Populations. Chapter 36. Populations. Is a groups of organisms that belong to the same species and live in a particular place at the same time. Population Ecology.
Populations Is a groups of organisms that belong to the same species and live in a particular place at the same time.
Population Ecology The study of how members of a population interact with their environment, focusing on factors that influence population density and population growth.
Properties of Populations • Populations Size • Population Density • Dispersion • Random • Uniform • Clumped
Population Density • The number of individuals of a species per unit area or volume • Density is determined by sampling and extrapolating • # red oak / km2 • # of earthworms / m3
Dispersion Patterns • clumped: most common-due to clumping of resources • examples: • fungus growing on a rotting log • schools of fish
Dispersion Patterns • uniform: evenly spaced • examples: • shore birds (gannets and king penguins) • plants secrete chemicals to decrease competition
Dispersion Patterns • random: unpredictable spacing, no pattern • example: • dandelions due to windblown seed distribution
Population Dynamics Birth Rate Death Rate Mortality rate- the number of deaths in period of time • The number of births occurring in a period of time
Survivorship Curves Life Tables track survivorship in populations. Insurance companies use them for human life expectancy.
Survivorship Curves • Show the probability that members of a population will survive to a certain age. • Type I • Likelihood of dying is small until late in life • Characterized by high parental care • Type II • The probability of dying does not change throughout life • Individuals are no more vulnerable at any age. • example: squirrels preyed upon by hawks • Type III • Likely to die when young • Very little or no parental care • example: insects, mollusks, fish, frogs
Population Growth Rate BIRTH RATE – DEATH RATE = GROWTH RATE • The amount by which a population’s size changes in a given time. • Is figured by taking the number of births and subtracting the number of deaths • (assuming immigration and emigration are equal)
Exponential Growth Model The rate of population increase under ideal conditions
Logistic Growth Model Due to limiting factors (resources), population growth rate will level off (possible crash)
Carrying Capacity is the maximum population size that a particular environment can sustain (“carry”) with available resources. Carrying Capacity = K.
LIMITING FACTORS Any factor that limits or restrains the growth of a population BIOTIC VS ABIOTIC
BIOTIC FACTORS Competition for limiting resources: Food or nutrients: As resources are divided between more and more individuals, birth rate decreases. Example: song female bird density vs. clutch size results in an indirect relationship. Nesting sites Shelter Mates
BIOTIC FACTORS Influences on health and survival Predation Search image established for most common prey • Crowded plants tend to be smaller with fewer flowers, fruits, seeds. • Increased disease transmission • accumulation of toxic waste products
BIOTIC FACTORS Physiological factors • High population densities in mice appear to induce a stress syndrome. Hormones change, delay sexual maturation • Cause reproductive organs to shrink • Depress the immune system
Abioticfactors • Complex interaction of both density-dependant and abiotic factors (density-independent) • First hard freeze kills all adult insect, eggs hatch in spring • Aphids show exponential growth with rapid decrease with high heat and low humidity (abiotic). • A few individuals remain to perpetuate the species.
Boom-and-Bust Cycles “Booms” : rapid exponential growth followed by “busts”: population falls back to a minimal level.
Limiting Factors Density-Independent Density Dependent An individual’s chance of surviving or reproducing depends on the number of individuals Resources limitations • Reduce the population by the same proportion • Weather • Flood • Fires BIOTIC ABIOTIC