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Psychology and Success. Chapter 1 “ What lies behind us and what lies before us are small matters compared to what lies within us.” Ralph Waldo Emerson, Philosopher. McGraw-Hill. © 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Learning Objectives. Define success.

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psychology and success

Psychology and Success

Chapter 1

“What lies behind us and what lies before

us are small matters compared to what lies within us.”

Ralph Waldo Emerson, Philosopher


© 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Define success.
  • List several personal qualities that help people to be happy.
  • Define psychology and cite its four major goals.
  • Explain the relationship between thoughts, feelings, and actions.
  • Define self, self-image, and identity.
  • Describe the components of identity.
understanding psychology
Understanding Psychology
  • Psychology Scientific study of human behavior.
  • Behavior Anything that you think, feel or do.
  • Goals of Psychology Describe, predict, explain, and (in some cases) change human behavior.

Success Secret

  • Studying psychology helps you understand yourself and others.
explaining human behavior
Explaining Human Behavior

Why do people think, feel and act the way they do?

  • Nervous system Regulates thoughts, feelings and actions.
  • Conscious Mind The part of the brain that controls the mental processes of which we are aware.
  • Subconscious Mind The part of the brain that controls the mental processes of which we are not actively aware.
thoughts feelings and actions
Thoughts, Feelings, and Actions
  • Cognition (thought) Mental processing of information in any form.
  • Includes: perceiving, recognizing, remembering, reasoning, solving problems, making decisions, forming concepts, visualizing.
  • Emotion (feeling) Subjective feeling accompanied by physical and behavioral changes.

Personal Journal 1.2

Your Thoughts, Feelings, and Actions

PsychologyThe science & study of human behavior…including the underlying processes that cause behavior……both physiological & mental…
We study those psychological (mental, emotional, social) and physiological processes that underlie human behavior!

Clinical Psychology study focused on diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders.

Adjustment focuses on adapting to the changes in one’s environment ,thus the psychological processes that allow people to manage and cope within the demands of everyday life!

research especially empirical study and clinical observations
Research!Especially empirical study*and clinical observations!

How do we know what we know?

*the scientific method

Wadsworth, Thomson Learning

Hutchens, 2000

What is an OBSERVATION?What you measure, see, count, time, etc. An observation is an event, even a little one..

What are VARIABLES ?


Wadsworth, Thomson Learning

Hutchens, 2000

Look for the


**What was MEASURED!

HOW to understand research?

A TRUE experiment is a research method where one variable (IV) is manipulated to see if there is a change in another variable (DV).
  • The independent variable is the thing that someone actively controls/changes; while the dependent variable is the thing that changes as a result. In other words, the independent variable is the “presumed cause,” while dependent variable is the “presumed effect” of the independent variable.
what is success
What is Success?

Success: a lifetime of personal fulfillment.

Success Secrets

  • Success is a journey, not a destination.
  • Money and fame don’t equal success.

Activity 1: What Success Means to You

ingredients of success
Ingredients of Success

1. Self-Awareness Appreciating your personal values, qualities, skills and interests.

2. Self-Direction Setting a goal and working toward it.

3. Self-Esteem Respecting oneself.

4. Positive Thinking Focusing on future possibilities to propel yourself toward your goals.

ingredients of success continued
Ingredients of Success continued…

5. Self-Discipline Daily personal effort putting your plans into action.

6. Self-Motivation Getting and staying motivated. Moving forward despite fears.

7. Positive Relationships Healthy relationships with friends, family, and co-workers.

Personal Journal 1.1 Ingredients of Success

who is a success
Who is a Success?
  • In society, it is not always obvious who are truly successful people.
  • Role Model Person who has qualities you would like to have.

Success Secrets

  • Always make time for relationships.
  • Adults need role models, too.

Activity 2: Role Model

NeobehaviorismAKASocial Learning Theory

Proponent – Albert Bandura

Do you know the “Bobo study”?

Observational learning occurs vicariously,

“watch and learn…”

Social Learning Theory
  • 2 Processes:
  • Modeling
    • Increased by the degree to which the observer can identify with the model
    • What does that mean for the MEDIA , SPORTS figures, etc.
    • models?

Wadsworth, Thomson Learning

Hutchens, 2000

Personality includes Self-Efficacy

SOURCES of its development:

1. Outcomes - consequences of your behavior - “reinforcement!”

2. Vicarious – comparison of YOUR own skills as compared to others’ (observation?)

3. Persuasion - “Others say that you...” can? can’t?

4. Emotive - how you FEEL…”I think I can

I think I can; I think I can …”

Hutchens, 2000

social learning theory
Social-Learning Theory
  • Modeling: The social-learning process by which behavior is observed and imitated
  • Locus of Control: The expectancy that one’s reinforcements are generally controlled by internal or external factors
  • Self-Efficacy: The belief that one is capable of performing the behaviors required to produce a desired outcome.
reciprocal determinism
Reciprocal Determinism
  • Personality emerges from the mutual interactions of individuals, their actions, and their environments

Person factors (cognitive)

Overt Behavior

Environmental influences (Situation)

  • Reinforcement
  • Punishment
  • That which
  • increases or maintains the frequencyof a behavior.
  • That which decreases the frequency of a behavior.

Hutchens, 2000

success and happiness
Success and Happiness
  • Happiness The natural experience of winning your self-respect and the respect of others.
  • Outside factors—wealth, youth, physical attractiveness, etc., have little effect on happiness.

Success Secret

  • Create your own opportunities for happiness.

Activity 3: How Happy Are You?

the search
The search?
  • Enlightenment programs
    • E.g., “est,” Scientology, Silva Mind Control
  • Organized groups
    • Cult-type ideology
      • Dangers apparent in Heaven’s Gate
      • Security and belongingness are keys to involvement
    • Established Religious Groups
      • E.g., Promise Keepers
  • Public “counsel”
    • E.g., Dear Abby, Dr. Phil, etc.
  • Self-improvement strategies
    • E.g., self-help media
codependency movement
Codependency Movement
  • Origin: “enabling” aspects of alcoholics’ spouses
  • Beattie’s 1987 Codependent No More
    • Expanded application of the term
    • Identified addictions to diverse behaviors &
    • “Codependency” to the participation of significant others in that “addictive” behavior
    • The participation/controlling/enabling, itself, signals “codependency” in the significant other
  • Treatment options include The Twelve-Step Program of AA
is the codependency movement for real
Is the Codependency Movement for real?
  • Evaluation difficult
    • Definitions vary widely
    • Empirical research is minimal
      • With vague definition, it’s hard…
      • Which behaviors would one choose?
    • Are all compulsive behaviors addictions?
      • Are all repetitive behaviors compulsive?
    • What problems are the ones “caused” by codependency?
    • Gender bias
      • Over-application to women
      • Questions as to the NURTURING ROLE applied more to women
the self help sensation


…become a discriminating consumer!





Self-Improvement plans

the self help evaluation
The SELF-HELP Evaluation
  • Problems to watch for…
    • Psychobabble
      • Circular definitions and solutions
    • Absence of empirical backing
    • Concrete solutions
  • Look for …
    • Clarity and soundness
    • A plan, not a “miracle cure” or “quick fix”
    • Scientific support of effectiveness

…become a discriminating consumer!

positive qualities
Positive Qualities
  • Another way to boost your happiness is to develop personal qualities that will help you enjoy life and cope with challenges.
  • Psychologists have identified the following qualities: ability to love, vocation, courage, trust, optimism, future-mindedness, social skills, aesthetic sensibility, work ethic, honesty, emotional awareness, persistence, forgiveness, creative thinking, spirituality, self-esteem and wisdom.

Success Secret

  • Try new ways of thinking and doing.
understanding yourself
Understanding Yourself
  • Self Your sense of being a unique, conscious being, the inner core of you.
  • Self-Image All the beliefs you have about yourself.
  • Areas in which you have self-images include: intellectual ability, competence, creativity, sense of humor, morality, romantic appeal, physical appearance, parental relationships, close friendships, and social acceptance.
building a healthy self image
Building A Healthy Self-Image
  • A healthy self-image is positive but realistic.
  • Makes the best of all the things you do well.
  • Is based on who you are right now.
  • Does not limit who you will be next week.
  • A complex self-image means having a variety of positive ways to see yourself.

Personal Journal 1.3 How Do You See Yourself?

Activity 4: Wheel of Life

you and your social world
You and Your Social World
  • Social Role Norms that define how you are supposed to behave in a given situation.
  • Self-Preservation Altering your behavior to make a good impression of others.

Activity 5: Sides of Yourself

  • How you choose to define yourself to the world.
  • Individual Identity The physical and psychological characteristics that distinguish you.
  • Relational Identity How you identify yourself in relation to others.
  • Collective Identity The sum of the social roles you play and the social groups to which you belong.

Activity 6: Identify Profile

culture gender and identity
Culture, Gender and Identity
  • Culture – the behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large social group, transmitted from one generation to the next.

Western– individualism, Eastern-collectivism

  • Gender Role – norms that define how males and females are supposed to behave.
  • Gender Bias - treating someone differently or unfairly due to one’s gender.
defining your role
Defining Your Role
  • Researchers suggest that it is healthiest to have a combination of stereotypically masculine and feminine qualities.
  • Some typical qualities: logical, assertive, sensitive, independent, gentle, compassionate.

Success Secret

  • Don’t put limits on what you can become.