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Industrial Pollution in China James Carne, Tom Faherty and Alex Dinsdale
Causes of Pollution in China • Industry • Motor Emissions • Mineral Extraction • Farming • Government Policy • Development • Global Dependence
Industry & Mineral Extraction • To increase profits firms use coal which is cheaper, but it is in terms of emissions the dirtiest sort of energy supply • Use of machinery that is out of date • General motors use assembly lines from 1940 to produce cars for China. These assembly lines produce far more amounts of polution • Chinese firms as a whole are not efficient. • Steel factories use 1 fifth more energy than international companies • Cement needs 45% more power • Ethene gas needs 70% more power • China is dependant on minerals such as metals to produce items such as electronics, cars and machines • Machinery used in extraction is not efficient so uses more power than needed. • Because of such high demand for resources there is a high amount going on at once.
Motor Emissions • China's car market grew 25% last year and it has overtaken Japan to be the second-largest car market in the world with sales of 8 million vehicles, including light trucks and minivans. • 6% of people currently have cars. • People want cars as a sign of wealth
Farming • According to a report in February 2010 released by the Chinese government farming is a bigger water pollutant than industry • Agriculture is responsible for 67% of phosphorus and 57% of nitrogen discharges. • The main source is fertilisers and pesticides used to increase yields and profits. • The land is being pushed to produce as much as possible, but in Moa’s day people produced as the land could naturally produce.
Government Policy • Government concentrated on economic growth to start of with • There are political gains of high economic growth • Environmental protection would curb growth and there would be lost support of the communist party. • Evidence of economic and political ties- Arab Spring
Development & Global Dependence • All industrialised countries has caused huge pollution in doing so. • China has a 1.3bn population all developing at once which is unprecedented. • Because development occurred from 1980 all at once there has not been the gradual increase other countries had. • The global community is dependant on china to produce all their goods. • The global community is overall responsible as they know that there will be high levels of pollution yet we do nothing about it
Industrial pollution – Impacts • Fun pollution impact facts about :D • Important points to consider – Development does not come without environmental consequences. This can mean a countries greatest achievement is it's biggest burden. • Industry is driven by high demand and when a company wants to meet demand, they don’t care about the environment • http://www.wwfchina.org/wwfpress/publication/climate/higl.pdf
Environmental • Farmland – In previous agricultural land, now only wild grass can grow • Fluorine (FI) pollution, e.g. sheep teeth lost in Baiyin, Gansu • Water shortages will turn farmland into desert - Approximately 30% of China's surface area is desert. China's rapid industrialization could cause this area to drastically increase. The Gobi Desert in the north currently expands by about 950 square miles (2,500 km2) per year. • Contributes to Climate change in general
Public health • Pollution has made cancer China’s leading cause of death. • Dental Fluorosis, effects teeth and bones and is common in China (45 million affected) due to air and water pollution. This remains for life. • More than half of the population (19 million) in western Guizhou are affected through use of coal at home • Air pollution alone is blamed for hundreds of thousands of deaths each year. • Nearly 500 million people lack access to safe drinking water. • ^ 60,000 died from diarrhea, bladder and stomach cancer and other diseases that can be caused by water-borne pollution. • It is estimated that annual premature deaths attributable to outdoor air pollution were 380,000 in 2010 and were likely to reach 550,000 in 2020. • Only 1 percent of the country’s 560 million city dwellers breathe air considered safe by the EU. • Cities where people rarely see the sun are common. • Children killed or sickened by lead poisoning or other types of local pollution. • ^ Children most at risk and there will be life long impacts for them • Coastline so swamped by algal red tides that large sections of the ocean no longer sustain marine life. • The total death toll is 750,000 a year. In comparison, 4,700 people died last year in China’s notoriously unsafe mines, and 89,000 people were killed in road accidents, the highest number of automobile-related deaths in the world.
Economics In China, energy consumption grows faster than GDP Having to pay to replace fossil fuel with renewables will be huge! As time goes on fossil fuels become more expensive so the overall change becomes more and more expensive as it is left unresolved
Management • In 2005, the Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People’s Republic of China was set up • Plastic bags were prohibited by the government in 2008 • Several schemes can be found at the following World Bank article http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/EASTASIAPACIFICEXT/EXTEAPREGTOPENVIRONMENT/0,,contentMDK:20515211~menuPK:502915~pagePK:34004173~piPK:34003707~theSitePK:502886,00.html
Government spending and investment • The Chinese government are investing a great deal of money into this problem • Environmental investment • During 2000-2005, 0.83 trillion Yuan, taking up 1.19% of total GDP • During 2006-2010, 1.4 trillion Yuan, taking up 1.23% of total GDP • However China do not want to reduce their industrial output as they see it as crucial for development e.g. the Kyoto Protocol
Renewable energy in China • China produces a lot of renewable energy compared to most nations but the sheer size of its population means that it has to rely on coal, although a study has shown the People's Republic could meet all of its electricity demands from wind power by 2030 • About 17 percent of China's electricity came from renewable sources in 2007, led by the world's largest number of hydroelectric generators • China had a total installed capacity of hydropower of 197 GW in 2009. • Yangtze River, Three Gorges Dam – HEP • Solar power has enormous potential – see Weerakoon/Tefler/Sadler-Dawe
Linfen Guilin Zhanjiang Beihai Zhuhai Haikou
http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/envir_e/wksp_goods_sept09_e/xu_e.pdfhttp://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/envir_e/wksp_goods_sept09_e/xu_e.pdf This website has loads of useful graphs which would not let me use them so when you are revising from our delightful presentation feel free to click on the link!