Jarih, • Al-Thawri, • Ibn Basheer, and • Malik Ibn Anas in his Mu'watta. • The necessity of I'lm Al-Rijaal, علم الرجال (Science of men of Hadith Transmitters) became necessary because of the numerous counterfeit Hadiths circulated at the time. • Compiling books about forged (counterfeit) Hadiths: • This was necessary to warn the Scholars and the public about the multitude of the forged Hadiths at that time.
During the 3rd Century H. • Hadith was collected and categorized in the third century of Hijrah resulting in six canonical collections called (Al-Sihaah Al-Sittah): • Al-Bukhari, d.256 A.H: صـحيـح بخارىSelected 7275 (2712 Non-duplicated) out of 600,000 available Hadiths he was aware of. • Muslim, d.261 A.H: صـحيـح مسـلم Selected 9200 (3,033 Non-duplicated) out of 300,000 available Hadiths he was aware of. • Abu Dawood, d.276 A.H. سنن ابو داود Selected 4,800 of 500,000 available Hadiths he was aware of.. • Ibn Maajeh: d.273 A.H. ســــنن ابن ماجه Selected 5274 Hadiths • Tirmidhi, d.279 A.H. جـــامع الترمذى He was blind. • al-Nisaa'i, d.303 A.H. سـنن النسـائي • It is worthy of note that the number of the Shi'a transmitters of Hadith whose quotes appear in the Al-Sihaah Al-Sittah is over 300.
The necessity for I'lm Al-Rijaal, علم الرجال • The necessity of I'lm Al-Rijaal, علم الرجال (Science of men of Hadith Transmitters): Considered before reliability of the narrator could be established, were: • The Background, • Intelligence, • Authenticity, • Reliability, • Capacity to Memorize, • Manner of living, • Reputation, and • Criticism,
By the year 200 H. • Total of 600,000 Hadiths were in existence, • The fabricated Hadiths numbered 408,324 • The fabricated Hadiths were traced to 620 forgers, • The names of the forgers and their identity were registered. • Ibn Abi Awjaa as an example, claimed before his execution he forged 4,000 Hadiths by himself. • Alphabetized names of fabricators, their background and references, are available in Book of Al-Ghadeer, Vol.5 Page 208
Notorious Forgers • Ibn Jundub, ابن جندب • Abu Bukhtari, البختري • Ibn Basheer, ابن بشير • Abdullah Al-Ansaari, عبد الله الأنصاري • Al-Sindi. السندي • Ibn Au'jaa, ابن ابي العوجاء who professed before he was hanged (for his heresy) that he alone had forged 4,000 Hadiths.
Hadith Books • There are 6 Canonical Treatises (Sunni) • There are 4 Canonical Treatises (Shi'a) • Each treatise consists of 6-12 volumes • There are about 2,000-3,000 authentic Hadiths, and many more that are reliable (less than authentic).
To Follow the Shari'ah • To be a person of piety (Taq'wa) a Muslim strives to: • Follow the Quran • Apply the Hadith's instructions • Emulate the conduct of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) • By so doing he/she will have achieved the perfection of character and gained Heaven
Sunni Hadith Collection • Early in Islam, many people claimed to have committed the Hadith to memory, generation after another, but Hadith was not registered • Collection and registering of Hadith in distinctive book format began 200 to 300 years after Muhammad (pbuh) had passed away • Chain of Hadith Narration was recorded for authenticity's sake • Such an endeavor took a life time of hard work on the part of the Hadith collector
Sunni Hadith Collection • Books of Hadith by the Sunni were written 240-300 years after Hijrah • Six canonical books were the result • They are called the 6 authentic books (Al-Sihaah Al-Sittah) • Some of these books are more prized than others (such as Bukhari and Muslim)
Sunni Canonical Collections • Sahih of Al-Bukhari, d.256 A.H: صـحيـح بخارى • Sahih of Muslim, d.261 A.H: صـحيـح مسـلم • Sunan Ibn Maajeh: d.273 A.H. ســنن ابن ماجه • Sunan of Abu Dawood, d.276 A.H. سنن ابو داود • Jami' of Tirmidhi, d.279 A.H. جـــامع التــــرمـذى • Sunan of al-Nisaa'i, d.303 A.H. النسائيســنن
Sunni Hadith Collection • Hadiths quotes were taken from the Sahaaba • The second generation took the Hadith from the Sahaaba, and were called Al-Tabi’een • Collectors of Hadith in the 3rd century had to go through a chain of narrators to reach the Sahaaba and/or Tabi’een • Collectors of Hadith put forth criteria as guidelines to accept or reject any specific Hadith • The arduous job was to sift through 600,000 “Hadiths” available at the time to choose what is authentic • In contrast the Shi’a quoted the Imams who quoted their forefathers up to the Prophet. The process continued for 329 years
Collectors of Hadith, 3rd Century 1. Al-Bukhari 2. Muslim 6. Ibn Maajeh 5. al-Nisaa'i 3. Abu Dawood 4. al-Tirmidhi
Al-Bukhari, 194-256H: البخاري • Al-Bukhari's mother tongue was Persian for he was born in Bukhara. Part of Persia in those days. • He collected the Hadith over a period of many years, having established certain strict criteria. • Political times during Bukhari’s lifetime were very troublesome especially against Ahlul Bayt (led by Al‑Mutawak'kilالمتوكل ). • As a consequence Bukhari was cautious and circumspect, having mentioned less about Ahlul Bayt's narrations than any of the Al-Sihaah Al-Sittah.
Al-Bukhari • Bukhari was born to a slave family of Bukhara in 194H. • His father died while Bukhari was a child, leaving him a considerable fortune. • Bukhari was of weak physique, but with strong intellect, sharp retentive memory, great capacity for hard work, he was methodical. • He began to study Hadith at the early age of eleven. • Then he went to Mecca for pilgrimage from where he took a journey for the collection of Hadith. He traveled nearly forty years in quest of knowledge throughout the Muslim world. • He then returned to Nishapoor in Iran but he had to leave as he could not yield to the wishes of the Governor. • Bukhari settled afterwards in a village at Samarkand where he died at the age of 62 years in 256H. It has been said by some that he died in Baghdad.ـ
Al-Bukhari • Throughout his life Bukhari was pious, and the Prophet's Tradition was his hobby while archery was his pastime. • He selected 2712 non-duplicated Hadiths which became 7,275 when duplicated by many narrators. • The fact is that if one Hadith was narrated by six narrators, then this Hadith was reported as 6 Hadiths though with minor variation in expression of the Hadith in question. Thus the number of Hadiths would increase depending on how many narrators report it. • These Hadiths were selected out of 600,000 Traditions available to him at the time. • It can be said that Bukhari found the remaining 592,725 Hadiths of unworthy basis and were to be ignored. • Bukhari therefore chose only one Hadith out of every 200 ones, meaning 0.5%, the rest were deemed forged (fabricated).
Muslim, 204-261H: مسلم • It is said Muslim was a student of Al-Bukhari and 8 years younger. • He differed from Bukhari in his methodology and criteria. • He collected the Hadith over a number of years, having established his own criteria. • Political times then were less troublesome against Ahlul Bayt, (since Al-Mutawak'kil was killed by his own son), therefore Muslim narrated a large number of Hadiths about Ahlul Bayt. • Muslim al-Nishapoori was born in a distinguished family of Arab Muslims in Khurasan, Iran in 204H, and his mother tongue was Persian for he was born in Nishapoor of Persia. • His forefathers occupied prominent positions during the time of four Khalifas; and Muslim himself inherited a large fortune from his father who was also a Traditionist of some repute. • Muslim died in the year 261H.
Muslim • Sahih of Muslim is considered as next to Bukhari in authenticity. • It is somewhat superior to Bukhari's work in the details of arrangement of Traditions. • The commentary of this book can be found in Ibn Khalikan's work Vol. II, Page 91, and in Fehrist (page 231). • Sahih Muslim contains 3,033 non-duplicated Hadiths, becoming 9,200 when duplicates are registered. • These Hadiths were selected out of 300,000 circulating Hadiths he was aware of.
Abu Dawood 203-276H ابو داود • Abu Dawood received his education in Tradition at Khurasan, in Iran. • He was so respected by the people that after the city was devastated by Zinjies (the Blacks), he was requested by the Khalifa al‑Mu'tadhid to settle there so as to attract people and students due to his presence. He agreed, but refused to be the teacher to the Commander's son. • He adamantly refused the son of the Abbasi General (the founder of the Suffari dynasty) but rather be available to other students. • Abu Dawood wrote many books on Tradition and Islamic laws of which his “Sunan” is the most important. The Sunan contains 4,800 Traditions which were sifted from 500,000 Hadiths he was aware of. This work took him nearly 20 years.
al-Tirmidhi: 209-279H الترمذى • This is another standard work on Hadith and is considered by the Sunni Muslim jurists as one of the six authentic Traditions works. Tirmidhi was the first man to determine the identity of • the names, • surnames, and • titles of the narrators of Traditions.
al-Nisaa'i 215-303H: النسائي • Al-Nisaa'i made a good Hadith collection, quite credible. • He wrote Al-Khasa'is book, about the eminence of Imam Ali and Ahlul Bayt and the Hadiths on their behalf. • Al-Nisaa'i was 88 years old when in Damascus he expressed his views about Mu'awiya by saying, “All I know is that the Prophet (pbuh) said, `May Allah make a glutton out of him.” • Infuriated, Mu'awiya's sympathizers attacked al-Nisaa'i, • trampled upon him, • crushed his testicles, and • after that the infirm Nisaa'i was taken to Mecca where he died. He was buried between Safa and Marwa.
al-Nisaa'i • Sunan of al‑Nisaa'i work on Tradition has been recognized as the best Tradition work of his time, • His smaller work is now considered as one of the Sihaah Sittah. • He was the foremost Traditionist of his age and spared no pains in having Hadith recorded in his Sunan. • He admitted that in his work there are many weak and doubtful Hadiths (Traditions).
Ibn Maajeh 209-295H: ابن ماجه • Born in Qazween, Iran in 209H • The Abbasid Empire was then at its peak of civilization and power, and Al-Ma'Moon was the influential Khalifa, who led the Caliphate toward progress and an Islamic-spirited renaissance. • At the age of 22 Ibn Maajeh set out on his journey in 230H to learn Hadith from scholars. He traveled to Khurasan, Basra, Kufa, Baghdad, Damascus, Mecca, Medina, and Egypt. • After an arduous 15 years, Ibn Maajeh turned back to Qazween, writing, classifying, and narrating Hadiths. • His fame grew far and wide and seekers of knowledge came to him. • The only surviving book written by Ibn Maajeh is Sunan. This book has achieved widespread fame and gave him renown and prestigious status among the scholars of Hadith
Imam Ahmad, 164-241H: اٍِمام احمد • Imam Ahmad was born in Baghdad, and his was the most important and exhaustive of all Mus'nad works. • His pious and selfless life created a halo of sanctity around his great collection of Traditions and in spite of its great bulk, it survived the vicissitude of time and revolution of empires. • His Mus'nad contains 30,000 Traditions on various subjects, reported by as many as 700 companions of the Prophet. • He died before he gave his works a final shape and his son Abdullah completed it in the course of 13 years. • This book occupied a very important position in Hadith literature and served for a long time as the chief source of Hadith. It was read up to the 12th century. Afterwards it fell into relative disfavor owing to other better works.
Manner of Collection of al-Hadith Hadith Collection Narration of Ahlul Bayt Quoted from Twelve generations, the Imams, over a period of 329 years Al-Sihaah Al-Sittah Quoted from Two generations: Sahaaba and Tabi’een
In Conclusion • General discussion of Hadith with the Sunni about: • A general view of Hadith • Categories of Hadith • Hadith fabrications and forgeries • I’lm Al-Rijaal • Hadith during the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd, century • Collectors of Hadith and their books
THANK YOU Be in Allah’s Care Dr. A.S. Hashim