MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY • Language and words specific to the medical profession. • Medical words are based on Latin and Greek origin.
Medical receptionists • Ward clerks/administrators • Nurses • Doctors • Paramedics • Allied health personnel • Lifeguards • Support personnel –ie. Rescue personnel
There are 3 components to Medical Terminology • Prefix – a letter or groups of letters placed at the beginning of a word • Root word – essential meaning of the word • Suffix – a letter or group of letters placed at the end of a word to give it more meaning. • Example - Pericarditis Prefix = Peri – around or enclosing Root word = Card – heart Suffix = Itis – inflammation • = “inflammation of the area surrounding the heart.
The more you use the words and become familiar with them, the easier • It is to remember them. Don’t forget to use your medical dictionary! • Ask for help from your supervisor if you are not sure about spelling or pronunciation.
Summary • A lot of professions use language that is foreign to others • Basic anatomy • 3 components of medical terminology, prefixes, suffixes, root words. • Common abbreviations used in medical workplaces. • Practice, practice, practice • Use medical dictionary as necessary.
Anatomy & Physiology • Anatomy – is the study of the structure and shape of the body and body parts and their relationship to one another • Physiology – is the study of how the body and its parts work or function.
How is the body organised? simple complex Atoms, molecules, cells, tissues, organs, body systems, human body.
Definitions • Cells – simplest unit of all living things. • Tissues – consists of groups of cells that have a common function • Organs – is a structure that is made up of two or more tissues and performs a common function. • Organ system – a group of organs that cooperate to perform a common function.
Integumentary • external body covering • Protects • Synthesises Vitamin D • Location of pain, pressure receptors, sweat and oil glands
Musculoskeletal • Protects and supports body organs • Framework for muscles • Blood cells are formed within bones • Stores minerals • Locomotion • Maintains posture • Produces heat
Nervous • Fast acting control system of the body • Activates muscles and glands
Endocrine • Secretes hormones to regulate processes such as metabolism, growth, reproduction and nutrient use
Cardiovascular • Blood vessels transport blood which carries oxygen, cargbon dioxide, nutrients, waste etc. • Heart pumps blood
Respiratory • Keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide
Lymphatic • Recycles fluid leaked from blood cells • Disposes of debris, • Home to white cells
Digestive system • Breaks down food so body can absorb and use the nutrients • Eliminates waste
Urinary • Eliminates wastes from body • Regulates water, electrolyte balance of blood
Reproductive • Production of offspring
Homeostasis • The body’s ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world is continuously changing. • Finely tuned machine • All body parts work in harmony with each other and all systems work in harmony to maintain homeostasis.
Diseases/Disorders • When homeostatic mechanisms do not work normally, the result can be disease or dysfunction. • The body has hundreds of homeostatic mechanisms to maintain homeostasis. • Examples?
Homeostasis • Homeostasis is the narrow limits that the internal environment is maintained in.
Homeostasis • The body is always changing it’s internal environment but it MUST keep it within very narrow limits or the individual will become sick.
Homeostasis • Think about high wire performers. • Activity: What do they need to do to maintain balance? • Hint: Body parts to think about using are • the brain • muscles • senses
Negative feedback once the action has occurred, the stimulus stops. Body temperature and feeling cold. What does our body do? Positive feedback once the action has occurred, the stimulus continues. Not much of this occurs in the body. Example is labour and blood clotting. Homeostasis
INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY The Chemistry of Life
The Atom • Smallest possible particle • consists of: Protons, Neutrons, Electrons • The number of protons in the nuclei makes one element different to another • The atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus • The atomic weight = protons + neutrons
Atom • Examples are: • Hydrogen • Oxygen • Carbon Hydrogen
Molecules are two or more atoms joined together Example: oxygen is made up of two oxygen atoms. O2 Compounds are two or more elements joined together Example: water. Chemical name:_____ Molecules and Compounds H O O H O
pH • Hydrogen ion concentration tells us how acidic a solution is. • A pH below 7 is an acid solution • a pH above 7 is an alkaline solution • hydroxyl ions determine how alkaline a solution is • litmus paper is an indicator which turns red with an acid solution and remains blue when alkaline.
Buffers • Bases accept H+ ions. They are alkaline • Acids donate H+ ions. • Buffers are substances such as bicarbonates that maintain H+ concentration within normal limits and therefore, HOMEOSTATSIS.
Acidosis and Alkalosis • When all the alkali buffers are used up to soak up the H+ ions then a condition called acidosis occurs. • When all the acid buffers are used up to soak up the OH+ ions then a condition called alkalosis occurs.
Carbohydrates • Carbohydrates consist of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. • They are the sugars. • Examples: glucose, sucrose, starch
Amino acids and proteins • Amino acids consist of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. • 20 amino acids builds protein. • Proteins are made up of amino acids all joined up. • Examples: insulin, antibodies.
Lipids • Lipids consist of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms. • The phospholipids form the cell membrane. • Other types of lipids are the steroids, fats and certain vitamins.
Nucleotides • Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA!!) • consist of chromosomes which are made up of genes. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) • acts as the messenger and carrier of instructions to create new proteins.
Nucleotides • Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) • it uses the energy from other reactions to store ATP’s energy.
Enzymes • Enzymes speed up the chemical reactions that occur within the body. • In the body enzymes almost always end in -ase • Examples: amylase, enzyme of the pancreas.
Diffusion • When substances move from high concentration to low concentration • Eg. A cup of coffee • No energy is required, passive process