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Local Policy I. Session Outline. I. Introduction What Do We Mean By “Local Policy” General Police Power. Session Name: Local Policy I Coastal Hazards Management Course. Slide 35.1. Local Policy I. Session Outline. II. Fundamental Powers of Local Governments Regulation

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slide1

Local Policy I

Session Outline

  • I. Introduction
    • What Do We Mean By “Local Policy”
    • General Police Power

Session Name: Local Policy I

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 35.1

slide2

Local Policy I

Session Outline

  • II. Fundamental Powers of Local Governments
    • Regulation
    • Acquisition
    • Taxation
    • Spending
    • Education
  • III. Planning

Session Name: Local Policy I

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 35.2

slide3

Local Policy I

Session Outline

  • IV. Types of Land Use Regulations
    • Zoning Ordinances
    • Subdivision Ordinances
    • Building Codes
    • Flood Damage Prevention Ordinances
  • V. Acquisition and Management of Land

Session Name: Local Policy I

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 35.3

slide4

Local Policy I

Session Outline

  • VI. Taxation and Fees
    • Real Property
    • Special Assessments
    • Impact Fees
    • Federal Internal Revenue Code
  • VII. Spending
  • Capital Improvement Programs and Budgets
  • Urban Service Boundaries
  • Public Investment for Growth Management
  • Government Buildings and Facilities

Slide 35.4

Session Name: Local Policy I

Coastal Hazards Management Course

slide5

Local Policy I

Session Outline

  • VIII. Education
    • The Need for Hazard Awareness
    • Real Estate Disclosure
    • Community Awareness Programs
    • Hazard Maps
    • Disaster Warning
  • IX. “Living with the Shore”

Session Name: Local Policy I

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 35.5

slide6

Local Policy I

General Police Power

  • Local governments enact and enforce regulations that protect the public
    • Health
    • Safety
    • General Welfare
  • Local government power is derivative (Delegated by the State)

Session Name: Local Policy I

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 35.6

slide7

Local Policy I

Fundamental Powers of Local Government

  • Regulation
  • Acquisition
  • Taxation
  • Spending
  • Education

Session Name: Local Policy I

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 35.7

slide8

Local Policy I

Types of Local Plans

  • Emergency Response Plans
  • Open Space and Recreational Plans
  • Capital Improvement Plans
  • Area Plans
  • Comprehensive Plan
  • Land Use Plan
  • Floodplain Management Plans
  • Stormwater Management Plans

Session Name: Local Policy I

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 35.8

slide9

Local Policy I

Zoning

  • Divides the community into districts (zones)
    • Zoning Ordinance Consists of:
      • Zoning Map
      • Text

Session Name: Local Policy I

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 35.9

slide10

Local Policy I

Zone District Map

Session Name: Local Policy I

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 35.10

slide11

Local Policy I

Types of Use

  • Zoning ordinance defines types of use allowed in each district
    • Residential
      • Multi-Family
      • Single Family
  • Commercial
  • Industrial
  • Public
    • Schools
    • Government
    • Utilities
  • Semi-Public
    • Churches

Session Name: Local Policy I

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 35.11

slide12

Local Policy I

Zoning District Requirements

  • Zoning ordinance dictates specifications for use.
      • Lot size
      • Building height
      • Set backs
      • Parking spaces
      • Density

Session Name: Local Policy I

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 35.12

slide13

Local Policy I

Zoning for Hazard Mitigation

  • Strengths:
    • Affects Characteristics of Future Development
    • Designate Hazard Areas for Low-Intensity Uses
    • Designate Safer Areas for Higher-Intensity Uses
    • Conserve Natural Areas

Session Name: Local Policy I

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 35.13

slide14

Local Policy I

Zoning for Hazard Mitigation

  • Strengths:
  • Lower Densities in Hazard Area
    • Safeguard local tax base
    • Population matches shelter capacity
    • Decrease Evacuation Times
    • Ease development pressures (easier to acquire)
    • Prevent large structures from being built in high-hazard zones
  • Prohibit Hazardous Materials in Floodplains

Session Name: Local Policy I

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 35.14

slide15

Local Policy I

Zoning for Hazard Mitigation

  • Weaknesses:
    • Ineffective for protecting existing development in hazard areas
    • Zoning is effective only if hazard maps are accurate
    • Zoning is subject to legal and political challenges
      • Lower density may mean lower tax revenues
      • Lower density may increase cost of public services
      • Zoning may change with political change
    • Zoning must be strictly enforced to be effective

Session Name: Local Policy I

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 35.15

slide16

Local Policy I

Subdivision Regulations

  • Control the division of land into parcels for development or sale
  • Set construction and location standards within subdivisions

Session Name: Local Policy I

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 35.16

slide17

Local Policy I

Typical Subdivision

Source: Julie Stein

Session Name: Local Policy I

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 35.17

slide18

Local Policy I

Provisions of Subdivision Regulations:

  • Lot siting
  • Stormwater management
  • Sediment control
  • Amount of impervious surfaces
  • Open spaces
  • Emergency access
  • Hydrological/geologic/engineering studies
  • Street Design
  • Infrastructure Design

Session Name: Local Policy I

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 35.18

slide19

Local Policy I

Subdivision Regulations Require Project Improvements:

  • Streets
  • Sidewalks
  • Drainage control
  • Dedication of Land
  • Impact Fees

Session Name: Local Policy I

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 35.19

slide20

Local Policy I

Building Codes

  • Laws that set standards and requirements for building construction:
    • Structural integrity
    • Design
    • Construction materials and methods
  • State or local adoption
  • Uniform codes v. local codes

Session Name: Local Policy I

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 35.20

slide21

Local Policy I

Building Codes can address hazard elements:

  • Fire resistance
  • Seismic safety
  • Floodproofing
  • High-wind resilience

Session Name: Local Policy I

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 35.21

slide22

Local Policy I

Building Code Enforcement

  • Must be strict, especially following disaster
  • Inspection and enforcement often a local responsibility
  • Post-storm moratoria allow proper damage assessment

Session Name: Local Policy I

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 35.22

slide23

Local Policy I

Flood Damage Prevention Ordinance

  • Prohibit or establish conditions for development in high risk areas
  • Often prepared pursuant to the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP)
  • Regulations often pertain only to areas shown on Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM)

Session Name: Local Policy I

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 35.23

slide24

Local Policy I

Minimum NFIP Flood Prevention Ordinance Standards

  • Floodway must be free of obstructions
  • All development in 100 year floodplain must obtain a permit
  • New residential buildings must be elevated or floodproofed
  • Nonresidential structures must be elevated above 100 year flood
  • Post-storm reconstruction must meet current regulations

Session Name: Local Policy I

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 35.24

slide25

Local Policy I

Acquisition of Hazard-Prone Property

  • Removes property from the development stream
  • Homeowners and business owners are relocated out of harm’s way
  • Land remains open space/recreation/greenway in perpetuity
  • Less expensive in the long run than repeated reconstruction

Session Name: Local Policy I

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 35.25

slide26

Local Policy I

Federal Funding Programs for Acquisition and Relocation

  • Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP)
  • Pre-Disaster Mitigation Program (PDM)
  • Flood Mitigation Assistance Program (FMA)
  • Community Development Block Grant Program (CDBG)

Session Name: Local Policy I

Coastal Hazards Management Course

Slide 35.26